The Palace Museum collects five photos of young women labeled "No. 1" and "Bangao". According to the current aesthetic standards, although they may not all be called beauties, they are also dignified, fashionable, and somewhat celebrity "fans".
So, what is the identity of these characters who are neither gege, court maids, nor like the maiden sister-in-law? After consulting relevant historical data, I learned that they are all famous prostitutes (flower list) selected by Shanghai Game News in the late Qing Dynasty . Although they only have scale claws, they can reveal the customs of the time.
Huabang is a beauty pageant among prostitutes , and similar activities have been around since the Song Dynasty . In the twenty-three years of Guangxu (1879 AD), Li Boyuan, the lead author of the "Game News", first publicized and institutionalized the flower rankings, and successively introduced "three highlights" in the newspaper, which became a widely influential Shanghai. Event. The so-called "Yanbang Three Branches" are the three names of prostitutes in the sea-Huabang, Wubang and Yebang.
Li Boyuan (AD 1867 to 1906), Ming Baojia, Zi Boyuan, a native of Changzhou, Jiangsu, founded Guangxue in Shanghai in the 23rd year of Guangxu. This is the first literary tabloid in modern China. Its purpose is to "fake games and use metaphors to persuade punishment." Because the newspaper pays attention to the blue building, and it is like a professional newspaper in the flower industry, Li Boyuan has won such titles as "Fengyue General Holding", "Saotan League Leader" and "Flower World Tune".
Li Baoyuan, founder of Gaming Newspaper
At the beginning of the publication of "Game News", the first thing was to make the flower list. The specific selection rules are: imitating western democratic election methods, and determining the result of the election by the number of "recommendations"-the number of votes. There are roughly three steps: soliciting letters of recommendation, counting votes and publishing results.
The recommendation letter is the recommendation letter corresponding to the selection of prostitutes. The main contents include the name and address of the referee, a description of his body, appearance, character, and behavior, and the reason for the recommendation. The letters of recommendation received were in the form of "come from the book," which were published in the newspapers intact, attracting the reader's attention every day.
On the seventh "Daughter's Day" on the seventh day of July this year, the first flower list was officially released, with three people including Zhang Abao (No. 1 champion, second pick, and flower exploration), 30 people including Cai Xinbao, and 107 women including Jin Liqing. Judging from their place of origin, the No. 1 pick, the second pick, and the search for flowers were all embraced by "Gusu people."
At that time, Shanghai was prosperous and prosperous. Prostitutes were divided into many types and grades due to their different origins, national origins, and identities. They were summarized as follows: Shuyu, Changsan, Modi, and the lowest platform, pheasant, Flower smoke room, nail shed, salt water girl, drip white, demolish white party and so on.
The target of "Huabang" election is senior prostitutes such as "Book House" and "Chang San". Although the winners of the list can not be official, there are no prizes, but when everyone starts the list, each person's name is marked with their residence and comments.
The little prostitute travels with the turtle slave on his shoulders at the church
The "bloom list" in the "Game News" is equivalent to the "text list" in the imperial examinations. Later, Li Boyuan applied the name of martial arts to open the "Wu Bang". The martial arts ranking, also known as the "Yibang", is not a test of martial arts and martial arts, but a "imitation of the previous example of Beijing Pear Garden".
Then, he ingeniously launched the "Yebang", which was selected by the senior prostitutes' maids. It means that a prostitute is a flower, a maid is a leaf, and a good flower must be accompanied by a green leaf. Wubang and Yebang are divided into the top three, following the example of Huabang.
Why do prostitutes photos enter the palace
"Game News" transformed the traditional prostitute election into a different pattern, satisfying the entertainment psychology of urbanites, and thereby maximizing commercial benefits. But for Li Boyuan, a talented man, seeking profit is by no means the only goal. He is ridiculing with his peculiar humor, borrowing fables, and then awakening foolishness. Transplanting the rank of Jinshi and the imperial examination title into the prostitute beauty pageant is itself a mockery of the "sacred" imperial examination system with the help of the imperial examination shell.
Then, why did Li Boyuan host the photos of the selected list of people, why did they enter the palace in a grand place? Before we can find the exact historical data, we might as well try to speculate on several possibilities:
First, the court paid attention to Li Boyuan. Li Boyuan supports the Reform Movement of 1898 and has close relations with Liang Qichao and other reformers. From time to time, he expresses his grief and indignation towards state affairs. There are even exaggerated rhetoric such as "The West Palace is towering to crush the sun", pointing directly at the Empress Dowager Cixi who controls the politics of the DPRK!
His condemned novel "The Official Records of Officialdom", which took the official government of the late Qing Dynasty as the object of attack, focused on describing all kinds of corruption and darkness in the official government. His activities may have attracted the attention of the court and collected relevant materials for this purpose. From this, these photos entered the palace and were intentionally or accidentally collected.
Second, prostitutes lead the trend. Shanghai is the earliest city to open a port, and it is also a place where Chinese and Western cultures meet. With their unique identity and experience, prostitutes can easily break through the shackles and become early recipients and promoters of new things. Before they started their fashion, they were particularly trendy in dress and behavior, and they were regarded as fashionable representatives. In this context, out of appreciation for fashion or "purge weather", these photos also enter the palace.
Late Qing Dynasty prostitutes postcard
The third is to meet entertainment needs. In the late Qing Dynasty, Shanghai was regarded as the entertainment center of the East. In terms of traditional drama, it also occupies a position that rivals Beijing. "Game News" not only published a lot of news about brothels and prostitutes, but also reported on Liyuan and Youling. In a sense, Ye and You are both "literary and art workers". Famous prostitutes and famous actors have the status of social stars.
Famous celebrities such as Tan Xinpei and Zhu Suyun, who are admired by the Empress Dowager Ci Xi, often go to Shanghai for performances and are highly sought after. The main entertainment activity in the palace is to listen to operas and collect a large number of stills of Peking Opera and Kun opera. From this, it seems reasonable to collect a few photos of famous prostitutes at the same time.
Of course, these speculations cannot be conclusive until the exact historical data basis has been found.
Before the late Qing Dynasty , although Beijing's brothels were mixed, there were few decent youth houses because prostitutes were forbidden in the upper society. After Xianfeng , prostitutes were blazing, rouges , stones and other alleys, homes were hanging yarn, and the door was exposed. Afternoon every day, fragrant cars flow, and tourists are like clouds.
During the reign of Emperor Guangxu and Jihai (AD 1898-1989), Shanghai prostitutes entered Beijing to set up a brothel, also known as "shushu". The famous prostitute Sai Jinhua was one of the early "gold hunters". One. After Gengzi created a police officer, the inner city brothels were relocated to the outer city, and the taxes were collected to allow public business.
At that time, the Jingshi prostitutes were roughly divided into three classes: small classes, tearooms, and lower offices. The first-class "small class" and the second-class "tea room" were mostly concentrated in the eight alleys outside the front door. Therefore, they were called "eight big alleys" and developed to prosperous in the early period of the Republic of China . And "below the tea room, not the upper class people go."
The style of the flower list has also spread to Beijing. "Clear Notes" said: "In terms of trials, there are champions, second-rankers, and flower-searchers. The scholars of the Beijing dynasty were fascinated by the imperial examinations, and whenever and wherever they learned, they revealed them unconsciously. Flower events are also referred to as champions, champions, and explorers. They are referred to as the leaderboards. "In the twenty-five years of Guangxu (AD 1889)," Game News "published a news article" Championship Bribery ", It is reported that this year's Jingshi also blossomed, and his "first prize" Xiao Pingguo offered bribes to the organizers by several hundred and two.
By 1913, Beijing's "Democratic News" had organized a draft event for the Eighth Hutong Flower World. This is the first prostitute election after the founding of the Republic of China. In order to highlight the new wind of the Republic of China, the winners are no longer called champions, second picks, or flowers. Following the Western education system, it was renamed "Doctor and Bachelor" and "donated badges as certificates, respectively." However, the standard still follows the usual practice, which is divided into four subjects: talent, affection, sexuality, and art. Each subject has a doctoral degree and a number of bachelor degrees. For example, in 1919, the talents, arts, and colors of a certain flower selection "Doctor" were Huajun, Zhang Jinfeng, and Li Jincui.
In 1919, the talents, arts, and colors of a certain flower selection were "Doctors"
Prostitutes, as a special group separated from the general public, have a different lifestyle than the general public. In particular, some high-level prostitutes can be called the "free" class to some extent, and reading and reading newspapers are also one of their daily lives.
The author found that a photo of a woman reading a newspaper collected in the Forbidden City is similar to the image of a prostitute, regardless of the character's appearance, sitting posture, hair style, clothing, or the interior decoration. A closer look at the newspaper in her hand reveals the words "Qunqiang Bao" above.
Qunqiang Bao was founded in the first year of the Republic of China, and its publication was suspended in 1936. According to this inference, this woman is likely to be a senior Beijing prostitute in the early Republic of China. The purpose of the photos is not to exclude the use of the "star effect" in newspapers to advertise for themselves.
Registration for Prostitutes in Beijing during the Republic of China
The five prostitutes collected in the Palace Museum undoubtedly belong to the famous prostitutes in different years. So, are they also selected by the "Game News"? The following will briefly review them based on existing historical data clues.
(1) "The First Scholar of the Spring Festival" Lin Linxue
In the existing "Game News" data, there are relatively many descriptions of Lin Yixue. She was the champion of the twenty-fourth year of Emperor Guangxu (1898, AD 1898) and the second "Peony" in the "Flower Selection" of the following spring.
After the opening of Ding Huan (1879 AD), just a year later, many prostitutes who appeared on the list became famous and became suitable. As a result, "Game News" bloomed for the second time in July of 1898. The top performers this time are: No. 1 Lin Shuxue, No. 2 Hua Lijuan, Tan Shenbao, and Xuan Qianyun.
From this flower list, photos are also included with the newspaper. The newspaper cooperated with the photo gallery to print the top "famous photos of small flowers". Each person printed 10,000 pieces, posted them regularly in the newspaper, and sent them daily. Later, due to too many newspapers, the photos did not stick well, and the reader was simply asked to pay for it. The numerous copies of these prostitutes' photos have made them regarded as social stars and sought after.
This photo of Lin Yingxue collected by the Forbidden City may be one of the ten thousand small photos printed at that time. It was just that the Wuxu Flower List was opened in July of that year, and the marked text below the photo was "Wuyi Spring List." The "Spring List" here seems to be a mistake of the "Summer List".
"Game News", in addition to opening the list, also regularly held "flower selection." That is, 12 prostitutes are selected according to the December order (one more in case of Yue Yueyue), combined with the attitude and personality of each person, each division makes a flower, with the plum blossom as the first, and the peony second. Beginning in the year of Jihai (AD 1889), the flower selection was fixed at the "Flower Festival" on February 12th of the lunar calendar, and the name was "Rui Gong Flower Selection".
The results of this selection are: plum blossom jewels, peony linxuexue, orchid Xie Qianyun, pear flower Jin Ruyu, durian Fan Caixia , lotus flower Yunlan , begonia Shen Yunshan, osmanthus Li Yuanyuan, chrysanthemum Zheng Juxiang, hibiscus Hong Shufang, camellia forest plum, narcissus Gao Qiaoyun .
From the photos, Lin Yexue is not beautiful, and her eyes are slightly dull. Why can this woman stand out? Some commented that she has a "fair and accessible" behavior. It seems that the so-called list is not entirely out of hunting, and the character factor also needs to be considered.
(2) "Li Wuyuan's Second Elder"
The flower selection of Ji Hairui Palace, Lin Zhixue was "Peony", Li Yuanyuan won the eighth-"Osmanthus". Apart from this, no other material has been found describing his or her affairs.
The photo marked her as the "Best of the World", but the top three people on the list of the First Family were Lin Yixue, Hua Lijuan, and Shen Erbao. If it is not marked incorrectly, it is speculated that this person is likely to be the second place in the Wuxu (1898 AD) Wubang. Coincidentally, in the postcard of the late Qing Dynasty, the author found a still picture of her "White Water Beach", which can also be used as a side evidence of this person's "Wu Bang".
(Three) "Gu Gengzi Xiabang champion" Gu Guzheng
Guangxu Gengzi (1900 AD), "Game News" held two flower charts in Shanghai and Hangzhou, but the process and characters are unknown. This photo is labeled "Gengzi Xiabang champion No. 1 Gu Lanxuan", it is speculated that this person may be the leader of one of them.
In addition, in the Gengzi Year, he also held a flower selection, compiled related materials into a book, and published a book, "Gengzi Rui Palace Flower Selection". It can be seen that Gu Lanxi was ranked fourth and won "Pear Blossom".
(4) "Gengzi Song Leader" Kobayashi Orb
Existing "Game News" information, the name of this person has not been found. Check the "Clear Badger Banknotes", there is a section of "The Glory of Lam Kobayashi" can be seen slightly: "Kobayashi Orb, also a Shanghai prostitute. The appearance is not very good, and the song wins, the guest is attracted . Hundreds of times, every song is about to go ... Guangxu Renyin (1902 AD) summer, when the epidemic was plagued, violently extinct. In danger, Jugo sang "Mullian Save the Mother" and fold ... "
Kobayashi Orb won with a song, of course, there is a chance to be on the list. The photo is marked "Gengzi Qubang No. 1", we know that Wu Bang is also called "Qubang". To say that she is "not so good" looks exaggerated from the photos.
(5) Shen Lijuan, Hua Lanfang, the "No. 1 Flower Winner"
This is a group photo of two people. The right one is Shen Lijuan, and the left one is Hua Lanfang, who is the "top performer in robbery". Both of them are famous prostitutes, or famous prostitutes and maids, and there should be no problem in identification.
What is "Jieyu"? The "Game News" published a "Drafting of Jinmen Jieyu Flower Selection", although the following cannot be found in the remaining newspapers, but it is basically certain that the year of Gengzi (190 In 1949, a flower list and a flower selection were held for Tianjin prostitutes who had taken refuge in Nandu. According to the photo annotation, it is speculated that the head of the "Jiayuhuabang" is Hua Lanfang.
After the Gengzi year, Li Boyuan stopped flowering, and other newspapers followed suit. However, the newspapers that have blossomed before are "Game News" alone. Based on this, it can be judged that these photos originated from the newspaper's "bamboo list." (The author is a historian and editor of the Research Office of the Palace Museum)
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