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Xu Xusheng: a famous modern historian and a famous political activist in modern China
Fun history2019-03-11 10:55:03 Li Ji, Jia Lanpo De Rijin , Su Bingqi, Gao Benhan

Xu Xusheng (1888 ~ 1976), with the name Bing chang, is named after the word, and the pen name is false, and the name is 遁 庵. Born November 8, 14th Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty (December 10, 1888), was born in Luohe Village, Tonghe Town, Tanghe County, Henan Province. His father Xu Jie, a former Qingxiucai , was elected as an instructor in Heyin County (now Rongyang County, Henan Province). Famous modern Chinese historian and famous political activist.

Xu Xusheng devoted himself to the study of ancient history. He was a private student at an early age, intelligent and eager to learn, and has profound knowledge of Chinese classical culture. At the age of 18, he entered a new school and attended Beijing Henan Public Yujing School. At the age of 25, he traveled to Western Europe, studied in France, and studied Western philosophy at the University of Paris.

After Xu Xusheng returned to China in 1919, he successively served as a professor in Henan European and American Preparatory School, and a professor in the Department of Philosophy at Peking University.

In 1926 he served as Dean of Peking University. In 1927 he served as president of Beijing Normal University. In 1929 he was appointed Dean of the Second Normal College of National Peking University. In 1932, he was editor of the Peking Academy History Research Association and promoted to research fellow. In 1937, he served as director of the Chinese History Research Institute. After liberation, he successively served as the chairman of the leading group of the Peiping Research Institute and a researcher at the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. His writings include "Xu Xusheng's Diary of a Journey to the West", "An Archeological Survey Report near the Weihe River in Shaanxi Province", " Neolithic Sites Recently Discovered in Shaanxi Province", "Preliminary Report on the Investigation of" Xiaxu "in the Western Henan and Henan Provinces in 1959", "A Brief Talk on Research Xia Cultural Issues "," Yu Flood Examination "," Notes on Shan Hai Jing "," Geographical Significance of Shan Hai Jing "," Perceptions on the Long-Stagnation of Feudal Society in China "," A New Interpretation of Jingtian and Zhou Dynasty " The Meaning of the Inexperienced Scholars and Farmers ". Translations include Wilbur's "History of European Philosophy" and Polish historical novel "Where Are You Going?"

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In 1927, Xu Xusheng served as the Chinese leader of the first Chinese-foreign cooperative scientific expedition in Chinese history, the "Northwest China Scientific Expedition." The formation of this expedition ended the history of humiliation in which a large number of precious cultural relics were freely taken by foreigners since the end of the 19th century. Its huge results of investigations have shaken the international academic community and had a profound impact.

In late 1926, Dr. Sven Hedin, a well-known Swedish explorer and geographer, led a large expedition to prepare for a scientific expedition to the northwest of China. When Chinese scientists were not allowed to participate in the unequal agreement signed between the Beiyang warlord government and Sven Hedin, and the contents of all the collected products shipped abroad were circulated, public opinion in the country broke out. More than a dozen academic groups in Beijing jointly established the Chinese Academic Association, issued a declaration in protest, and sent Xu Xusheng and Liu Bannong as representatives. After repeated consultations with Sven Heding, a new agreement was finally reached: it was established under the leadership of the Chinese Academic Association Northwest scientific expedition; set up heads of China and foreign countries; Chinese and foreign scientists each took half; the collections remained in China. This greatly inspired the Chinese academia, and made reports, and various newspapers and magazines reported on the comments. The important task of the head of the Chinese delegation fell on Professor Xu Xusheng.

The hard conditions of the investigation are unimaginable. The train only passes to Baotou, and the other distances can only rely on camels and two feet. Most of the time, walking in empty areas with no roads, no crowds, or maps. The temperature of the area under investigation is as low as minus 40 ° C in winter, and wind blows away sand and rocks. In the summer, the shade can be over 40 ° C. Except for the Gobi Desert, which is the mountains and mountains , the inspection team members live in tents and sleep on the ground. At that time, warlords were fighting, and bandits were rampant, which increased the danger of travel.

This inspection was a hasty battle for Chinese scientists. It took less than half a month from the signing of the agreement to the departure, and no preparation was possible. Regardless of the tiredness of the journey, Xu Xusheng often browsed through the ancient books in the candlelight, such as the Geography in the Han Book , the Later Han Book , the Jin Book , the Sui Book , the Old Tang Book , and the West Regions Map , "Xinjiang Atlas", "Emperor's History", "Mongol Nomad" and other books, in detail to find the relevant information of the area to guide the inspection, especially to point out the direction for archeological work. His profound knowledge has won the admiration of Chinese and foreign members.

Sven Heding exclaimed: "I really didn't expect China to have such a good scholar." "If I was traveling alone or with some Westerners, I would have to find the" China Pass "in Europe after my return to get 2100. Explanations of historical relics that were performed in Gashun Chaoer; I do n’t just have books now, but scholars have instructed me to know everything I want to know at any time. "

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Xu Xusheng's honesty and uprightness, his unwavering attitude and his perseverance and perseverance even convinced the members. When the expedition was almost caught in food shortage, water shortage, camel's death, Sven Heding was sick in the desert again ... Under the circumstances of desperation, Xu Xusheng led the team resolutely and wrote a poem: "Although the time is strict, I should go forward and make great progress. Don't worry about it. "His calmness and calmness strengthened the members' confidence and encouraged them to overcome difficulties. Sven Heding said with emotion: "The more gloomy our situation is, and the more confident and calm Professor Xu is, the more difficult he is, he will show that he can control the environment."

In this group of four nationalities including China, Sweden, Germany, and Denmark, it is impossible to create conflicts, not to mention that many Europeans also have different degrees of prejudice against China. When entering Xinjiang, the local government required inspection of luggage and storage of weapons before it could be released. Several members of the German delegation refused to inspect and were severely refuted by the leader Xu. Although they had to obey, they were very dissatisfied with him and even refused to eat at the same table with the Chinese delegation members. The problem was not resolved until Sven Hedin arrived and severely criticized them.

After entering Xinjiang, the warlords were inside, the political situation was very chaotic, and the local government had serious doubts about the mission. Xu Xusheng is open-minded and treats the factions with sincerity and never intervenes in local disputes. He strictly requires Chinese and foreign members of the group not to speak out about the warlord's internal warfare. The unreasonable demands of the local authorities strive to make the scientific investigation team complete its tasks as planned. Sven Heding returned to China halfway due to illness, and the whole work rested on him.

The mutual trust of the core leaders ensured the unity and cooperation of the regiment. The inspection period was extended from 2 to 6 years (1927 ~ 1933). A multidisciplinary inspection was conducted in an area of approximately 4.6 million square kilometers in northwestern China, and a map was obtained. The sensational results of international academic circles; the work of Chinese scientists has won a lofty reputation; the publication and distribution of research reports and research results of China and Switzerland continued from the 1930s to the 1980s, which has a huge impact. Just over a month after its departure, Ding Daoheng, a young geologist in China, discovered the Baiyun Obo Iron Mine.

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At that time, Xu Xusheng estimated: "Maybe it will become Han Yeping in northern China." At present, Baotou Steel, which has a large production capacity, has been established on the basis of the Baiyun Ebo Iron Mine, and rich rare earth minerals have been found in the mining area, making Baotou a The country's most important source of rare earth metals. Another sensation in the world is that the geologist Professor Yuan Fuli unearthed 72 reptiles, dinosaurs and other ancient reptiles in Xinjiang, including 7 new species, which has brought China's paleontology research to a new level. The famous paleontologist Yang Zhongjian believes that "this is important, and the maggot is not under the discovery of the Chinese ape-man."

Yuan Fuli was awarded the Polaris Medal for this by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Until now, Chinese and foreign scientists have been exploring along the trail of Professor Yuan. Huang Wenyi was the first archeologist to visit China. He visited ancient sites such as Gao Chang, and also walked and detoured the vast sand and sea, the Taklamakan Desert. "," Turpan Archeology "," Robchauer Archeology "and other monographs are now translated into Japanese and published. Dr. Bergman of Sweden unearthed tens of thousands of Han bamboo slips in the Ejina River Basin, which belongs to Gujuyan. This is the world-famous "Juyan Han Bamboo Slips." These national treasures were transferred to the United States through Hong Kong during the War of Resistance Against Japan , and are now in Taiwan.

From 1972 to 1974, more than 20,000 Han bamboo slips were unearthed in the original spot. These more than 30,000 Juyan and Han bamboo slips are precious archeological materials for studying the culture of the Han Dynasty .

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In 1980, Zhonghua Book Publishing Co., Ltd. published "Jiyan Han Jian A and B". Botanist Dr. Shenchen Chen collected more than 4,000 specimens and returned and edited "Outline of Plant Geography in Northwest China" and "Flora of North China". After this inspection, Xinjiang for the first time left a complete modern meteorological record. Based on his own observations, Li Xianzhi, a young scholar in China, has studied the path of the cold wave in East Asia, which was confirmed by the cloud map more than 20 years later. He obtained a doctorate degree from Berlin University for this research.

The on-site inspection of the delegation resolved the issue of Lop Nur's controversial position in the international geography community at the time, and proved that Lop Nur was a migrating lake that changed its position as the Tarim River changed course. This is an important academic contribution of Sven Heding. The most exciting thing is that for the first time in history, all the collections have been left in China. When Xu Xusheng returned with Sven Heding in 1929 and gave inspection lectures at universities in Peiping and Nanjing, he was unprecedentedly warmly welcomed by the academic community. The Ta Kung Pao reported that "upstairs and downstairs have no gap, and the audience is enthusiastic about the unprecedented assembly." "Arouses the dumping of academic circles." Xu Xusheng said in a speech that Xinjiang is rich in mineral resources, especially a large amount of oil. If it does not change the situation of defense emptiness and scientific backwardness, it will certainly become a place of imperialist powers. In 1931, "Xu Xusheng's Diary of a Journey to the West" was published.

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