Why did Cao Junmou collectively behave abnormally in the Battle of Chibi?
Interesting history2019-08-25 16:28:43 Qin Long Cao Zhang Yuan Shao Cao Zhi Cao Cao

Do you really understand why Cao Jun's conspirators collectively behaved abnormally during the Battle of the Red Cliff ? The interesting history editor will provide you with detailed related content.

The story of the Three Kingdoms is very popular. If the most domineering monarchs of the Three Kingdoms are mentioned, most people will definitely say Cao Cao . Chen Shou's " Three Kingdoms " called Cao Cao "a very extraordinary person, a superhuman hero", but if he stood in the historical background of the late Eastern Han Dynasty, it would be a bit of a reputation.

Cao Cao's success has gone through continuous external expeditions and internal struggles. In addition to his personal talents, Olympic aid from the Xichuan Group is also an important reason for his victory.

Cao Cao became a national idol

When Cao Cao had just ushered in the emperor, he could not take over the power he wanted, let alone kill Hansen in a big way, as in the film and television drama, before he defeated Yuan Shao .

From this period on, Cao Cao's sword always hung the sword of Damocles. How to deal with the relationship between the imperial power of the Han Dynasty and the Xuanchuan Group determines whether Cao Cao started the journey of seizing power in Han Dynasty in 208 AD.

1. The Han Dynasty borrowed the body to return the soul and Cao Cao was alone and defeated

The emperor is a monarch, Cao Cao is a minister. If the monarchs and ministers kept their own path, they would have nothing to do with each other. However, the imperial power of the late Eastern Han Dynasty, after you and other eunuchs and eunuchs contended for it, has been reduced to a tool for knocking on the bones. The Second Emperor Ling Ling himself was faint, unexplained, and obscene , so that the Han room fell into disrespect, and the adulterer stole his life.

After the rebellion of Li Yan and Guo Yan, the emperor once died in the wild and could not eat. In order to calm down the Yellow Turban turmoil, the imperial court unlocked the power of state and county autonomy. Today, the heroes are combined in the prefectures and counties. For them, the fragile imperial power has no authority except for the orthodox existence of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Even in the eyes of the family leader Yuan Shao, such a heavenly emperor has no value in contention.


Under such a situation, the "talking person" of the Xunchuan Group stubbornly insisted that Cao Cao "bless the emperor in order to make no official". The Han court, which had lost its authority, was rebuilt with the efforts of the Xichuan Group and the Cao Army. But in the final analysis, the imperial power, the Xichuan Group, and the Cao Army were just three forces that used each other.

The flames of the chaos have temporarily destroyed the Confucian monarchy's centralized political form since the Han Dynasty. The orthodox appeal of the Han Dynasty emperor is nothing more than death through cultural inertia, and this inertia just dominates the Qichuan Group.

However, after all, the material foundation of the Han Dynasty court originated from the Cao Cao military government's Tuntian policy. Therefore, only Cao Cao could reconstruct the Han Dynasty 's entities, including economic, institutional, and military forces. The talented Xichuan Group played a significant role in the development of Cao Cao in the early days. Therefore, the Xuanchuan Group, which takes the world as its responsibility, naturally became the "million dollar" to coordinate the two parties.

The Han Dynasty is famous, Cao Cao is powerful, and it seems to be a very harmonious combination. However, under the ideological inertia of the monarchical totalitarian politics, the emperor and those around him did not want Cao Cao to be in power, and always wanted to borrow the body to return the soul. From Cao Cao's welcome to the emperor Duxu in 196 AD, to the death of Cao Cao in 220 AD, the coup d'état initiated or attributed to the imperial power accompanied the latter half of his life.

However, when Dong Cheng changed in 200 AD, Cao Cao had been prepared for this. In 204 AD, Cao Cao seized Gaocheng, and the Yuan family in Hebei had lost . At this time, he set out to seek the legitimacy of his own power. The first resistance he had to face was his old comrade-in-arms.

2. The blood of ideals under the imperial power

To analyze the contradictions between Cao Cao and Xun, we must first clarify the system characteristics of the Eastern Han Dynasty. At the beginning of the founding of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Liu Xiu witnessed Wang Mang on behalf of the Han in the late Western Han Dynasty, and he became very wary of the strong officials after becoming emperor. So he personally took over the power and respected the San Gong, and put all his affairs under the management of the desk.

Shang Shutai was under the emperor's imprisonment, so he obeyed directly to the Son of Heaven, allowing the imperial power to directly control the court. This system continued until the end of the Han Dynasty. After Cao Cao welcomed his son, under the conspiracy of the three parties, the Emperor of the Han Dynasty, the Xichuan Group, and the Cao Legion, he appointed the servant to serve as a servant and to keep the post.

Xun was born in the end of Han Dynasty, a family of Confucian classics—Xunchuan Xun , and Confucian Confucian classics has gradually become an official ideology of the Han family since Dong Zhongshu. Kind of thought. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Emperor Guangxiu Liu Xiu made a major adjustment to this knowledge, weakened the idea of "induction of heaven and man" to limit imperial power, strengthened the "Three Principles of the King Road" of the concept of "unity of unity", and thus formally established the theory of Confucian classics as a country The lofty position of ideology.

Subsequently, Confucian classics became ingrained in more than a hundred years and cultivated a number of family members who took this as a step forward. These clan families have been officials for generations, and gradually hold high positions and be guided by public opinion. In the late Eastern Han Dynasty, the imperial power was often endorsed by foreign relatives and eunuchs. At this time, the imperial power was not bound by the will of God, and was not restricted by strong conditions, so it became a tool for them to satisfy their selfish desires.


The impertinence of imperial power in the smoky desire to smoke, the unscrupulous inferiority changes, aroused the fierce criticism of a family of scholars or celebrities. Therefore, the imperial power caused three brutal repressions of " the scourge of the party ", which led to the family clan in the late Eastern Han Dynasty having long been disappointed with the imperial power. This is also the fundamental reason for Yuan Shaoyu's contempt for the emperor.

In the late Eastern Han Dynasty, the family of the family often enemies with the imperial power, but seeing that the imperial power declined, the world did not get better, so they questioned whether to overthrow the Han Dynasty. Xun and his Xuanchuan Group are the representatives of such scholars and scholars.

Cao Cao's and Yun's demands are different

Therefore, after the conflict between the interests of the Cao Cao Army and the imperial power, although he may not recognize the imperial power, he would still inevitably stand by the Han room. This kind of political confusion, coupled with his personality of Gao Jie and Ao An, determines the final tragedy of Xun.

3.The sword of Damocles on Cao Cao's head

In 200 AD, Dong Chengyi's party claimed that Cao Cao was killed in a "belt belt", but it was defeated, and it was classified as treason and destroyed. This incident undoubtedly created a rift between the imperial power and Cao Cao. As a middleman between the two forces, it seemed that he could not prevent the growth of anti-Cao emotions, and almost caused a disaster. Although this cannot be said to be his responsibility, it is enough for Cao Cao to re-examine the relationship between the three parties.

From the beginning of the Battle of Guandu until the capture of Tancheng in 204 AD, the situation in the entire North had a 180-degree reversal. Cao Cao replaced Yuan as the new hegemon and assumed the position of Jizhou Mu. At this time, someone immediately suggested that Cao Cao be renamed the Eastern Han Dynasty Thirteen States to the ancient Kyushu, so that the world can serve guests.

Regardless of whether the logic of this proposal is correct, his key intention is to expand Cao Cao's Jizhou. Because in the ancient Kyushu era, Jizhou was the "Zhongzhou in the world." It has the highest status in Kyushu and its territory is very large. Once restored, it will undoubtedly increase the power of the Cao Cao Army.

However, I objected to this. He believed that Cao Cao had just seized Yixian County and was terrified at home. All states and counties were afraid of their territory being seized. If they forcibly annexed a large state at this time, they would inevitably provoke resistance in various places. It is better to wait until the north is settled, repair the old capital of the Han Dynasty, and go south to confess Liu Biao , so that the whole world understands his purpose of "prospering the throne in Han Dynasty". At that time, the overall situation was set, and it was not too late to discuss the ancient system.

Saying this, Cao Cao, who had originally agreed to the Kyushu system, had to put the matter on hold for a while ("Biography of the Three Kingdoms · Yao Jiayu Biography": Taizu would come from it, saying that ... Taizu then slept Kyushu Conference.).

The words of Xun Zhi, although they are old-fashioned to seek the country, have deliberately or unconsciously ignored Cao Cao's fundamental interests. Cao Cao's official official position has been General Si Kong from the time of welcoming Tianzi to the present. "Sikong" is one of the three men, and has no real power. "Xing" means an agent. Although General Che Riding is a third-ranker and can open the government, Cao Cao's "Driving General" is a "temporary worker".


What's more, Cao Cao also killed his daughter, Dong Guifei, who was pregnant with dragons, while calming Dong Cheng's unrest. Liu Bei , who claimed to be a "band-in-law", was still at large, and lived under Liu Biao, always remembering Northern Expedition .

The death of Dong Guifei is the heart of Cao Cao

If it is said that Tianzi had no guarantee before, he had to "sell" Cao Cao his power in exchange for his protection and support. Then, with the overall situation in the north set, what other reasons does Cao Cao take into account the feelings of Tianzi? So in June 208, Cao Cao abolished the San Gong, imitated the system of the early Han Dynasty, and led the Prime Minister.

3. The last tripartite peacemaking

Cao Cao's abolition of San Gong, called the prime minister, is actually a major event in changing the system, but it has never been valued by people. From the Western Han Dynasty to the Eastern Han Dynasty, the emperor divided the relative power into three grandfathers, and overlaid the three grandfathers. The sole purpose of the Shang Shuling was to remove the restriction of the relative power on the imperial power and fully concentrate the power in his own hands.

Therefore, the prime minister in the early years of the Western Han Dynasty was actually the institutional pinnacle of the Han Dynasty. His power and political status far exceeded any specific post in the Eastern Han Dynasty. Moreover, the Shang Shuling of the Prime Minister's era is just a small official who manages documents in Shang Shutai.

Therefore, Cao Cao as the prime minister is undoubtedly a subversion of the Eastern Han Dynasty. How did Cao Cao win the recognition of the Xichuan Group and the Han Dynasty's imperial power and successfully realized such a major system reform?

First, Cao Cao's real power is actually very large, and it is the result of a trilateral conspiracy, which provided Cao Cao with a smooth power transition to his prime minister.

As mentioned earlier, Cao Cao's power in the post is not small, but his position is unstable. However, Cao Cao was also granted the great privilege of “fake festivals and recording books” shortly before the veneration of Emperor Tianzi, which gave Cao Cao sufficient power to rise.

"Fake Festival Falcon" is the highest privilege granted to the Minister during the war, and has the power to kill and kill officials and other generals under two thousand stones. As the name suggests, "Recording Shangshushi" can manage the affairs of Shangshutai and control the Shangshuling. It is the official of a high-weight person. This is a great gift of power given to Cao Cao when Tianzi was desperate.

Although these two powers were not repeated in the historical records in the subsequent changes in official positions, under the chaotic situation at that time, Tianzi should not be able to recover his life.


Therefore, the actual power of Cao Cao has grown wildly under the shadow of the two privileges. In addition, the meritorious prestige of calming the north, and only the prime minister of the early Han Dynasty, was worthy of Cao Cao at that time.

Secondly, Liu Bei's "belt-tie" is illegal and the urgency of "disordering anyway" made Tianzi have to admit Cao Cao's status as prime minister.

In the official context of Cao Cao's side, Dong Chengzhi's chaos has been characterized as rebellious, so Liu Bei's "belt-wrap" is naturally nothing, and Liu Bei is naturally rebellious.

However, Liu Beike lived at the Liu Biao Office in Jingzhou. Due to Liu Bei's activity and Liu Biao's support, the issue of "clothing belts" suddenly became Cao Cao's unilateral determination. If Cao Cao can't open his own legal status, then the “belt robe” will naturally become the political advantage of Liu Bei and Liu Biao, which is equivalent to acquiescing to the legitimacy of “belt robe”.

Therefore, Cao Cao inevitably requires the Han room to support himself unequivocally and legalize his power, so as to offset the negative impact of the “belt”. Regardless of whether the "belt 诏" is actually true or false, Tianzi dare not openly conflict with Cao Cao, and 荀 彧 as a middleman will not agree. Therefore, when Cao Cao made a request to be his prime minister, the Han room had to obey.

Third, in the face of the Confucian classics represented by Yan, Cao Cao smartly fed them a piece of sugar, but it was actually a sugar-coated shell.

In the first half of 208 AD, Cao Cao welcomed Cai Wenji from the Huns. Cai Wenji's father, Cai Yan , is a well-known Confucianist and calligrapher. As a celebrity, he has a good reputation, and he has "good control of Bao" with Cao Cao.


Cao Cao's move is not only to return Cai Yan's blood to his homeland, but also to show his family the image of respect for teachers. Literary works thus associate the love story of Cao Cao and Cai Wenji, but in fact, Cao Cao's move must also pay attention to political intentions.

The weak political puppet was indeed recruited. In his ideals, Cao Cao was still the bloody general who called for the Han Dynasty to run around, and the corporal was very good. He was afraid that Cao Cao, who became the prime minister, could no longer be restrained by his Shangshu decree. Today's sugar-coated artillery shells finally completed a fatal blow four years later.

5. A failed war starts a dynasty

The abolition of the nominal phase is basically the method of legalization of power that Cao Cao adopted to consolidate his power to protect himself.

This time, Cao Cao successfully resolved the obstacles of the uncle by secretive and stable means, and even the clever and arrogant Kong Rong was shut down honestly.

However, Liu Bei and the "belt tadpole" in his hands are still alive, and the heirloom that threatens the legitimacy of power has not been lifted. So Cao Cao attacked Jingzhou and ran Liu Bei, chased Chibi from Jingzhou all the way, and then unexpectedly lost. In this abnormal play, not only was Cao Cao himself proud and arrogant, but even the four conspirators who were missing Guo Jia did not see any normal play. Is this just a coincidence?

According to historical records, the three others, except Jia Yi, suggested Cao Cao to work in Jingzhou to make people happy , so that Sun Quan was defeated without fighting, and the other three did not make constructive opinions about marching into Sun Quan.

Among them, there is no record of the two participants even participating. You just provided the strategy of surprise attack on Jingzhou in the early stage, while Cheng Yu only analyzed the inevitability of Sun and Liu's union to everyone. Moreover, Jia Yi's proposal was rejected.

Thinking of the analysis of Cao Jun's strength by Zhuge Liang and Zhou Yu , we have reason to believe that Cao Cao's enlistment of Sun Quan was not favored by everyone internally. This is likely to be Cao Cao's unexpected decision after taking Jingzhou. However, what is the reason for Cao Cao's stubbornness? Is it just to eliminate Liu Bei and make his legitimacy flawless?

For the purpose of "forbidden for the Lord," historical records have little description of the plan of Cao Cao's battle against the Red Cliff. However, we can still infer the purpose of Cao Cao's war from Cao Cao's post-war trajectory.


Since then, in 219 AD, Liu Bei ’s military operations against Cao Cao in Hanzhong and Jingzhou had achieved great victories, and Cao Cao ’s plan to seize power to replace Han was forcibly interrupted. He himself had to say the famous saying, "If the fate is in me, I am the king of Zhou Wen," he died in 220 AD.

Therefore, it is not difficult to see that the defeat of the Chibi Battle just started the pace of Cao Cao's seizure of power to replace Han. Regardless of victory or defeat in the Battle of the Red Cliff, Cao Cao could obtain political initiative after the war. This is basically the war that Cao Cao launched for political purposes.

Therefore, when objective conditions are not good for Cao Jun and Cao Cao still has to forcibly attack, this may be the reason for the four conspirators' aphasia or opposition. Even after this war, Cheng Yu was " cashed with wine " by Cao Cao, and once rumors of rebellion spread, which seems to have nothing to do with his remarks before the Chibi War.

At the same time, we should also notice that all four conspirators, except Jia Yi, are very close to each other. It can be seen that, in the face of Cao Cao's non-customer view, forcing the Sun Quan group and his political allies to basically attack Sun Quan, he basically maintained an indifferent attitude of not supporting and not opposing. This may be a sudden awareness of Cao Cao's true intention, but he can only watch it change Is that right? After all, the Xichuan Group is not an organized political group. In the end, it was only the Junjun who marched for the ideal.

Now, when we re-examine Cao Cao's actions in 208 AD, from commendation to southern conquest, he has a complete set of political logic. Regardless of the lack of military strength, the decision to forcibly march east is not a phrase that can be clarified.

At this point, Cao Cao achieved a decisive victory in the internal political game. Cao Cao, the incomparable conspirator who was extremely deep, only entered the stage of history.

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