In World War II, not only did Japan invade China, which was 25 times the size of its territory, but also used its air superiority to own thousands of planes to bombard various cities in China and committed heinous crimes.
From February 18, 1938 to August 23, 1943, the Japanese army bombed the wartime capital of the Republic of China for five and a half years. According to incomplete statistics, in 5 and a half years, the Japanese army bombed Chongqing 218 times, dispatched 9513 sorties, and dropped 21,593 bombs. This is known as the Chongqing bombing .
The Japanese bombing of Chongqing was unscrupulous. During the large-scale bombing, the Japanese military successively adopted "high-density bombing ... 'fatigue bombing', 'moon bombing', 'unlimited bombing', and carried out a holistic, undifferentiated, destructive bombardment of Chongqing's military and civilian facilities. The bombing successively caused a series of extinct human tragedies such as the "May 3rd Massacre" and "May 4th Massacre", "Big Tunnel Massacre" and "8.11 Massacre", causing tens of thousands of people to be killed or injured.
However, on the contrary, Japanese aircraft bombed Yan'an twice on November 20 and 21, 1938, but never dared to go to Yan'an indiscriminately. The Japanese aircraft bombed Yan'an more often than Chongqing. The frequency of bombings in Yan'an was much less than that in the Chongqing bombing.
According to statistics, from the morning of November 20, 1938 to October 1941, although the Japanese army continued to attack Yan'an, the Yan'an suffered little damage because of preparations. According to the statistics of the Jiefang Daily on March 10, 1946, during this period, the Japanese machine bombed Yan'an 17 times, bombing 1,690 pieces, injuring 184 people and 214 people; destroying buildings: 1176 public buildings, 5 stone caves, and private houses There are 14,452 houses, 94 Christian chapels, 94 houses, 75 Catholic church houses, 197 livestock casualties, and 344,000 kilograms of damaged food. After the outbreak of the Pacific War , Japanese aircraft stopped bombing Yan'an until Japan defeated and surrendered.
In the end, what caused the Japanese planes to dare not to act lightly over Yan'an? There are three reasons:
The first is that air defense is properly prepared.
Since 1937, Yan'an has taken steps to prepare for the Japanese air strikes. According to the comrades who had worked at the Anti-Japanese Military and Political University, the school gradually moved outwards after the cave was dug in 1938, and moved to several ravines outside the North Gate and the East Gate ... The superior has repeatedly reminded to pay attention to air defense. Therefore, with the exception of Yan'an, which suffered a large loss during the first bombing of Japanese aircraft on the morning of November 20, 1938 (hundreds of bombs were dropped, 152 people were killed and wounded, and 380 houses were destroyed). In the second bombing, because the military and civilians of Yan'an lived in the cave and increased their air defense vigilance, the losses were not serious. For example, on November 21, 1938, when the Japanese aircraft bombed Yan'an for the second time, only a few people and A few horses.
Due to proper air defense preparations, the Yan'an military and civilians dealt with it in the face of the bombing of enemy aircraft. Even after the bombing of the enemy aircraft, the military and civilians of Yan'an were able to take apart the unexploded bombs in an orderly manner and pull out the yellow explosive from the shell Basket by basket, lifted down Phoenix Mountain and carried away by carriage. Then, use these explosives as dyes, dye yellow cloth, sew military uniforms, and knock the bomb shells into pieces to create wasteland crickets and puppets.
The second is the dangerous situation in Yan'an.
In February 1938, the Japanese army successively captured Changzhi and Linfen; in March, the Japanese army captured Yuncheng and Fenglingdu. The Japanese built bomber forward bases in Linfen and Yuncheng. The planes that bombed Yan'an took off from Linfen and Yuncheng airports.
Yan'an is located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River and belongs to the hilly and gully region of the Loess Plateau. Therefore, the landform of Yan'an is dominated by the Loess Plateau and hills. The terrain is high in the northwest and low in the southeast, with an average elevation of about 1,200 meters. Yan'an District is located at the junction of Baota Mountain, Qingliang Mountain, and Phoenix Mountain, and the intersection of Yanhe and Fenchuan Rivers. It has been known as a "military town" since ancient times, and is known as the "Three Qin Keys, Five Placket. "
After the first bombing by Japanese aircraft, various Yan'an institutions and schools moved to caves on the mountain. Some of the remaining houses in the city were relocated to the north, and most of them were relocated to the southern suburbs. The Japanese machine must be bombed, and it must dive into the hilly gully to drop bombs. The crisscrossing hilly gully is a headache for the Japanese pilots, because a little accident will hit the trench wall and destroy the people.
The dangerous terrain of Yan'an is really unique . It is no wonder that Mao Zedong led a small number of soldiers to fight with Hu Zongnan for so long during the liberation war. If you ca n’t catch up, you ca n’t catch it, you can only sigh with regret, and so is the Japanese machine. In particular, as long as anti-aircraft weapons are installed in Pagoda Mountain, Qingliang Mountain, and Phoenix Mountain, Japanese planes face the danger of being shot down at any time, even if there is no return.
The third is equipped with anti-aircraft machine guns.
On November 20 and 21, 1938, Japanese aircraft bombed Yan'an twice. During the bombing, it killed more than 150 people, injured more than 90 animals, and destroyed more than 380 civilian houses. One important reason was that Yan'an did not have Anti-aircraft weapons-anti-aircraft guns and anti-aircraft machine guns, so the Japanese army was able to bomb Yan'an so recklessly. At the end of 1938, the situation changed radically. Prior to this, gunsmith Liu Guifu had led 15 military workers from Shanxi Taiyuan to Yan'an and was assigned to the Yan'an Arsenal. When they learned about the terrible scenes of bombing Yan'an on November 20 and 21, 1938, they were filled with indignation and determined to create an anti-aircraft machine gun to defend Party Chairman Mao and defend Yan'an.
In a ravine about 8 kilometers east of Yan'an, there is a Liushudian village, where the willow trees are shaded, and a stream flows from the ravine into the Yanhe River. There is a small temple in Hougou. The Yan'an Arsenal is located in the small temple and the nearby cave. Snow has visited here to praise them for working for themselves and China.
At that time, many of the bad machine guns seized in the battle of Zhiluo Town were stored in the cave, and they were never repaired. Liu Guifu led the workers to repair more than 100 light and heavy machine guns in less than two months, and later made Hagekais machine guns. Ammunition Corrector "guarantees the continuous performance of the machine gun. Seeing the repaired heavy machine guns, everyone thought out and made a bold idea: transform them into antiaircraft machine guns for air defense.
After careful research, everyone decided to install a tripod on the heavy machine gun and convert it into an anti-aircraft machine gun. They use Mark Qin heavy machine guns as the body, plus a chassis and fan-shaped gears, and two handles are drawn from the chassis to control single shots, bursts, rotations and lifts; a tripod has a hinge in the middle connected to the chassis's swivel seat. The three legs are mounted on a swivel base with an 8 mm iron tube, and the legs are equipped with pull rods, which can be adjusted to loosen and stabilize the tripod. Soon, the arsenal created two anti-aircraft machine guns, one on the top of Qingliang Mountain and one on the top of Baota Mountain. The bullets fired by the two anti-aircraft machine guns formed a crossfire blocking net. Although there is no record of the Japanese plane, since then, Japanese planes have never dared to easily harass Yan'an.
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