In 383 AD, a battle broke out between the former Qin Dynasty and the Eastern Jin Dynasty.
Xie An defeated the former Qin million army with 80,000 people. The former Qin who had the absolute advantage thus lost to the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Subsequent influences on the former Qin Dynasty and the Eastern Jin Dynasty were very large. This war also left many questions for everyone. Why did the former Qin million army collapse immediately? Why did n’t the Northern Expedition follow the victory of the Eastern Jin Dynasty?
Comparison of Pre-Qin and Eastern Jin
At the end of the Western Jin Dynasty, social turmoil, the ethnic minorities in the north went south, and the north became a battlefield for ethnic minorities. The advantage of ethnic minorities is the military, and the disadvantage is that they do not learn, so the ethnic minority regime in the north does not last long. Until one day Yan Jianping Yan Dingshu, the world's ten counties of Kyushu. Under the control of Wu Jian and Wang Meng , "Guan Long Qing Yan, the people Fengle " is clearly a well-off scene. However, the former Qin had the disadvantage that it could not be bypassed, which was mentioned in Wang Meng's posthumous note (note 1). Before Wang Meng's death, he directly pointed out the disadvantages of the former Qin Dynasty. The disadvantages are as follows:
1: The good starter may not be the good end: Tong Jian's speed of unifying the north is very fast, and it is also very smooth, so it is easy to breed the idea of belittle the enemy. It is easy to start a business and difficult to keep a job, so Wang Meng persuaded him to be trembling, like abyss. But in fact Wang Meng's persuasion was useless, and Jian Jian fostered the idea of disregarding the enemy, so that eight years after Wang Meng's death, he began to conquer the Eastern Jin Dynasty.
2: Not recognized: Although the Eastern Jin Dynasty was partial for a while, the people still used the Eastern Jin Dynasty as the Chinese Orthodox, and it was peaceful. The former Qin was not the same. He didn't understand what was going on inside him. Isn't it arrogant to go south to ask for help ? So Wang Meng insisted on discouraging Lu Jian to go south. Unfortunately, Jian Jian didn't take Wang Meng's suggestion to heart.
3: The degree of internal centralization is not high: the nobles who surrendered from Xianbei and Xiqiao were only forced by the pre-Qin power and were not sincerely attached. Once the failure of the former Qin, these ambitions will become the enemies of the former Qin. Therefore Wang Meng persuaded Jian Jian to kill these powerful men, but Jian Jian was too kind and did not adopt Wang Meng's suggestion. Later generations analyzed the reasons for the failure of the former Qin. One of them was because of Jian Jian's benevolence. He also said: Qin Qin died of violence and Qin Qin died of benevolence.
Summary: After a long period of war in the former Qin Dynasty, both the domestic military and civilians were war-weary (Note 2), and there were too many unstable factors (power) in the country. Moreover, Jian Jian only unified the North by name, and his grasp was totally inferior to that of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. In addition, Jian Jian's personal merits and shortcomings are one of the reasons for his failure.
After the emperor Jin Huai was appointed , Sima Rui and Nan Kang Jiankang were advised by Wang Dao. After that, Sima Rui and Wang Dao have been entangled with the Jiangzuo clans. They adopted a passive mentality on things in the north. Although some clan members did not recognize Wang and Sima at that time, both Sima and Wang admired partiality, so there were a group of supporters in Jiangzuo. Later Sima Rui became the emperor in Jiankang, and Wang Dao took charge of the political affairs, saying "the king and the horse, the world." In order to prevent the former Qin from going south, the Eastern Jin Dynasty made the following countermeasures:
1: Engrave the Southern Gentry: Wang Dao advised the Emperor Jin Yuan to embrace Gu Rong and He Xun. These two are representative figures of the Southern Gentry. Both of them came to serve under the temptation of senior officials. Later, the Southern Gentry belonged to the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Having a stable internal environment is better than the previous Qin.
2: Resettlement of displaced people: After the Yongjia Rebellion , the people of the north followed the family to the south, and the history said that the clothes crossed south . Dao Wang set up Qiaozhou, Qiao County, and Qiao County in the south to house scholars and refugees from the north. These people have fled from the north. They have witnessed the misery of the north, so they cherish the peace they had before.
Summary: The internal environment of the Eastern Jin Dynasty is better than that of the former Qin Dynasty, and it has the Yangtze River. As long as there are no major problems, it is more than adequate. Moreover, the Eastern Jin Dynasty has been training the army in order to prevent the former Qin from going south suddenly.
Xie Xuan became famous in the Battle of Xishui
Before the outbreak of the battle of Huangshui, there was an episode, which was the battle of Huainan. At that time, Jian Jian sent Qiang , Gou Chang, and Murong led 70,000 steps, and the cavalry went straight to Xiangyang; Yang Yang and Shi Yue led 10,000 cavalry out of Luyangguan, and Murongchui and Yao Kun led 50,000 troops to Nanxiang; , Mao Dang and Wang Xian led 40,000 troops to Wudang. The three-way army surrounded Xiangyang. Xiangyang defender Zhu Xu was captured after one year of life. Zhu Xu was actually a chess piece of Xie Xuan. At the time, Jian Jian was very kind, so Xie Xuan wanted to let people enter the enemy.
In August 383 AD, the Rongrong rate was 250,000 vanguards, the Rong Jian rate was 600,000 infantry and 270,000 cavalry, and a total of 1.12 million troops moved south.
In order to relieve Xie Xuan's pressure, the rate of one hundred thousand Jingzhou soldiers fell Qin to contain the former Qin army.
Before the war, Jian Jian wanted to avoid soldiers, so he sent Zhu Xu to persuade him to surrender. This is obviously a faint move, because Zhu Xu revealed the foundation of the former Qin Dynasty to the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Zhu Xu said that the former Qin army had not yet arrived, so he advised Dongjin to quickly defeat the former Qin vanguard and then break the former Qin million army.
In November, Xie Xuan sent Liu Jiaozhi to Luoyang to obtain a great victory for Luoyang. This battle kicked off the prelude to the Battle of Yuanshui and greatly boosted morale in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. It was safer for some people in the former Qin Dynasty to persuade Jian to step back and then block the enemy on the banks of the Laishui River. Wu Jian also thinks that half crossing and half the effort will be more effective, so he thought about taking a step back. Unfortunately, the Qin Army has just retreated, and the Eastern Jin Dynasty soldiers began to cross the water. As a result, Zhu Xu rumors behind the Qin Army that the frontline Qin Army failed to retreat, the Qin Army messed up, and Xie Xuan also took the opportunity to defeat the Qin Army. (Note 5)
Why did the former Qin million army fail? Later generations summarize the reasons for the failure of the former Qin:
1: Jian Jian lacks experience in commanding the Corps: Throughout the history of the Qin and Han Dynasties, it was only Wang Mao and Han Xin who really commanded the Corps. Because of the inconvenience of communication in the ancient times, the military command relied on the banner, and it was very difficult to command the large army. Qi Jian lacked the experience of commanding the large corps, so much that the army retreated before the start of the war, and the rear army thought that the frontline defeat had led to chaos.
2: Civil and military exhaustion: Engels once said: Years of war can exhaust even the most powerful country. The pre-Qin itself was only military unification, and it was not a monolithic one. It still caused complaints among the people, and the mass base was extremely low. Even the prince urged Jian Jian to rest and rest, but Jian Jian insisted on fighting the soldiers so badly that the army collapsed at the touch.
3: Reward and punishment are not clear: Although Jian Jian is known for his kindness, he has resistance to Han officials. Especially after Wang Meng's death, Jian Jian even more favored the former Qin minority officials. The Northern Wei Dynasty was developed because of the reuse of Cui , and the former Qin was also developed because of the reuse of Wang Meng, but both of them made a mistake that they could not reuse Hanchen for a long time. Wu Jian did not form a leading group with the same intentions before the war began. It is also inevitable that Luo Shui failed.
4: Personal problems: Wu Jian and Wang Meng are very acquainted with each other, but since Wang Meng's death, Wei Jian has become very happy . Maybe he is worried that he did not complete the great cause of reunification before his death, so he wants to dominate the country early. However, because he was too eager for quick success and shortcomings, he strategically underestimated the enemy and was defeated by Xie Xuan.
Why can Xie Xuan win more with less? The reasons for Xie Xuan's victory in the later generations are as follows:
1: Yushui battle place is Yuzhou, and Yuzhou is the place where Xie Jiaan lives. If Yuzhou is lost, then Xie's family will be forced to relocate. Sima's and Wang's both looked at Xie's tigers . Once Xie's was severely damaged, other families would probably use it to annex or weaken Xie's influence. Therefore, for his own benefit, Xie must win this battle and be successful if he does not succeed. The firm belief in combat is one of the advantages. 2: Beifu soldiers carefully trained for seven years: Beifu soldiers are private troops trained by the Xie family. They are elites selected by Xie Xuan among many refugees. After seven years of careful training, their combat effectiveness far surpasses that of Jian Jian's army.
3: Chang's and Xie's abandoned the opposition, and the two jointly defended the enemy. In addition, the rate of one hundred thousand Jingzhou soldiers stormed the former Qin, helping Xie Xuan relieve some of the pressure.
4: Proper tactics: Zhu Xu made a rumor that the frontline army was defeated, so that the Qin army was in chaos, and Xie Xuan used the internal instability of the former Qin to vigorously stir up the internal contradictions of the former Qin army.
The battle of Yuanshui was defeated fiercely, and the troops of Jian Jian's family were drastically reduced. Not only was the dream of unifying the world broken, but the original peaceful situation in the North also disintegrated. The Murongchui of the Xianbei ethnic group re-emerged and established its own country, and Jian Jian himself was killed by Yao Yi (Dong ethnic group) two years later, and the former Qin perished. The North was in trouble again, and unfortunately something went wrong in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. The ruling elites such as Xie An, Xie Xuan, Xie Shi, Zhe Yi, Xun Shiqian, Xun Shimin have fallen, and the Eastern Jin Dynasty was unable to launch a large-scale northern expedition. Although the Eastern Jin Dynasty could not afford to go north, the ethnic minorities in the north were not able to march south, so they had a more peaceful external environment. And a large number of northern elites going south have also given the core part of Chinese culture a respite, so that they will rise again in the future.
After the Battle of Yuanshui, the Northern Government Army also became an army with powerful forces, unparalleled prestige, and the power to turn the tide. While Xie An and Xie Xuan and other core figures died, the Eastern Jin Dynasty began to compete for leadership right. Because of internal political struggles, the Xie family who created the Northern Government Army came to the top, and Xuan Xuan also succeeded in usurping the throne by virtue of the Western Government Army. The clams competed for the benefit of the fishermen. In the end, Liu Yu overwhelmed the Eastern Jin Dynasty with the Northern Army and opened the Southern Dynasty. Liu Yu ended the gatekeeper politics, but replaced by a new political model in which the army heads controlled the clans with military power.
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