Today, the interesting history editor prepared for everyone: What is the strategic significance of the " Changping Battle "? Interested friends come and see!
When it comes to "the battle of Changping", not everyone knows it. But to say " talk on paper ", almost no one knows.
Oh-it turned out that the battle on paper was the battle of Changping.
First of all, it is clear that "talking on paper" may refer to some situations in the battle of Changping, but this statement itself must be affiliated with later generations. That is to say, the battle of Changping is not really the "source" of the idiom of "talking on paper".
The reason is simple-at that time, the "paper" thing was not invented yet.
Anyone who knows the "Fight of Changping" probably knows that it was a campaign that drew 400,000 captives. That was also an important battle in the history textbook that accelerated the pace of the unification of the Qin Dynasty.
The author would like to say that this bloody war is the most important strategic decisive battle in the entire Warring States era . There is no one!
(1) What is a "strategic battle"
It seems that when you say "decisive battle", you will naturally associate "last" and "last battle".
Actually not necessarily.
Except in the ancient and modern times, which can be described as one of the few cases in which "its success was achieved in one battle ", the real "strategic decisive battle" is mostly not the "last battle."
In contrast, the "last battle" is "the last straw that crushed the camel".
Strategy, corresponding to "tactics", refers to "war trends", that is: strong and weak, active and passive, offensive and defensive factors that are related to the "endgame" and their development and change trends. In large-scale wars, especially in long-term large-scale wars, strategy is decisive. Correct and timely correct adjustment of strategies is the basic condition for ultimate victory.
A decisive battle, as the name implies, refers to the "ultimate battle" between the belligerent parties (usually both parties and, in some cases, multiple parties) to determine strength, weakness, attack and defense, and survival. It may not be large-scale, but it is usually "fighting to the end", it must have "determined" a certain state and a certain trend.
The decisive battle that serves strategy is the strategic decisive battle.
Strategic decisive battles are usually large. Even more often, it is not a single battle, but a group or several battles strategically interconnected.
(Qin Zhaoxiang and Bai Qi)
(2) Three strategic battles during the Warring States Period
The Warring States Period is a very special period in the history of our country. During this period, dozens of vassal states distributed at about one-third of China's territory at that time. Through war-based methods, big fish ate small fish, and finally one of them, Qin State, and the annihilation of all other vassal states by force, formed a "great unification" political situation.
Regarding the start and end time (year) of the Warring States Period, it is relatively clear that "stop" is the "end point"; and "start" is the year of "start", the academic circles have different opinions. There are three more mainstream:
One is that after the completion of Spring and Autumn edited by Confucius . This statement is more admired in ancient times.
The second is the " three divisions of Jin " which is more and more recognized in modern times, that is, the old princely state "Jin" was divided by the "Korean", "Wei", and "Zhao" divisions of power under its rule. The land was acknowledged and registered as the new vassal by Zhou Tianzi, the then-named "communist of the world" (the so-called "three Jins").
Another relatively new argument is that the time boundary between Spring and Autumn and the Warring States Period is "going to destroy Wu." This, the author personally feels less unique. But it must also be a view of the academic community, let alone list.
The above three statements are actually closer in specific years, all in the middle of the fifth century BC. Therefore, as ordinary people who do not study those, at the beginning of the Warring States Period, it was generally considered to be the middle of the fifth century BC.
By the late third century BC (221 BC) of the "Unification of the Qin Dynasty", the special historical period of the Warring States Period had lasted for about 223 years.
Over the past two hundred years or so, countless wars have taken place, among which there are many examples of large-scale, far-reaching, and bloody rivers. However, judging by my shallow historical cognition, there are only three cases that can really reach the "strategic decisive battle". According to the occurrence period, they are arranged from far to near, which are:
First, it happened in the late 4th century BC (earlier period of King Qin Zhaoxiang and Empress Dowager Qin Xuanzheng) to attack Qin.
The attacking side was a "coalition" composed of dozens of large and small vassal states with Qi, Zhao, and Wei as the core. Qin Guo. It was the most successful battle focused on the "coordination" strategy of the Qin Kingdom; it was also the only one that broke through the "fortress" of the east side of the Qin Kingdom, the Hangu Pass, in several "coordination attacks on the Qin" in the 200 years of the Warring States. Bing Feng pointed directly at Qin Capital Xianyang. The result was Qin Kedi summing up.
Second, the battle between Qin Zhao Changping in the first part of the third century BC (late Qin Zhaoxiang King).
Mainly only involves Qin and Zhao vassals. The result was Qin Wansheng.
Third, the battle of the Qin annihilation of the Five Kingdoms took place in the middle and late third century BC.
The attacker was Qin Guo, who was then called "Qin Wangzheng" and historically known as " Emperor Qin Shi ". The attack targets were the five main vassal states of Han, Wei, Yan, Zhao, and Chu. It was the battle of Qin Chu that lasted for nearly three years and the combined forces of the offensive and defense exceeded one million. Therefore, it is also called "the battle of Qin Chu". No matter what it is called, this is the "final battle" in the Warring States Period! As a result, Qin State successfully defeated the five nations of Han, Wei, Yan, Zhao, Chu, etc., and forced to descend to Qi State. —— "The Six Kings are humiliating, and the world is determined"!
Of these three, the battle between Qin Zhao and Chang Ping was not the largest, and the main battle involved only two vassal states, as if the "spread" was not wide enough. However, from the perspective of military strategy, it has epoch-making significance of "easy to attack and defend".
(3) The Strategic Significance of the Battle of Changping
As mentioned above, the battle between Qin Zhao and Chang Ping and its results have epoch-making significance in the "big pattern" of the Warring States Period. The author believes that this meaning is more important than the "trend in the world" and even exceeds the "final battle" in the late Qin period.
If it is said that the "great unification" of "determining unity" by force is the "fruit", then the final battle to annihilate the six nations is the "harvest"; and the battle of Changping Qin Zhao decades ago It is "seeding".
Leaving aside the crude analogy, if we want to be a little clearer about the strategic significance of the Changping War, we must first briefly explain the "trend" of the time, that is, the "basic situation" and "basic pattern".
Many people know the "Seven Warriors of the Warring States Period"-Chu, Wei, Qi, Zhao, Yan, Han, and Qin (in order of the comprehensive strength of countries in the early Warring States period). Many people also mistakenly believe that during the Warring States Period, there were only these seven vassal states. In fact, until a little earlier than Qin Tongyi, there were dozens of other small princely nations in the area called "the world" at that time.
At the beginning of the Warring States Period, the remote Qin Kingdom in the "west" should have the worst overall strength. Almost to be divided up by the six other "Seven Heroes". Except for the "national character" and the "high-level" "single-person combat capability", all other aspects are incomparable with other "great powers"; there is no question of comprehensive military strength.
After the strategic breakthrough of the Shangyang Reform and the long-distance and close-off attack twice, Qin Guo's "bad student" has been in the 70s and 80s ( Shangyang Reform for more than 20 years, Huiwen King for more than 20 years, and Empress Dowager dominated the political situation for nearly 40 years) , Has risen to become "superior student", but has not yet reached the "top", first level.
In the middle of the seventy or eighty years or earlier "Hui Wenjun" era (King Monarch, reigned in the 28th year, the 14th year was king, Shi Zai called "Hui Wenjun" before, For the "King of Huiwen", Empress Dowager Xuan Xuan was his favorite), and basically established the "ultimate national policy" to annex other vassal states. This strategy was almost completely determined after Zhang Yi, the "Xiang Qin".
However, at that time, Qin Guo's strength was still 10,000 miles away from this "big goal"; he then adopted a "far-range and close-offensive" strategy to develop military forces internally.
By the middle and late period of King Zhaoxiang (the eldest son of the Emperor, the Emperor and the Empress Dowager Xuan, reigning 56 years), that is, after the Empress Dowager was decentralized and died, the comprehensive national strength and military strength of the Qin Kingdom had achieved great development The annexation of the "big goal" of the world has drawn a lot closer, but it can still be described as a "strong enemy."
At that time, due to Qin's "progress" and "wolf-seeing Shandong", Han Wei was severely weakened by Qin, Yan Zhao close, Qi Chu Yu Qiang, the gate valve was enlarged, and the vertical and horizontal trend "raised" and many other complex and interactive factors The Qin Kingdom was quite isolated politically, and its diplomatic strategic role became weaker and weaker; under the influence of the "Xin Keqing" represented by Wei Wei Fan Ye , she lost the powerful support of her mother's Empress Dowager, and at the same time its huge "political shadow" The liberated King Qin Zhaoxiang established a major adjustment in the foreign strategy of "distance and close attack" to "close and long attack."
At that time, the "Boss" in the "Seven Heroes" was the Chu State -the largest territory, the most abundant resources, the largest population, and the strongest comprehensive economic strength. Under the premise of "ideal assembly", the "theoretical" military strength was also the strongest.
Below the Chu State, on the “national strength”, Qi State is a well-deserved “Second Brother”; Qin State is, at best, “tied for second”. Regarding military strength, Qi Guo and Qin Guo are also comparable.
The Chu country is too big and its political structure is loose. A large part of its military strength is the "private soldiers" of "restoring" the aristocracy. Only under the extremely serious threat of war can the whole country truly "hold the regiment." And it's just-maybe.
Therefore, in the military, the status of the "boss" of the Chu State can be considered to be false before reaching the "last pass".
On warfare, especially "hard-to-tough" warfare, the strongest combat force is Zhao Guo , a long-time combatant of nomadic peoples in the north, and a generous tragedy . With Wu Liguo's Qin, in previous battles with Zhao of different scales, he lost more than lost.
However, Zhao Guo's comprehensive national strength is weaker than that of Chu, Qi and Qin.
Geographically, Qin Chu borders Qin Qi, and Qin Qi is farthest apart. Although Qin Zhao is not bordering each other, the "stretching" of their respective forces has become "opposing."
From the perspective of Qin State, the battle with Chu State is small, without solving the problem, and the scale is large. If it is not “short and fast,” even if no one else is robbing in the fire , it will not be easy to consume.
"Strengthen Qin" with Wu Liguo, Wu Dingguo, and the intention to win the world by force. Under the overall strategy of "close-distance and long-distance attack", in order to win the initiative in the future, military operations should adopt the "strategic decisive battle" situation and scale. In terms of effect, when choosing a strong opponent ... this way, there are two "strategic decisive" opponent options-Qi Guo and Zhao Guo.
Choose one or the other. Once overcome, the "trend" will inevitably change dramatically.
So there was the battle of Changping.
After this war, the most capable Zhao “Folding Wings”, the distant Yan Kingdom and Qi Kingdom were deterred and Qian Qin, who had no “backward worries” for quite a long time, could be assured to slaughter neighboring Han and Wei, and more Have the confidence to fangs and demonstration to the boss Chu. In this way, the "close-breeding and long-distance offensive" has gained a lot, and it is even more difficult to consolidate and resist the Qin Dynasty. The "bribery of Qin" written by later generations has formed a relative "steady state" ... I dare not say that there is no battle of Changping. Victory, there is no subsequent "great unification"; but it is basically certain that the "last victory" will come much later and much more difficult.
(4) Few "contingent" battles and results
As mentioned earlier, at the time, Qin Guo could choose to engage in a "strategic decisive battle" with a "contingent" opponent-Qi Guo and Zhao Guo.
But this is "in theory".
In practice, as long as the situation is a little clear, it is not difficult to make this multiple choice question.
The answer must be-Zhao Guo.
Zhao Guo can beat Qi Guo and defeat Zhao Guo, it will deter Qi Guo; otherwise, not necessarily!
Zhao Guo's relative distance is still relatively close, and it is possible to choose a closer "off-ground" engagement. The "technical" level is easy to arrange.
Zhao Guo's comprehensive national strength is not as good as Qi Guo and Qin Guo. He really needs to be "burned in". Qin Guo can afford it!
Hitting Qi Guo, theoretically, it is very likely that Zhao Guoli ’s assistance would be equal to one dozen two, and the odds of winning would not be able to be said; and hitting Zhao Guo, as long as the "location" is properly geographically, the possibility of Qi Guo aid Will be greatly reduced.
All of these are "destined" historically, and the opponent of this "strategic decisive battle" should be, must be, only-Zhao Guo.
Later generations of historiography, military, and political masters, followers, and enthusiasts, a large part of them once believed that the Changping War, from the outbreak, to the process, to the results, had "accidental" factors. But as long as you combine the "trend" of the time with the local "microclimate" of the war and think about it, you will find that all those accidents are almost inevitable. In this regard, the author has studied it carefully in the process of writing about Da Qin.
Choosing "strategic decisive battle" and choosing Zhao Guo as the opponent, as mentioned earlier.
Specific to the war itself, various factors and stages are also full of "inevitability".
First of all, it was a war that "seduced" Zhao Guo to initiate a "decisive battle" against Qin.
Zhao Guoda's gatekeeper, royal relative, and one of the "four gentlemen" in history, Zhao Sheng , is a relatively firm faction of "aggressive attack on the Qin". He understands the military a little, and the opposition forces "cover the master." And tend to take the "fast track" of military expansion. Combining his profound influence on Zhao's highest level at that time, Zhao Guo, who had the highest combat effectiveness, was basically a gunpowder barrel that was exploded in the face of Qiang Qin's provocation.
The fuse of war-the question of the ownership of Shangdang County is also an inevitable choice.
Shangdang County is the "non-land" of South Korea. It is far from the hinterland of South Korea, but it is closer to Zhao Guo. South Korea is the most "bullyed" by Qin and the most attentive of "bringing Qin". Qin wanted to make an idea about his "non-land". He had neither the courage nor the strength to fight. When this place was strong, the basic attitude of South Korea was absolutely tolerant. In such a situation, the presence of the local official who advocated resistance to the Qin Dynasty, and the local people's "no Qin attachment" did not affect Zhao Guoxiang's "bright sword." Because, Zhao Guo has long liked this place, and even regarded it as his own. Once "lost to Qin", it is not only a matter of resources and the face of the country, but also a real security crisis that has been knocked out of the door!
Therefore, in the face of Qin's near-futuristic "base shot" attempt, Zhao Guo's first "acceptance" of Shangdang County was a "conditional reflex" action! In the face of Qin's soldiers, the army was strong and strong . Zhao Guo, who has a good record (Lian Po, the only general who dared to say that he has the confidence to defeat Bai Qi), easily formed a big resolution on the basis of the situation.
Feel free to find a map of China and look at Zhao Guo (now central and southern Hebei Province, northeastern Henan Province, eastern Shanxi Province), Qi Guo (presently Shandong Province), Qin Guo (presently Shaanxi Province, northwestern Henan Province) , Shanxi Province), you can easily find that in the "shangdang" (now the same place name) place in the north of central Shanxi province, the two sides of the war, Qin and Zhao, have different lengths. However, the difference is not particularly disparate, and the only Qi Guo who has the ability to assist Zhao Guo, if it really assists, the front will be too long.
So-here it is! Here it is! This battlefield is "selected", not "occasional"!
In the specific combat process, it was not accidental to see the formation of historical books and later authoritative documents, instigate the relationship between King Zhao and Pingyuanjun, bribe Zhao Guoquan and other "dark wars". Attitudes, tactics, outcome predictions, etc. of the war were divided. Changing coaches before the battle was a taboo for soldiers. Needless to say, Zhao Guo had lost half without officially starting a fight. High-level differences, in theory, are equivalent to losing the other half.
In addition, fundamentally weakening or even destroying Zhao's military strength is also under Qin's consideration--
First use the young and middle-aged generals to make Zhao Guo lighten the enemy and force the soldiers to achieve the strategic intention of attracting the main force of the strong enemy;
King Qin Zhaoxiang himself came to the battlefield, inspiring sympathy and fulfilling his determination to achieve his goal;
The arrogant, known as the "human slaughter," secretly arrived at the scene in white, indicating the intention of "mass killing".
It's all about planning!
It's all "inevitable"!
There are only two points that must be said to be "incidental". One is that Zhao Guo changed from coach to coach Zhao Kuo who lacks experience and is eager to make achievements; the other is that there is a huge disparity between the number of killed and captured prisoners in Zhao Guo, and too many prisoners.
In the face of the 400,000 prisoners who were only disarmed and were basically unharmed, and even maintained a system of young and strong prisoners, Bai Qi said 11 words: Zhao Zu was fraudulent, he would not kill them, and he would be chaotic.
Sounds brutal and breaks the bottom line.
But think again, it is also an "inevitable choice" to deal with too many prisoners of war -these people are put back, and Zhao Guo can arm them into a powerful force in minutes. Then this victory is meaningless.
Judging from today's national strength and population base, the formation and training of such a large army will take less than three years and five years .
Facts have proven that after "lost" 450,000 strong brigades, Zhao Guo still organized a very powerful "Handan Defence War", which made the victory over the stronger and more powerful Qian Qin stop at the "last mile." Outside. Not long after, Zhao Guo, who was severely injured, still resisted Qin's devouring soldiers quite stubbornly.
In this way, from the standpoint of Qin State, the 400,000 captives are really "not to kill but not to die"!
After the Changping War, Qin basically abandoned diplomacy and entered a stage of "handling international relations" purely by military means. The only counterattack against Qin's threat was the coordinated offensive led by the son of Wei Guowu ( Xinling Jun ).
Perhaps, without the fierce defeat of the Battle of Changping, there would be no such offensive.
But the other way around, if there is no battle of Changping and mass killing of captives; if a vertical offensive was organized on this occasion later, Zhao's participation would definitely intensify the pressure on Qin. In that case, Qin Guosheng won in the end, and the loss was definitely great. The "final battle" would not only be seriously "late", but also, possibly, not so decisive and not so sharp.
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