In the autumn of 1959, the famous historian Xu Xusheng, 72 years old, took his archeological team to march in the thousands of miles of Yiluo Plain. When they came to Erlit, Xu Xusheng wandered the field step by step, a middle-aged man like a peasant came over and asked, "Mr. Old, have you lost something?" Mr. Xu smiled, He said, "Yeah, you lost a big thing, you lost a big city thousands of years ago ..." It is said that this scene happened when Mr. Xu Xusheng read Xia Shi, when he read "Yi, Luo exhausted and Xia died "(" Mandarin · Zhouyu "), the inspiration suddenly came, and the case started:" The legendary Xia Dynasty , when the capital was built in the Yiluo Plain. "
In the spring of the following year, the Archaeological Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences established an archaeological task force. In the following half century, eight large-scale inspections were organized in the Erlitou area, with fruitful results. At the beginning of the 21st century, the "Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynastic Project" inspection report was officially released. Most scholars believe that the Erlitou site clearly indicates the Xia Dynasty civilization.
"The First Capital in the World" and "The Earliest Immigration City"
Excavation of Erlitou Site
Erlitou is located 9 kilometers southwest of Yanshi, Luoyang City, Henan Province. On the head of the village is a big archway: "the world's first capital." It tells us that a huge historical city four thousand years ago was right at our feet.
On the ground, there is a rural farmhouse in the field of farmland in the 21st century BC; underground, in the 21st century BC, a thriving metropolis.
This metropolitan area is vast and consists of today's five natural villages: 垱 (ge) hoe, eritou, sijiaolou, zhaihou, and xincun. The total area of the five villages is 3.75 million square meters. (4 miles from east to west, 3 miles from north to south)
This metropolis is made up of at least four or five palace groups, and the palaces are amazing in size. For example, the No. 1 palace was 108 meters long from east to west and 100 meters wide from north to south. With more than 10,000 square meters, there were rooms, halls, corridors, and palace walls, which were luxurious at the time.
Erlitou Palace Restoration Map
This metropolis has a wide and well-shaped "well" shaped avenue, which forms the urban transportation network. The average road is about ten meters wide, which is equivalent to the "two lanes" of modern cities.
This metropolis has a complete underground drainage system. The sewers currently found, one large and one small, are buried at a depth of one meter below the ground.
Erlitou belonged to Yanshi area at that time and now. Yan Shi has always been the capital of the emperor. " Historical Records " said: "The kings of the past three generations were between He and Luo." The Erlitou metropolis is located at the confluence of the three major rivers of Yi, Luo, and He (Yellow), and is located in the open He Luo On the plain, the forests are dense, the products are rich, and the climate is mild (at that time, the temperature was about 2 degrees Celsius higher than now), which is very suitable for survival and development. It is south of Laoshan with a strong cultural atmosphere. It is surrounded by rivers and rivers on its sides, and Pingchuan River under its feet. For thousands of years, it has been the main road for east-west traffic in China and a distribution center for east-west freight. It is fitting that this area is called "in China".
At that time, there were about 6,200 urban residents with a population of 30,000 to 40,000, which can be basically divided into nobles, handicraftsmen, free people, and urban poor. At that time, the world's population was only about 10 million, and Erlitou area had already gathered 30,000 to 40,000 people. It can be imagined how prosperous it was. And more importantly, after testing the bones, it was found that the population of 30,000 to 40,000 did not have a close relationship. Judging from the living room conditions, some lived in the palace, and that was the prince and aristocracy. Some live in the neat "one-bedroom" and "two-bedroom". They are foreign handicraftsmen and traders. Some live in cluttered half-crypt buildings, which are undoubtedly mostly migrant workers. Some scholars believe that at least more than half of the 30,000 to 40,000 people in the city are migrant workers. It is no wonder that Xu Hong, the leader of the Erlitou archeological team, said: "This is the earliest immigrant city in the world." China's immigration culture must be studied in Erlitou culture .
There are also topographic benefits here. Standing in Erlitou and looking down, there is a plain weather, and the Laoshan Mountains are faintly visible in the distance. But in fact, it is a "high hill" in the plain, which can grow all kinds of crops, but floods are often avoided. A major flood in Henan in 1982 reduced the entire Yiluo Plain to the country of Ze, except that the second mile was "high above the ground" and was safe and sound. It turned out that the water level reached 118 meters above sea level, and Erlitou was just above 120 meters.
This is really a magical land. It makes sense for Dayu to choose it as the starting point for water management.
Descendants of Flower God and "Hua" Culture
Chinese civilization is often called the Chinese civilization. The term "Hua Xia" first appeared in "Shang Shu": "Hua Xia is very sloppy, and I don't rate it". "Shangshu Justice" notes: "The crown is the Huahua chapter, Hua, and the great country is Xia." In the Tang Dynasty, Kong Yingda commented on "Zuo Zhuan," saying: "China has the great etiquette, so it is called Xia; "Huaxia civilization is a civilization with such vast areas, gorgeous costumes, and exquisite etiquette.
If "Xia" means "big country", what does "Hua" mean?
It turned out that in the long historical process, "hua" and "flower" are synonymous. Before the Wei, Jin, and the Southern and Northern Dynasties , there was only the word "Hua" and no "flower". When people talked about "Hua", they meant "flower". The traditional character of "Hua" is like a cluster of blooming flowers, which is more like a flower than the later word "Hua". The Chinese nation is agriculture-based and has developed to a certain stage. It began to worship the "flowers" that are most closely related to agriculture, and thought that it was the descendant of the flower god. Scholar Wang Zengyong pointed out in the book "A Study of the Origin and Development of Chinese Culture": "Xia Zhihua originates from flowers and should be said to be very clear. Why did the ancient ancestors of the Chinese people call themselves descendants of flowers? Based on the original culture and culture In the theory of anthropology, any civilized nation in the world has a cultural era with totems as the clan's iconic clan. The Huaxia nation is no exception. The ancestor of the Huaxia nation is an ancient nation with flowers as totems. "
At that time, it had entered the farming society, and people were susceptible to flowers. In the Book of Songs , there is a saying that "the show is real, and it is solid and good." The "show" here refers to the flowering and earing of cereal plants. It can be seen that people at the time knew that only when the flowers bloom well, the fruits will be rich and the flowers will bloom. It is directly related to people's livelihood. This is the experience gained in the practice of production and life. It is no wonder that there is a worship of flowers.
The worship of "Hua" has gone through about three stages. The first stage is the worship of flower entities. The four-petal flowers, six-petal flowers, eight-petal flowers and so on painted on the painted pottery, etc. Flower entity worship. The "Book of Rites" said that "the emperor tree melon flower" is a worship of the flower of melons, which is probably because earlier people lived a "melon and fruit half-year food" life. The second stage is the abstraction stage of "Hua". Anything as gorgeous and beautiful as a flower can be called "Hua". For example, "sun and moon glory" is to compare the brightness of sun and moon to flowers. "Book of Rites" says that "musicians, moral virtues also" is also an abstraction of flowers, saying that rituals are as rich as flowers. The third stage is the personification of "Hua". It is through artistic exaggeration to create a lively character image named after "Hua". At this time, the ethnic group named after "Hua" is also ready to come out.
The acknowledged ancestor of Fahrenheit is Huaying . According to legend, she is a woman and the mother of Fuxi and son-in-law. Mythologist Lu Sixian said this: "Huayu is also known as 'Huahua (Yinhai)'. Nowadays it is called 'nectar'. Huayi means Guanghua and sweet flowers. Fuxi's mother is a flower . Sacrifice and sacrifice a honey, it may be the mother's name. "In the book" Lie Zi ", it is also said that Hua Ye created his own country, called" the country of Hua Yi ". This is a wonderful "land of Hua". Fuxi's daughter is even more famous. She is known as the concubine. She is the granddaughter of the beautiful Huaying. She fell in love with the beautiful scenery on both sides of the Luo River and came to the shore of Luo River. Later, it was commemorated forever in Luo Fu. In the Tang dynasty , Li Shangyin also sang her verses such as "Concubine concubine Wei Wangcai".
Shennong is called Yan Emperor . Emperor Yandi is a woman of the Hua clan. "Yu Han Shan Fang Ji Shu Shu" series "Spring and Autumn Weiyuan Yuanbao": "The young princess Amanda traveled to Huayang, and she had the first sense of the dragon to Changyang, and she gave birth to Shennong. The face of the dragon and the good farming are called Shennong. Became the emperor. "Huayang should be Fahrenheit territory. Judging from this myth and legend, Emperor Yan's parents often toured Fahrenheit, and they should be young Fahrenheit men and women.
Huangdi, like Yandi, is also a descendant of Fahrenheit. The canopy is the exclusive umbrella cover of the emperor, which was legendary created by Huangdi. "Ancient and Modern Notes": "The canopy was made by Emperor Huang. Fighting against Chi You in the field of Mule Deer , there are often five-colored clouds, golden branches and jade leaves , ending on the emperor, with the image of a flower, so it is also a canopy." "The image of a flower owl" shows that the car cover decorated with flowers is also a form of flower totems.
Tang Yao has a closer relationship with the "Hua" culture. The appearance of Huabiao is probably very early. It is said that Huabiao “like a flower” was set up at the intersection of the village community at that time to indicate that the clan group with flowers as totems.
Tang Yao has two daughters, one E Huang and one female Ying . "The emperor" has flower meaning. "Erya · Interpretation": "Hua, Huang also." The ancients referred to the newly born flower core as Huang Gu. "Book of Songs · Zheng Feng · Lesbian Cars": "There are lesbian cars, Yan Ruo Shunying." Yao not only has two daughters named after flowers, but also his wife who lives by flowers. "Shiben · Emperor Chapter": "Yao takes Sanyi's son, who is called the Queen. The Queen is born Dan and Zhu."
Shun Shi's use of flowers as a totem is clear. The original meaning of "Shun" is a plant with prominent stamens. Shun is named for a flower that grows tightly against the ground.
Dayu's life is also inextricably linked to the flower totem. "Yu mother repairs herself, swallows the god bead like a tadpole, and breaks up the chest with yu." Worshiping and devouring tadpoles is actually worshipping tadpoles, and worshipping tadpoles is to worship tadpoles. This is also a kind of flower worship.
All of the above tells us that the worship of flowers and totems of flowers have a long history on the land of Divine Land. The legendary ancient kings are the heirs of the Hua clan. They have inherited the look of "Hua" and the essence of "Hua" from generation to generation, and encouraged themselves by "burning their Hua" and "Huahuanghua". To unite people's hearts. In the era of Dayu, the "Chinese" in the complete sense was about to be formed.
After entering the agricultural society, the entire society will run around agricultural production, which will inevitably affect the pattern and connotation of the "Hua" culture. At this time, "Hua" (flower) has not only been referred to as flowers and grass, but has been more integrated with agricultural development and agricultural improvement. We can take the "Hua" culture in "Xia Dynasty's Testament" and "Xia Xiaozheng" recognized by most scholars as an example to give a detailed explanation. In the short four or five hundred words (about 460 words) of the book "Xia Xiaozheng", there are dozens of flowers mentioned, and there are quite a lot of flower varieties, such as plum blossoms, apricot blossoms, peach blossoms, chrysanthemums, willow blossoms, and wild vegetables. Flowers, bitter flowers, camellia flowers, sycamore flowers, king melon flowers, grass flowers, wild mountain flowers, etc., and these flowers are all closely related to festivals, agriculture, and people's livelihood. There was another weather in the past. The "Hua" culture shown in Xia Xiaozheng is often associated with the farming season, reminding people not to forget farming.
From Flower Totem to Dragon Totem
During the excavation of the Erlitou site, a considerable number of dragon culture worships and dragon cultural totem relics were found, giving people a wide imagination.
In 2002, when the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences cleared the tombs of the south courtyard of the No. 3 palace in Yanshi Erli, a dragon made of turquoise tablets was found on the skeleton of the tomb owner. The "dragon" is placed on the tomb of the owner of the tomb, heading northwest and feet southeast. It is composed of more than 2,000 turquoise tablets of various shapes. The total length from the dragon head to the bar ornaments is 70.2 cm. This dragon's faucet bulges, the dragon's body curls, the dragon's eyes round, and there is a cloud at the front, showing a flying dragon. The overall expression of Long Fei's cloud mood reminds people of the famous phrase " Feilong is in the sky , which is good for adults" in the Book of Changes. Feilong matches "adult", and the noble person who wants to lie under the dragon must be the "adult" that Feilong "sees". The interaction between people and dragons is a sign of the maturity of dragon culture.
Hundreds of "dragon images" also appeared on the pottery and metal objects unearthed in Erlitou, which were not available in any previous historical period. Here are some stories about dragons when Dayu was in the water .
Turquoise tortoiseshell ornament
The first story: After Dayu took over the great cause of water management, he still inherited his father ’s old method of “flooding the soil with interest”, but it did n’t work. At this time, "there is a dragon out of the pond", telling Yu that he cannot blindly use the old method of clogging. This is the so-called "shenlong draws the ground with the tail, and the water guides note." This is to solve the big problem of water dredging or blocking, the myth story attributed the credit to the dragon.
The second story: When Yu cut the dragon gate, he walked into a large cave. Yu is still marching with fire. At this time, "There is a beastlike shape, like a pearl of night , and its light is like a candle. There is a blue dog, barking in front of it, Yu is ten miles away, fascinated by day and night. Seeing the dogs have always been humanoids, all wearing black clothes. Seeing one god, the human body of the snake body. Yu Yin and language, God is a picture of Yu's gossip, listed on the golden bottle. There are servants of the Eight Gods. Yu said: 'Hua Ye is the son of Sheng, is it Yeye?' Replied: 'Hua Ye is a goddess of Jiuhe, and I also give birth to the rest.' Jin Wangjia's "Executions Xia Yu ") is false, true, and false. In short, it is necessary to tell us: The god of "snake and human face" is the god of heaven and earth in Dayuping. This god is the son of Hua Tuo, whose image is very close to the dragon. The "dragon" totem is quite logical after the "hua" totem.
The third story: It is said that Dayuping's soil and water had "three to Tongbai Mountain", where "thunderstorms thunder, Shiming Muming, Wubo Yongchuan, Tian Lao Su Bing, can not be successful." At this time, Yu was furious, but called the Dragon God and Tong Baishan Jun to discuss how to deal with it. With the help of the Dragon God, the chaotic Hongmeng, Zhangshang, Tulu, and Lilou were arrested first, and the water monster who was in trouble was arrested and brought to justice. With the cooperation of the Dragon God, "the water demon's neck is locked with a big cable, the nose is pierced with golden bells, and the foot of the Huaiyin Turtle Mountain is flown, and the water of the Huaiyin Yongan flows into the sea also." Zhihuai is one of Dayu's major projects to control water. In this story, he also received the strong cooperation of the Dragon God.
Through these stories of Dayu's water treatment, as well as the images of many dragons on various ceramic and copper products excavated from Erli Hair, and a series of mythological stories since the Five Emperors, the character of the Chinese dragon gradually formed and became clear.
This is a character with great power and good for the people. The character of this dragon has matured to the success of Dayu's water control and the establishment of the Xia Dynasty. Scholar Du Jinpeng believes: "The dragon cultural relics unearthed from the Erlitou site can be regarded as the earliest dragon totems shared by the Chinese nation. Chinese people at home and abroad use themselves as 'dragon's heirs', and take the dragon as a symbol of the Chinese nation. The cultural tradition with thousands of years of history is the national sentiment accompanying the formation of Chinese civilization. "
The emergence of the earliest and largest immigration city in the world, the formation of an agricultural society, the social identity of the "Hua" culture, and the generation of the concept of "the successor to the dragon" are all inseparable from the Bronze Age in the Xia Dynasty. About 200 bronze wares have been found at the Erlitou site. On the high ground near the ancient Yiluo River in the south of the official workshop area, the archeological team discovered and excavated a large bronze foundry site. This is by far the earliest known bronze foundry in China. Judging from the literature records, copper had four major uses at that time: one, "Taking copper as a soldier", has copper weapons; the other, "Taking copper as a soldier, and cutting Yi'an" is Dayu. Copper tools have been used for water treatment. Third, "copper coins are made of gold." Copper has been documented, but archeologically unconfirmed. Fourth, "Gongjin Jiumu" means that copper was used as a part of taxes in the states at that time. To calculate. These four are not necessarily all in the Xia Dynasty, but Xia Dynasty has entered the Bronze Age and has been recognized by most scholars. The arrival of the Bronze Age is the material cornerstone of the advent of agricultural civilization, Chinese civilization, and dragon civilization.
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