The history of modern China began in 1840, and in the two decades of 1860, there were two Opium Wars. The titles of these two wars were named by us. The Second Opium War was called by the British the "Yaro War", also known as the "British-French Combat Campaign". Our history textbooks say that the British used the "Yaro incident" as an excuse, and the French used the "Xilin teaching case" as a reason to form a coalition to attack the Qing Dynasty .
The "Yarrow Incident" and the "Xilin Mission" are not really earth-shattering events. The "Xilin Mission" also has a life, that is, the French Catholic missionary Marais preached in Xilin County, Guangxi, China. Qing officials executed. The most serious plot of the "Yaro Incident" was nothing more than the tear-off of the British flag by the Qing Navy sailors. Because "Yarrow" is a registered ship in Hong Kong, in fact, the sailors on the ship are all Chinese, and it is said that it is still a smuggling ship. In any case, these two incidents are not enough to be the root cause of the war between the two countries. They can only be an excuse for war. So, what is the most fundamental reason for the Second Opium War?
The Second Opium War is a continuation of the First Opium War , and it is necessary here to mention some incidents of the First Opium War. From the first Opium War, Lin Zexu Humen sold cigarettes to the signing of the " Nanjing Treaty. " Generally speaking, Lin Zexu's image as a national hero stands in the hearts of the Chinese people. There is a very important reason why Lin Zexu is a national hero in the eyes of the Chinese people, that is, he did not finally sign the Treaty of Nanjing. According to the Chinese people's mindset, anyone who signs a foreign treaty that calls for bereavement and humiliation is a traitor. As for the others, I don't want to leave it alone.
Humen selling cigarettes
Lin Zexu launched a smoking ban campaign in Guangdong, but did not expect to trigger a British war against the Qing dynasty. What was more unexpected was that the opponent of the war was strong guns and martial arts. The court was furious and dismissed Lin Qincha's post. The successor to Lin Zexu who dealt with the British was Qi Shan, who appeared as a villain in the film "Lin Zexu" because he advocated a peace. This move greatly stimulated the fragile and sensitive brain nerves of the Chinese people. The two countries are at war, and the peacekeeper is the capitulation faction. This is an unbreakable universal truth in the hearts of the Chinese people. In fact, this Qi Shan was one of the most capable officials in the Qing dynasty. He was not only clever, but also hardworking. He was proficient in the laws of the Qing dynasty, and every hair on his body was hollow and clever. However, let alone his war words and propositions at that time, even now, the Chinese people cannot understand and forgive him.
Qi Shan did not participate in the negotiation process of the "Nanjing Treaty". The "Nanjing Treaty" was signed in Nanjing, Jiangsu. The main court officials involved were Ilib and Yun Ying. The "Nanjing Treaty" is regarded as the first unequal treaty of bereavement and disgrace with the imperialists in modern Chinese history. In fact, at the time, this was a great achievement. After the treaty was signed, the war ended, and Emperor Daoguang 's heart was solid. After receiving the imperial decree, Ilib was transferred to General Guangdong and Minister of Mission, responsible for dealing with foreigners. However, three months later, the hero who participated in the signing of the "Nanjing Treaty" died suddenly in Guangdong. I don't know if it was physical or psychological. I think it may have died because of indebtedness and depression. Later, Ying Ying took over his post in Guangdong.
Soon after arriving in Guangdong, Yun Ying successively signed the "Sino-British Humen Treaty ", "Sino-US Mansion Treaty ", and "Sino-French Huangpu Treaty ". Is n’t it just signing? Looking at Ying Ying with our eyes today, this product is a downright surrender traitor! In fact, every surrender and traitor is not born out of nowhere. The "Nanjing Treaty" was signed after a series of defeats between the Qing Army and the British Army in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. Yu Ying went through the whole process. He knew deeply that the pot of the foreigner was iron and could not be broken.
Yun Ying is a bit bad. I do n’t know if it ’s a personality problem or a character problem. In dealing with the British, whether on the battlefield or in negotiations, he has adopted two magic weapons, victories, and expediencies. . The treaty was signed correctly, and I did n’t agree with it. I did n’t think about observing it in the future. After watching the foreigner holding the signed treaty out of the door and disappearing from his eyes, he was relieved. We are all done! This person can be said to be a wonderful bird in the officialdom of the Qing Dynasty! I think that whether Ying Ying's personality or quality problems were actually problems of the Qing Dynasty's personality and quality.
Although Yun Ying signed a series of treaties with the imperialists in his term as governor of Guangdong and Guangxi, his achievements were recognized and praised by the court. In March 1845, there was a sacred purpose , Awarded Ying Ying to co-sponsored a bachelor's honor. However, Yun Ying himself was not at ease, because there was a depressed knot in his heart, and this knot could not be opened, he pondered, and something would happen sooner or later! Once the sea is a big thing!
This is how things happened. Before the Opium War, British businessmen all lived in Macao collectively. To ship and sell goods, they had to go through the agency of Guangzhou Shisanyang Agency. The British could not enter Guangzhou city without permission. After the signing of the "Nanjing Treaty", the situation was completely different. According to the treaty, the monopoly privilege of Shisanyang Bank was abolished, and the British could trade freely and enter and exit Guangzhou City freely. Although the treaty says so, the British have never been able to enter Guangzhou City because the Cantonese refused them.
Today, Guangzhou is an open city. Walking on the street, foreigners can be seen anytime, anywhere. Take a look at the lobby of the Guangzhou Entry-Exit Administration. There are more foreigners queuing up to apply for residence visas than Chinese people applying for overseas travel. But in Guangzhou at the time, the British wanted to walk into the city of Guangzhou, and it was harder than climbing the sky. The British talked to Ying Ying over and over for this matter, and argued that we must come in accordance with the treaty. What is the rhythm of you? Every time the British and Ying Ying talk about this, adults have everything. Excuses, pushing three obstacles , and finally the British are in a hurry, saying that if you don't care so much, we will solve the problem by force. Forced to frustration, Ying Ying and the British made a "two-year contract." He promised that the British could enter Guangzhou City two years later, on April 6, 1849.
The "two-year agreement" was promised to the British by Ying Ying. From the day he made his promises, he had not slept all night. What should I do when the two-year deadline has expired? Let the British not enter Guangzhou? Still can't let it! But, how to solve this problem? He is helpless. At this time, Yingying's character broke out again. He actively campaigned for Beijing's relations, advanced on the emperor's word, and transferred him away from Guangzhou as soon as possible. He buried the mine and wanted to walk away. As for when the mine exploded and who killed him, he didn't want to worry about it.
Yun Ying's silver had no white flowers. In February 1848, the emperor came down with a decree, removing his post as governor of Liangjiang. The court appointed Xu Guangye as the governor of the two rivers and minister of commerce, and Ye Mingchen as governor of Guangdong. Yun Ying finally broke away from the right and wrong place in Guangdong, but he was like a mirror in his heart, knowing that his "two-year contract" with the British would definitely be wrong!
Sure enough, Xu Guangzheng received a diplomatic note from the British shortly after he took office in Guangdong, reminding him of such a "two-year covenant", and he must fulfill his promise at that time. After receiving this diplomatic note, Xu Guangzhen was awkward in his heart, considering how to deal with the matter at that time. Before making a decision, he must conduct a poll. So he often visits privately to experience the folk customs of Guangdong. When he meets the Guangdong people, he greets: "Hey, uncle, are you happy? Do you want the British to come to Guangzhou?" He asked all the way, he found that the Guangdong people felt Very happy, under the leadership of the glorious great right emperor. Moreover, they did not like the British, and they all expressed that they did not welcome the British to enter Guangzhou.
It didn't take long for Xu Guangyu to receive an invitation letter from the British asking him to visit a British warship. At that time, it was tantamount to going deep into a tiger's hole in Longtan . Many manpowers persuaded Master Xu not to go. This is a banquet of the gate ! Various conspiracies and tricks in the minds of the Chinese people have come to mind. However, Xu Guangxi decided to go there. In fact, it was nothing. After Xu Guangying visited the British warships, the British opened their eyes and said, "Two years ago, you promised that on April 6 this year, we were allowed to come and go freely in Guangzhou City. Please come today, just to bring you This day is set. "
When the British brought up this "two-year covenant", Xu Guangying had a policy and strategy in mind. He responded to the British: "This two-year covenant was promised to you by my predecessor, Tai Ying. I was not yet at that time. I did n’t know. So far I have n’t received any relevant instructions from the court. I ca n’t promise you this. ”The British said,“ You should be the master of this. ”Xu Guangying said,“ No! People ’s customs are different. Guangzhou city has never allowed foreigners to enter. This is public opinion. As a parent and official, I have to decide for the people. ”When the British heard this, their faces changed and they thought: Are you here to play with me? Do you have public opinion in your dictatorship?
Xu Guangyu saw that the British face was not right, and the conversation turned: "But please rest assured, since Master Yingying has spoken first , it must not be for no reason . After I went back, I asked the emperor for the imperative. On the day of the imperial arrival, the gates of Guangzhou must be unconditional for you Open it. "Just like this, Xu Guangxi took the" two-year covenant "of Ying Ying and the British as nonsense, ignored it, and asked the court to impose a trick. The British were helpless for a while.
For a period of time thereafter, the British did not seem to be in a hurry to enter Guangzhou, and the "two-year covenant" did not seem to be mentioned anymore. By 1851, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement broke out. From the top to the bottom of the Qing Dynasty, they were busy fighting Hong Xiuquan . People who responded to the chaos of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom had attacked Guangzhou City with 200,000 troops. Ye Mingchen, who was in charge of Guangzhou at that time, was in danger. With good command, he blocked the 200,000 rebellious people outside Guangzhou. The British think that this is China's internal affairs.
On October 8, 1856, the Guangdong Marine Division seized a smuggling ship named "Yaro", which was registered in Hong Kong and was a British ship, but the crew were all Chinese. The Guangdong Marine Division detained the crew and reportedly tore off the British flag. Details are unknown. Anyway, this incident became an excuse for the fourth Hong Kong Governor sent by the British Government to attack Ye Mingchen, and the British came into Guangzhou again. Ye Mingchen, like his predecessor, resolutely rejected the British request. As a result, Bao Ling pressed the button to start the war. The British troops stationed in Hong Kong attacked Guangzhou and the Second Opium War broke out.
Bao Ling launched an armed attack on Guangzhou in an attempt to break through the gates of Guangzhou, but met Ye Mingchen's stubborn resistance. Bao Ling did not discuss any cheapness. In April 1857, the British mainland sent 1,500 soldiers to reinforce the British troops in Hong Kong. In September, Britain and France reached an agreement to organize a British-French coalition to form a combat alliance against the Qing Dynasty. At this time, Ye Mingchen had reached the point where the mountains and rivers were exhausted, and financially and militaryly, he was unable to cope with the joint attacks of Britain and France. On February 29, Guangzhou fell and Ye Mingchen was captured.
The fall of Guangzhou and the capture of Ye Mingchen did not bring the war to an end. The British and French coalition forces blasted Dagukou in Tianjin from the sea, land and north, posing a direct threat to Beijing. On June 1, 1858, Emperor Xianfeng was forced to send an envoy to negotiate with the British and French forces in Tianjin. At this time, the United States and Russia also came forward, and the Qing government was forced to sign the " Tianjin Treaty " with Britain, France, the United States, and Russia.
Prior to the signing of the "Tianjin Treaty", the "Treaty Treaty" signed by Tsarist Russia and Qing Dynasty's Heilongjiang general Yi Shan in Yan (now Heihe Aihui District, Heilongjiang Province), the treaty caused China to lose north of Heilongjiang The territory of about 600,000 square kilometers south of Waixinganling is the treaty that ceded the territory at one time in the history of modern China. Russia's robbery is just in time.
The signing of the "Tianjin Treaty" was not the end of the Second Opium War. During the period, serious twists and turns occurred. Until 1860, the British and French forces entered Beijing and a fire burned the Yuanmingyuan . The wealth of this war has come to an end. I won't go into the details here. Today, the ruins of the Yuanmingyuan Garden show the sadness of the year in tears, and people with patriotism can go there to mourn.
British and French forces set fire to Yuanmingyuan
Thinking about the ins and outs of the Second Opium War, I want to make one thing clear: why the Qing dynasty officials went from Ying Ying to Xu Guangye to Ye Mingchen, why did they so stubbornly refused the British to enter Guangzhou city freely. Did they really represent public opinion at the time? I thought Guangzhou at that time should be a frontier city opened to the outside world in the Qing Dynasty. The people of Guangdong were no strangers to the British. Why did they hate the British very much and hate them? I think this It is most likely the opinion created by the Qing officials at the time. Because once the city of Guangzhou was freely opened to the British, the Chinese and the British got along with each other, and various disputes were inevitable. Based on the external cognition level of Qing officials, they were very afraid to deal with the differences between Chinese and foreigners. Kind of dispute. Foreigners can't be aroused, and consensus has been reached among officials of the Qing Dynasty, but the scale of law enforcement always tends to the side of foreigners, which will inevitably cause the government's infamousness and authority to be wiped out. In the long run , the Qing rule will fall apart sooner or later. This is what they fear most.
From 1840 to 1860, the period of two decades was too short and not too long. From Humen, Guangdong to Beijing's Yuanmingyuan, two fires reflected the sky of history. I suddenly remembered the "Black Ship Incident" in Japan in July 1853. The US Navy Brigadier General Perry led the fleet into the Edo Bay. Several cannons rang and knocked on the gate of the Japanese shogunate. Signed the "Kanagawa Treaty", the "Japan-US Peace Treaty." Twenty years later, the Japanese central government established the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and Okubo passed through as the first secretary of the house. Japanese history entered the Okubo era, and the Meiji government pushed forward reforms in all aspects. Twenty years later, the Sino-Japanese War broke out, and the Japanese Navy wiped out the North Sea Fleet of the Qing Dynasty.
A person's 20-year struggle will be enough to accomplish a career and change his destiny. A country's 20 years of hard work can be enough to change society and shock overseas. ten thousand years is too long, fight for now. Son on the river said: The deceased is like a husband. Today, we look up at the starry sky and look back at the unfortunate past. Only and can only make a heavy sigh.
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