In the last years of the Qin Dynasty, the world was in chaos, the princes separated, and warlords scuffled. In the second year of Qin II , 208 years ago, Qin Guo sent a large number of men and horses to attack the insurgent forces in various places. Qin Wangli led the army to siege Julu (now Pingxiang Township, southwest of Pingxiang, Hebei). The following year, General Qin Guozhang built a martyrdom road to the Yellow River and used it to deliver military food to Wang Li. Wang Li's army had sufficient food, so he stepped up to attack the giant deer.
However, the food in the city of Julu was empty and the number of soldiers was insufficient. Zhang Er repeatedly sent Chen Yu to come to the rescue. Chen Yu thought that the troops were insufficient to defeat the Qin army and did not dare to rescue the giant deer.
After a few months like this, Zhang Er was furious and complained about Chen Yu. He sent Zhang Ye and Chen Ze to blame Chen Yu and said, "At that time, the general and you made a life-and-death relationship . Now you see that King Zhao's life is not guaranteed, and you have control There were tens of thousands of soldiers who could not help but die. Where did the vow of living together die? Why didn't you go to the Qin Army to die with me? Besides, we still have one-tenth chance to be preserved. "Chen Yu "I wo n’t forget the vow, but my strength is limited. Going to Julu will not save Zhao Jun, and I will sacrifice all the troops for nothing. Now I must die together, just like throwing a piece of meat to a hungry tiger. What good is it? The reason why I didn't die with you was to leave a chance to avenge Qin Zhao and you. "
Zhang Ye and Chen Ze asked Chen Yu to send troops to fight together. Chen Yu then asked Zhang Ye and Chen Ze to lead 5,000 people to try to attack the Qin Army first. In the battle with the Qin Army, all 5,000 were killed. At this time, Qi 's army and Yan 's army came to rescue Zhao . Zhang Ao's son Zhang Ao also went north to collect soldiers on behalf of the land, and collected more than 10,000 people. Zhang Ao led the army to the army, and the army of the vassals were stationed next to Chen Yujun, not afraid to attack the Qin army.
At this time, Xiang Yu had already killed General Song Yi, who was unwilling to send troops to rescue Zhao. The prestige had shaken Chu, and then he was appointed as the general by King Chu Huai . He sent Dang Yangjun and General Pu to lead 20,000 horses to cross the river to solve the danger of giant deer. After the war, some small victories were achieved. Cut off the avenue of food delivery by Wang Li's army, leaving Wang Li's army short of food due to the interruption of supply. Chen Yu again asked Xiang Yu for reinforcements, so Xiang Yu led all the men to support.
Xiang Yu led the whole army across the Yellow River, and sank all the boats into the Yellow River, breaking kettles, maggots, and other cooking utensils, burning down the sheds, and bringing dry food for three days to show that the soldiers were about to fight decisively. Xiang Yu said to the generals: "This time we sent troops to the Giant Deer, we will make no progress, and within three days, we must defeat the Qin Army."
Battle of the Deer
Xiang Yu's determination and courage to break through the cauldron greatly inspired the morale of the soldiers. As soon as Chu Jun arrived at Julu, he surrounded Wang Li, engaged in battle with Qin Army, and defeated Qin Army after nine confrontations. Zhang Han led his troops to retreat, and then the vassal's reinforcements dared to attack the Qin army, killed Su Jiao, captured Wang Li, and refused to surrender, and died by self-immolation.
There were more than a dozen bastions of lords who rescued Julu, but no one dared to send troops to attack. When the Chu army attacked the Qin army, the generals of each vassal army watched on the base. The soldiers of the Chu army can shook the ground with a shout of killing , and the generals of the princes are all afraid and timid.
After the Chu army defeated the Qin army, Xiang Yu summoned the vassal generals. The generals of the vassals of all princes all bowed their knees and no one dared to look up at Xiang Yu. Xiang Yu has since become the general of the princes, and all princes obey his command.
The battle of the giant deer was a huge victory in the peasant war in the late Qin Dynasty . It basically destroyed the main force of the Qin Army, reversed the entire war situation, and laid the foundation for the victory of the anti-Qin struggle. Xiang Yu gave an impromptu inflammatory speech to boost morale, then broke the boat, and took only three days of dry food, which fully reflects Xiang Yu's strategic vision and conspiracy methods and fearless determination. With 60,000 to 200,000, such disparate results have made countless generations full of curiosity and admiration for it.
burn one's boats
The strength of the Chu army was far less than that of the Qin army. Xiang Yu first sent Yingbu and General Pu to cross the river with 20,000 Chu troops, attacked the Qin army, and won several small victories. In December, Xiang Yu personally led the army to cross the river, and ordered the cooking utensils to be broken and the ships to be sunk. Each person took only three days of dry food, and the rest burned to show the determination to fight the battle (this is the idiom "Breaking the Cauldron") Origin).
One to ten
With the encouragement of Xiang Yu, Chu Jun ’s morale rose, and his combat was very brave. In one fell swoop, Qin Jun bravely defeated Su Jiao ’s legion, forced Zhang Han ’s army to retreat and withdrew his support to Wang Lijun ’s back. At this point, Xiang Yuma kept turning around and fought against the Great Wall Army of Wangli and Shima, and he won nine battles in nine battles. At that time, one Chu army was able to kill ten Qin troops (recorded in " Historical Records of Xiang Yu's Benji": "Chu warriors all must be ten ." This is the origin of the idiom "one is ten"), and Xiang Yu was the first soldier to personally fight and inspire the soldiers. According to the record in "The Former Han Dynasty": "The voice of the feathers moved the world again"), Qin Jun was defeated. Qin Su Cape was killed, Wang Li was captured, and he refused to descend and set himself on fire.
Stand on the wall
Before Xiang Yu attacked the Qin Army, although dozens of princes including Yan, Qi, Wei, Dai, and Liao arrived in Julu to rescue them, they were all frightened by the power of the Qin Army, but they were afraid to fight outside. When the Chu army attacked the Qin army, the princes of various quarters remained behind closed doors, just watching from the barricades ("Historical Records · Xiang Yu Benji" recorded: "The princes' army saved more than ten walls of the deer, and dare not succumb to the army. ... and Chu attacked Qin, all the generals watched from the wall. "This is the origin of the idiom as a wall view), and when the Chu army broke the Qin army, all the princes of the army were trembling and worshipped Xiang Yu.
But in "Historical Records of Zhanger Chen Yu Biography", there is another saying about the vassal army: "Xian Yu's soldiers have an absolute chapter of Handan Road, Wang Lijun lacks food, Xiang Yu learns to lead his troops to cross the river, and then breaks Zhang Han. Zhang Han cited The soldiers disbanded, and the princes dared to siege the giant deer Qin Army, and the king of Sulu left. Suicide was involved. "According to" Zhang Er Chen Yu Biography ", the princes army was only when Xiang Yu and Zhang Han's martyrs were fighting. Looking at the wall, when Xiang Yu attacked the king, the vassal army took part in the siege, capturing the king and forcing suicide between the kings was the common result of the Chu army and the vassal army.
Northern Song Sima Guang in "Zi Zhi Tong Jian" combined the "Hang Yu Benji" and "Zhang Er Chen Yu Biography" in the "Historical Records", expressing: "Xiang Yu Naixi led soldiers across the river, all sinking ships, breaking the cauldron, Alas, burning the house, holding three days of diet, to show that the soldiers will die, and no one will return. So the prince left, and met Qin Jun, nine battles, broke it, Zhang Han led troops. The prince soldiers dare to attack Qin Army, then killed Su Jiao, and the king of kings left; She did not descend, she burned herself, and the battle of the giant deer was over. "
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