Demystified: The historical truth of the Central Plains breakout was seriously distorted

In fact, all the liberated areas, including Central China, understand that the gunfire of the national army's siege of the Central Plains liberated area is the prelude to a comprehensive civil war. All Communists and the military and civilians in the liberated areas are ready to respond. Mao Zedong also promptly issued instructions containing his many years of strategic experience.

Su Yu urgently convened a meeting of high-level military cadres. I want to warn you that the Central China Liberated Area is at the outpost of a confrontation with the Kuomintang army when the Central Plains gunfire sounds. Central Jiangsu and Northern Jiangsu Liberated Areas are separated by Nanjing. Except for a few cities such as Nantong, Jiangdu, Yangzhou, Central Jiangsu, Northern Jiangsu, Huaibei, and Huainan, nearly 110,000 square kilometers of land and more than 20 million people belong to the Central China Liberated Area. Su Yu believes that in order to defend this land, in a situation where the enemy is strong and we are weak, we must seriously implement Mao Zedong's military thinking. He explained in detail the "Mao Zedong Military Thought" he emphasized:

Chairman Mao recently pointed out that in order to smash the Kuomintang army that definitely exceeds our army and also has US equipment, two points must be grasped. One is sports warfare. To fight well in sports, "temporary abandonment in some places and cities is not only inevitable but also necessary. The temporary abandonment of some places and cities is to achieve final victory"; the second is to change the absolute disadvantage into a comparative advantage ( (Also called local superiority), that is, "concentrated superior forces, each to destroy the enemy." "When the enemy uses many brigades (or regiments) to advance to our army in several ways, our army must concentrate its forces of absolute advantage, that is, concentrate six times, or five times, or four times the strength of the enemy, at least also Has three times the enemy ’s strength, and when appropriate, first surrounds a brigade (or regiment) that destroys the enemy. This brigade (or regiment) should be the weaker or less aided enemy brigade, or It is the topography and public sentiment of his station that is most beneficial to me and bad for the enemy. "Chairman Mao pointed out that the effect of this method is" one can wipe out all, and two can quickly decide. " Under the condition that Jiang Jun's weapons have an absolute advantage, this must be paid special attention by our army. (Note at the end of the page: The quote in the above natural paragraph is Mao Zedong.)

When Su Yu mobilized to the army, his first important opponent, Li Mozhe, left office.


Li Mochen was born in the first phase of Huangpu and was in Chen Cheng's system. After Chen Cheng became the chief of staff, Tang Enbo, commander of the Third Front Army, had difficulty cooperating with Chen Cheng and submitted his resignation. Chen Cheng quickly accepted his resignation and renamed Tang Enbo as the commander-in-chief of Nanjing Weiyi. Chen Cheng immediately appointed Li Mocheng to take up the post of commander of the Third Front Army. Within a few days, the title of the Frontier Army was revoked and it was renamed Appeasement District. The Third Front Army was changed to the First Appeasement Zone. Li Mozheng's post was subsequently changed to Commander of the First Appeasement District.

On June 26, Li Mozhi led Gao Shen, Luo Jueyuan, deputy officer, translator, etc., took a train from Xuzhou to Wuxi, and took over Tang Enbo.

The task assigned to him by the Ministry of National Defense was to capture the central and northern Soviet areas. In the area north of the Yangtze River, the areas already occupied by the National Army are Nantong and Yangzhou; other areas are common areas. Chen Cheng taught him to proceed in two stages:

The first stage captured Dongtai, Xinghua, and the south of Gaoyou;

The second stage captured Yancheng, Fuping and Huaiyin.

The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China Su Yu has the first division, the sixth division, the seventh column, and the tenth column, a total of nineteen regiments, about 30,000 people. Later, he joined the Fifth Brigade and the Central China Military Region Special Service Regiment, with a total strength of less than 40,000.

Li Mozhi's troops are the 83rd Division of the Reorganization (Note at the end of the page: the predecessor of the Reorganization Division is an army establishment, so the number of soldiers in the Reorganization Division is more than 30,000.) 15th Division, 21st Division, 65th Division, 99th Brigade, 69th Division, 7th Brigade, and 7th and 11th Traffic Police Corps. The force is over 120,000, four times that of Su Yu.

Li Mozheng was quite confident that he held a combat meeting at his headquarters in Wuxi.

He decided to concentrate his forces first and capture the towns of Huangqiao, Rugao, Hai'an, Libao, and other cities, linking up with the Yangzhou and Taixian counties previously occupied by the national army. Immediately rectify the traffic, wired communication and supply network in this area, and then move north.

Most of the divisions and brigades present did not compete with the Communist Army. They all looked at the number of troops and equipment and did not look at Su Yu's more than 30,000 people. The eighty-third division was originally Wang Yaowu 's basic army, equipped with beautiful equipment and a high degree of mechanization, and the officers and men were very arrogant. The current division commander Li Tianxia confidently declared that his troops were invincible, and a regiment could defeat Su Yu's 30,000 horses.

Li Mochi frowned, glanced at Li Tianxia with a little worry, and warned: I followed Ci Gong (Chen Cheng) in the Jiangxi and Communist Army (Red Army) in a lot of battles, knowing that they are flexible and do not pay attention to procedures. Su Yubu has been studying Suzhong for a long time. He is familiar with the terrain and thoroughly brainwashed the common people. We must not underestimate the enemy. We must fight steadily. The ministries must cooperate closely, echo the tacit understanding, and fight without order.

After the meeting, the headquarters was moved forward to Changzhou.


After careful preparation, Li Mozheng convened a military meeting again to study the march plan. The attack was later scheduled for July 13.

Unexpectedly, there was a sudden leak, and Chiang Kai-shek personally called to inform them to suspend the offensive; urgently change the troop configuration and choose another operation time.

On the night of June 25, the Central Plains Military Region Cultural Troupe performed the Peking opera "Fishing and Killing the Family" to entertain members of the military mobilization executive team stationed in Xuanhua Store, accompanied by some officers and soldiers and local people who visited the Xuanhua Store in secret.

When the performance was halfway through, the Kuomintang reporters sent a telegram to the scene.

The Kuomintang representative Lu Ji read the strike telegram and was shocked. He immediately asked Li Dunbai, the representative of the United States, and Xue Zi, the representative of the Communist party, to leave the scene. Then hand the telegram to Li Dunbai.

After looking at Li Dunbai, he was also very angry. Give the telegram to Xue Zizheng and at the same time question:

"Mr. Xue, what's going on?"

Of course Xue Zizheng knew what was going on; Then said:

"Stop being calm and restless, I'll ask what's going on right away!"

He went to get Zhang Tixue, the Independent Political Commissar of East Hubei, and asked him to explain to the representatives of the US and Kuomintang under the name of Deputy Commander of Xuanhua Store.

Zhang Tiexue looked solemnly in the presence of the representatives of the United States and the Kuomintang, categorically denying that there was a large troop transfer.

US representative Li Dunbai sneered: "Where are you General Li Xiannian? I and he are friends, and I want to talk to him tonight!"

Zhang Ti Xue said: "Commander Li felt cold, took medicine, and just fell asleep soon."

Li Dunbai said, "Ah, I'm sick! Then I should go and see him!"

At this moment Li Xiannian had left Xuanhua Store for fifteen kilometers.

What to do? Xue Zizheng is tense and anxious, but on the surface, he has to act like a person. He couldn't intervene to explain anything, all that could only be learned by opening his mouth.

Zhang Tixue pretended to be bland as usual, saying: "Mr. Li Dunbai wants to see Commander Li. He can wait in the theater and continue to watch the show. I'll just invite Commander Li!

When they talked here, the Chief of Staff of the Independent Brigade of East Hubei had already left for some reason. He went to tell the reporter to immediately send an urgent telegram to Li Xiannian, asking for instructions.

After receiving the telegram, Li Xiannian said nothing , and led the guard to rush back to Xuanhua Store.

Zhang Tiexue returned to the theater and asked Li Dunbai and Lu Jishi to go to the Central Plains Military Region office, saying that Commander Li invited them to have supper.

Li Xiannian was full of sickness and kept sneezing; he had a taste for supper while eating supper, and he had no appetite.

Li Dunbai believed that Li Xiannian was resting due to physical discomfort more than half an hour ago; Lu Ji was more cunning, didn't say anything on his mouth, but didn't hesitate in his heart.

The two guests finally said goodbye and went back to rest.

Li Xiannian then went out and flew on his horse, chasing the troops under the guard of platoons.

Early the next morning, Li Dunbai and Lu Jishi saw everything in the Central Plains Military Command as usual; there were soldiers on the playground. That's why I believe in "no other person" and do my thing with confidence.

This afternoon, Zhang Tixue invited the military tune-in team to play mahjong, and then went uphill for hunting; he deliberately organized a peaceful atmosphere.

At 9 o'clock that night, the main troops of the Central Plains Military Region had arrived near Pinghan Road.


Zhang Tiexue received a telegram and hosted a banquet to host the military survey team.

When Lu Jishi raised his toast, he asked with a puzzled smile what the name of this feast was?

Zhang Tixue said that on behalf of Commander Li Xiannian, he treats everyone.

Lu Ji asked with a smile, why did Commander Li not attend?

Zhang Ti Xue smiled without answering. Toast to invite everyone to drink this cup first, there will be a notice to serve.

Lu Jishi was startled, his expression changed suddenly. He seemed to realize something.

By the end of the banquet, Zhang Tixue stood up. With a serious expression on his face, he solemnly declared that, as the national army repeatedly trampled on the armistice agreement, it now secretly promoted more than 200,000 troops, narrowed the siege quickly, and the flames of war ignited only between saliva. As a last resort, in order to survive, our main force in the Central Plains Military Region has given up this right and wrong place.

The banquet was of course impossible. Representatives of the United States and the Kuomintang side clamored and ranted, accusing the Communist Party of not talking about credit, and the Central Plains Military Region troops acting without authorization.

Zhang Tiue arranged for the military dispatch team to board a car and drive to Wuhan; then he led the Independent Brigade in East Hubei to quickly leave the Xuanhua store and disappear into the mountains.

Chen Cheng obtained the information earlier than Liu Yan .

He was so angry that he scolded Liu Ye as a pig in the office. He already urged Liu Ye many times to secretly advance, which was too slow; he had to make a big fuss, attack quickly, seize the fighter, and flatten out. Now letting a large number of bandits sneak out of the fishing net has added a lot of trouble.

Liu Yanfeng heard Chen Cheng's accusations, and became angry and shy, separated by hundreds of kilometers and turned his lips back: You Chen Xixiu told us to put the focus on anti-blocking to the east, and now there is precise information that the bandits have escaped to the northwest. Who is this responsibility?

After blame each other, we still have to readjust our forces. Liu Xie hurriedly required the personnel to rush to Zhumadian to set up a forward headquarters, redeployment, and urged the army to change secrets to public, change direction, quickly advance west, and aggressively attack.

Li Xiannian broke through the Kuomintang army blockade near Xinyang Station and moved westward through Tongbai, Zaoyang, Xiangyang, Fancheng, Xinye, Dengxian and the borders of Henan, Shaanxi and Hubei.

Liu Ye was panicked, and ordered Sun Zhen, the commander of the Fifth Appeasement Zone, to turn to Wu Tinglin, commander of the 15th Army, and tried his best to stop and chase; at the same time, Sun Zhen led his forty-one and forty-seven troops to make strategic changes to go beyond the pursuit.

The Wuhan line also caused the commander of the Sixth Appeasement Zone, Zhou Qun, to lead his army to chase.

Marshall convened military and political figures such as Bai Chongxi , Chen Cheng, Zhang Zhizhong , Shao Lizi, and Yu Dawei in Nanjing to discuss countermeasures.

Marshall conveyed Zhou Enlai's request with a smile: put a way for Li Xiannian to go to Yan'an; the reason was to give up the bases in Hubei, Henan, and Anhui to change the road.

Marshall looked around and asked, "Gentlemen, do you think this request can be considered?"

Zhang Zhizhong was expressionless, his eyeglasses flickered, and Marshall said, "The government has spent countless money and food in this area for several months. Why did you come here?"

The translator whispered for a long time, and didn't explain to Marshall the slightly sharp words. Marshall stared at Zhang Zhizhong in fog.

Fortunately, Bai Chongxi's words came straight and made everything clear.


Bai Chongxi sneered: "Let them stop and return to their old nest, be comfortable and well wounded, and then make a comeback?"

Chen Cheng quite approvingly looked at Bai Chongxi, turned his attention to everyone, and finally stopped on Marshall's face. Say:

"Minister Bai is right! They must not be left alone! Li Xiannian can take the army out of the siege circle and count him as capable. Hehe, he can also use this to defeat the reputation of a defeated general; The army is incompetent, we think we are unlucky! Huh, let go of a path, absolutely not! "

Marshall smiled wit and said nothing more.

The Chinese Communist delegation in Nanjing several times sought to see Chiang Kai-shek rejected.

Zhou Enlai personally went to the door and waited for five hours.

Jiang Jieshi had no choice but to order an interview.

After listening to Zhou Enlai's allegations, Chiang Kai-shek gave no explanation and just smiled and said:

"Enlai, don't worry. You should go to Chen Cheng and Shao Lizi to discuss this matter. They are in charge of this work. It doesn't matter, there will always be a solution."

So the representatives of both the KMT and the Communist Party sat down again to continue consultations.

The Chinese Communist Party pointed out that the fighting was due to the attack of the national army.

Shao Lizi said that Li Xiannian's introduction of troops to the west for no reason led to misunderstandings, which caused the fire.

The CCP said that if it was not under siege, why would my Central Plains army withdraw from the base?

Both sides held their own words and argued endlessly.

On July 9, Marshall sent a special plane to Xinyang to receive the staff of the US, Kuomintang, and Communist Party's three-party mediation team to report on his job in Nanjing, saying "further understanding of the situation."

When the executive team returned to Nanjing, the KMT representative Lu Ji first reported to Chen Cheng, saying that Li Xiannian's ministry broke out in three ways. All the way to Macheng and Luotian, all the way to Xuancheng, all the way to the northeast. The main force appears to have arrived near Nanyang.

Chen Cheng ordered Guo Rugui, the director of the Fifth Department of Defense, to write a memo and send it to Marshall. Putting together the reasons, he explicitly refused to let Li Xiannian move north.

Later, Yu Jishi told Guo Rugui that the president (Note at the end of the page: the Military Commission was revoked at this time, so he was renamed Chiang Kai-shek ’s position in the Kuomintang.) He did not agree to put Li Xiannian in the mediation category; Marshall thought that the article should be done, Just do what your national army wants to do. Marshall also said that Cheng Qian called the mediation executive team to go to Laohekou to catch up with Li Xiannian, persuading Li Xiannian not to run again, and quickly sent a representative to negotiate. Li Xiannian ignored it. Therefore, Li Xiannian should bear the responsibility. What Marshall meant was that as soon as the responsibilities were clear, the national army would let go.

Guo Rugui sighed to her friends in private, the two parties had no sincerity in the negotiation, and the mediation was just a formality. The various execution groups mingled for a while, but instead made the two sides become more distrustful, and the worsening their feelings, not only hindered solidarity, but also wasted state money. It doesn't make sense for Li Xiannian to adjust or not. Li will escape from the siege, the national army will destroy them, and finally they will fight.

The Pi Dingjun brigade, who broke out to the east, was posing as the main force to cover the real main force and to cross the Pinghan Road westward. Therefore, all officers and men were determined to die. In order to attract the enemy, they deliberately chose the area where the KMT headquarters was heavily defended, and raised several red flags embroidered with the words of the Central Plains Military Command.

Wang Shusheng explained to them that the three-day cover mission had passed, and Li Xiannian's ministry also crossed Pinghan Road. Pi Lu's mission is complete, but he is surrounded by siege. Pi Ding was not panic-stricken, and his command was rude. He first sent a multi-channel reconnaissance team to find out the enemy's falsehood, and then divided the army into five routes, violently impacting the entire line. After disrupting the enemy's nerves, they suddenly contracted and converged all the way, covering up the flag beam and hiding. Waiting for the enemy to pass by, they interspersed silently. In this way, he suddenly hid, suddenly appeared, rushed left and right, crossing the blockade line by Kuomintang troops. After walking to a place called Jinzhai, he finally separated from the enemy for about 50 kilometers. But the enemy entanglement has not been completely shaken out, and the enemy forces in all directions are still approaching them.


The Kuomintang army besieged the Central Plains with a truce. The military and civilians in the Central Plains Military Region tried to overcome serious difficulties in order to take care of the truce. The picture shows the Central Plains Military Region hunger with wild vegetables.

Along the way, they were all calling to the radio stations of the Central Plains Military Region and the Central Plains Bureau. No response at all. Jinzhai is already at the junction of Hubei, Anhui and Anhui, and must contact the superiors, otherwise if the brigade rushes out of the battlefield, it will inevitably be suspected of unauthorized action or even escape. The danger of this. After discussing with Xu Zirong, Pi Dingjun decided to call Yan'an directly to explain the current situation of the brigade, and asked for the next step.

There is no such thing as an invincible road, so I have been contacted.

The central call back only had one line of words: "Throw away all the baggage, break through quickly, and move closer to Central China!"

The officers and men of the Brigade obtained the sword of Shang Fang and threw away all their backpacks. While fighting deadly battle with the enemies surrounding them, they marched day and night in the Central China Liberated Area. Five days and five nights non-stop , and finally rushed to the edge of the Central China Liberated Area.

Rao Shushi made a special trip from Linyi, Shandong. (Note at the end of the page: Central China Bureau and the New Fourth Army Headquarters moved to Shandong, Central China Bureau changed to East China Bureau, Rao Shushi served as Secretary, New Fourth Army Political Committee, and Shandong Military District Political Committee.) Deng Zihui, leader of the Central China Branch , Zhang Dingzhang, Su Yu, Zeng Shan, etc. and the responding troops welcomed them fifty kilometers away. Everyone couldn't help tears when they saw the hero's army one by one in blood-stained robes.

Rao Shushi asked everyone if they had arrived home, despite mentioning it.

Pi Brigade officers and soldiers said, eat a meal, sleep a whole night.

After eating pork, rice, and a good night's sleep, there were 5,361 people at Su Yu's checkpoint, and a total of 75 people were lost. He patted Pi Dingjun and Xu Zirong on the shoulder and exclaimed: Miracle, miracle!

Wang Shu's voice who made a siege to the south went the wrong way. Two Kuomintang troops chasing them went past them and set up positions in front of them to stop them. They did not flinch. Tens of thousands of troops twisted into a rope and rushed forward, tying the enemy's several blockade lines in succession.

Iron armored trains continued to transport KMT reinforcements, forming a multi-layer blockade on both sides of the railway. Wang Shusheng ordered that he must rush through. Due to the increasing number of enemy forces, Wang Shusheng led his troops to the Xianghe River after suffering heavy casualties. I caught a chief of staff of the Kuomintang's sixty-sixth division and forty-sixth regiment, and learned that the sixty-sixth division was only three kilometers away. The reorganization division of the National Army is the rank of the original army, so it still retains the original number of officers and soldiers, that is, more than 30,000 people; and it is American equipment. After several fierce battles, Wang Shusheng lost more than half to less than 5,000 people. Facing such a dangerous situation, Wang Shusheng ordered the rapid crossing of the river.

Unexpectedly, the crossing of the river has just begun, and the national army has caught up.

Throughout a day of bloody battles, Wang Shusheng's troops were killed and wounded, and they were separated on both sides of the Xiang River. The troops that did not cross the river were led by Min Xuesheng, the brigade commander of the Third Brigade, to the north to break into the Funiu Mountains; the troops that had passed the river were led by Wang Shusheng, turned in while hitting, and hidden in the dense forest of Wudang Mountain.

The troops led by Li Xiannian and Wang Zhen were the largest of the three-way breakout troops, with a total of 48,000 men.

Li Xiannian

At the beginning of their westward movement, a leather brigade bluffed in the east, attracting nearly a hundred thousand enemy forces to the east; coupled with the high mountains and dense forests in the west, and the rivers and rivers, that was the direction Liu Ye thought was most unlikely to break through , So there are few enemy forces. They crossed Pinghan Road relatively smoothly and reached the bank of Danjiang River. Although national aircraft chased and bombed, there were not many chasing troops on the ground, and they were able to calmly cross the river. However, because there were no ships, they could only cross the river, and many officers and men were buried in the belly.

Later, under the siege of the enemy, Li Xiannian and Wang Zhen had to divide and break through, hoping to divide the enemy.


Unexpectedly, because the enemy's sentiment was unknown, Wang Zhen's ministry crossed the Danjiang River and immediately penetrated into the enemy's preset trap, which was cut into two ends at a pass called Baoyuling. The officers and men fought desperately, rushed out, and finally checked the men and women. This battle lost more than half.

At the same time, Li Xiannian was blocked by southern Hu Zong .

After learning about the path of Li Xiannian's breakout, Jiang Jieshi dubbed Hu Zongnan and ordered him to "siege and destroy Li Xiannian's ministry south of Zijingguan to prevent him from escaping one soldier at a time."

Hu Zongnan sent the first brigade of the first division to more than 10,000 men (Note at the end of the page: the brigade's brigade is equivalent to a normal division.) Positively blocked Li Xiannian; ordered the third division and the first division to chase behind Li Xiannian A total of about 70,000 troops from the fifteen divisions approached rapidly, forming a siege circle with the first brigade of the entire division.

Li Xiannian understood that if he didn't hurry up and break the line of resistance of the first brigade of the entire division in front, the entire army would soon be surrounded. The order was divided into several echelons, and the attacks were launched in turn.

Tens of thousands of people in the Central Plains Military District broke through the Xuanhua store and surrounded them with numerous deaths and injuries. They have already put aside life and death. At this moment, I know that there is only one way to go back to Yan'an, without tears, rushing to attack the enemy. Countless officers and men fell in the dense rain of the enemy. The place where the officers and men of the Central Plains Military Region shed blood was located at the junction of Shaanxi and Hubei, and was named Nanhuatang.

After rushing through the Nanhuatang, Li Xiannian was surrounded by more than 1,000 people.

In early August, Li Xiannian, who was still on the breakout road, sent a negotiating team to Xi'an to find Hu Zongnan. At this time, there is a glimmer of hope for the Chiang Kai-shek Group that is the most incomprehensible. Members of this negotiating group include Zhang Wenjin, the commander and brigade of the Central Plains Military Region, Wu Zuyi, director of the political department of the cadre brigade, and Mao Chuxiong, a 19-year-old nephew of Mao Zedong.

Mao Chuxiong and three others left the army and were detained by Hu Zongnan in Dongjiangkou Town, Ningshan County on their way to Xi'an. They were detained by Han Qingya, the head of the 101st regiment of the 61st Division.

When Hu Zongnan got the report, he immediately ordered that Mao Chuxiong and three people be buried alive.

Throughout the battle of the Central Plains, as posterity, we must not blame our seniors too much. Because the talents of each general limited everything, they did not want to see the consequences themselves. It can be concluded that at that time, Li Xiannian's heart was bleeding; just like the history reading so far, our heart is also bleeding. It is important to have a responsible attitude to history and a basic sense of introspection, and not to use the generosity of Chairman Mao of the Party Central Committee at the time to disguise the line that was a serious mistake and hide it from the wise. It should be understood that historical truth will be respected sooner or later.

The Central Plains Military Region successfully broke through less than 10,000 troops, of which more than 5,000 were taken by Pi Dingjun to the Central China Liberated Area. Seventy-five people were killed or injured in the leather brigade, which is a miracle. No wonder when the Syrian military ranks were reported in 1955, when the Syrian Ranks Committee reported to the ranks of Major General Pi in accordance with the principle of general ranks of military-level cadres, Mao Zedong instructed: "The Pi Zhongyuan broke through and made great progress," and changed to the rank of Lieutenant General.

After returning to Yan'an, the Central Plains Bureau held a cadre meeting above the brigade. Liu Shaoqi and Ren Bishi attended the meeting on behalf of the Central Committee.

At the meeting, Liu Shaoqi and Ren Bishi pointed out on behalf of the Central Committee that the Central Plains Bureau had committed right-wing opportunistic errors from the beginning.

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