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The longest-running war in the world, creating two great powers
Interesting history2019-02-11 13:31:41

Hundred Years' War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) From 1337 to 1453, the warring parties were the Kingdom of England and France; later the Principality of Burgundy and other countries also joined the war. It was one of the longest wars in the world. It lasted 116 years and was finally won by the French. Many new tactics and weapons were invented.

The Kingdom of the Kingdom of the Kingdom of England also once had a Continental Territory

In the early Middle Ages, France was robbed and invaded by the Vikings for a long time. Charles III of the Carolingian dynasty of the West Frankish Kingdom , on the condition of helping to defend against other pirates, agreed in 911 AD that Viking leader Rollo and his tribe settled on a fertile land along the English Channel, and named Rollo the duke . Since the Vikings are also called Normans, this land is called Normandy (meaning the Normans' soil). The Vikings established the Principality of Normandy here, stopped piracy, converted to Catholicism and accepted French culture, but the Principality of Normandy has since split.

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Conqueror William landed in England

In 1066, William the Duke of Normandy conquered England. For the next 150 years, the French-speaking Duke of Normandy was King of England and ruled England and Normandy. However, the Principality of Normandy was a subsidiary of the King of France, which caused the two equal kings to become completely unequal. Later, after the French king who controlled the Duchy of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine divorced King Louis VII of France and married Henry, Duke of Normandy and Earl of Anjou.

In 1154 Henry was crowned King of England. Because of the marriage, the Kingdom of England acquired the territory of Aquitaine, while controlling England and nearly half of France.

At the beginning of the 13th century, when the British King John fell out of power, the King took the opportunity to recapture Normandy and Anjou, and John returned to England.

In 1215, under the persecution of the English aristocracy, King John made a charter to keep the English throne. For more than 100 years since then, the British king of French aristocracy has always wanted to retrieve the lost land of his ancestors from the French king, and the British king still controls Aquitaine, a swath of French southwest coast. Eyes nailed.

In the 14th century, France wanted to drive away England, still in the southwest, to unify France. The latter not only refused, but also wanted to regain the lands of his ancestors, such as Normandy, Mann, Anjo and so on. The two countries have also deepened their conflict due to trade disputes in Flanders. The site is located in northern France. It is superficially subordinated to France, but it is administered independently and has a lot of wool trade with England.

The French throne rule was not inherited by women. Women's right of inheritance was more than several Kings of France, Louis X (died in 1316), Philip V (died in 1322), and Charles IV (died in 1328). Raised, but each time it was eventually inherited by the male.

When only one daughter, Charles IV, died in 1328, his closest relative was male King Edward III. Edward's lineage is inherited from his mother Isabella, the sister of Charles IV; but because of her gender, whether Isabella has the right to the throne is also a question. In addition, the French aristocracy was hesitant to accept the rule of an English king. Therefore, the French nobles and priests rallied in Paris and made it clear that men could not inherit the throne because of their mother's inheritance. As a result, the nearest male heir became Philip, Count Vallois, cousin of Charles IV, and determined that he should be crowned as Philip VI.

In 1340, the Pope determined that under Salek law men could not inherit the throne through their mother's bloodline.

In the process of such a strange and chaotic development, the basis of a long war has breeded.

Fall in love and fight for 116 years

In the first stage (between 1337 and 1360), Britain and France competed for Flanders and Aquitaine. In 1340, the British defeated the French in the Battle of Sluis, seized control of the sea, and prevented the French from crossing the sea. In August 1346, the British army first defeated the land of Cressey, then besieged the port of Calais, the French coastal defense fortress, and successfully occupied 11 months later. Then defeated the Scottish invasion at the battle of the Neville Cross, and captured the pro-French King of Scotland II, greatly reducing its threat.

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Battle of Sluis

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Battle of Neville Cross

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Battle of Poitiers

In 1348, the Black Death swept across Europe, and the two countries ceased armistice for a decade. In 1356, England attacked again, capturing Keane and Gascogne in southwestern France. Immediately again, he won the battle in Poitiers with the same tactics. The French royal family suffered the internal and external torture of the British army's rampant conquest, the collapse of the national economy, and the civilian uprising. The situation was very unfavorable. In Bretinini in 1360, France was forced to sign an extremely unequal Bretonini peace treaty, ceding the entire territory south of the Loire to the Pyrenees.

In the second phase (between 1360 and 1400), King Charles V of the French began revenge and wanted to retake the occupied territories. He reorganized the army, replaced most of the cavalry with hired infantry, established field artillery, and rebuilt the navy. He reformed the internal affairs, promoted kingship, rectified the tax system, and invested state treasury in armaments. When the time was right, he appointed Bertrand du Gécran to lead the army, attacking the British with raids and guerrilla tactics , defeating the British in many battles. In 1380, the British army had retreated to the coastal areas. The King feared losing all his territories and signed a truce agreement with France, leaving only the five harbours of Bordeaux, Bayonne, Brest, Cherbourg, and Calais, and parts of Bordeaux and Bayonne.

In the third stage (between 1415 and 1429), a civil war broke out between Burgundy and Amanjak in France, the farmers and citizens also revolted, and England took the opportunity to restart the war. In 1415, the British defeated the French at the Battle of Agincourt, and allied with the Duke of Burgundy to capture most of northern France. King Charles VI, unable to resist, signed the Troyes Peace Treaty in Troyes on May 21, 1420 in Troyes. King Henry V became the regent of France and had the right to succeed the throne of France after the death of Charles VI. France has become part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and France.

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Battle of Agincourt

However, Henry V and Charles VI of England and France died in the same year in 1422. The two new kings, Henry VI and Charles VII, fought again for the French throne. The Centennial War entered the fourth stage.

During the fourth stage (from 1429 to 1453), the French people could not bear the oppression of the British army, and all parties resisted. The guerrillas often seized English tax collectors and contained British troops, which greatly helped the French army. In October 1428, the British and Burgundian factions surrounded Orleans, and the French army was seriously disadvantaged. At this time, a savior, Joan of Arc , appeared in France, and commanded the French army to defeat England in May 1429. Orleans made a siege and reversed the whole situation.

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Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc, who was only 19 years old, was soon captured by the British army and executed in 1431 for witches. This provoked the French nation's righteous indignation and helped the French army make a big counterattack. In 1437, the French army recovered the capital Paris. In 1441, the Champagne region was regained. In 1450, Mann and Normandy were liberated. In 1453, Gienne was recaptured.

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Siege of Calais

On October 19, 1453, the British surrendered in Bordeaux, and France regained all territory except Calais.

From 1337-1453, this war lasted for 116 years. But this is not finished. In fact, it was not until 1558 that the French captured Calais that England lost its last city on the European continent.

Rise of the two countries

The century-long war was a disaster for the people of England and France. During the period, the Black Death broke out. The two countries were hit by both the war and the epidemic. The general economy was hit hard, and the people were not living.

France is the place where the war is fought, the country is devastated and people are displaced. However, the victory of the war allowed France to complete national reunification and laid the foundation for future expansion in the European continent. England lost all French territory, but it also caused nationalism in England. Afterwards, England implemented the "continental balance of power" policy on the European continent, transferred to overseas development, and became the world's largest empire.

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