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What are the predicaments faced by the "Battle of Water" in Eastern Jin Dynasty? How does Dongjin break through the predicament and defeat?

Today, the interesting history editor will bring you the detailed battle situation of the Battle of Lushui. Interested readers can follow the editor to take a look.

In 383 AD, a famous battle in history broke out at the Lishui River. This is the famous battle in Lishui. The Eastern Jin Dynasty defeated the powerful former Qin in an extremely inferior situation in this war, and took the opportunity to expand the land thousands of miles, pushing the border of the Eastern Jin Dynasty to the north of the Yellow River. The victory of this battle also won for the Eastern Jin Dynasty. For more than forty years of Taiping days; on the other hand, in the former Qin Dynasty, the former Qin was supposed to be in a crushed state and lost out of control. Fu Jian was killed shortly after this war, and the huge former Qin broke down instantly. In both the present and future generations, this is simply incredible to the world.

Perhaps many people think that the internal contradictions of the pre-Qin Dynasty were heavy at this time. The pre-Qin period was full of contradictions, but the Western Jin Dynasty ’s defeat of Wu was also a lot of contradictions. There were also many instability factors than the previous Qin period. However, the Western Jin Dynasty succeeded. Will there be such a disastrous defeat? Today we will talk about the "Bashui Battle".

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The situation before the Battle of Yuanshui, the former Qin soldiers were under pressure, and the Eastern Jin Dynasty was difficult.

In 383 AD, the former Qin Yunjian launched a military operation to unify the world, and issued a large-scale conscription order. For a time, the entire former Qin Minao gathered 870,000 people (although the author feels that this force is a bit hydrated). Amidst the opposition, the largest military operation in its lifetime was launched. Although both the opposition and the opposition were the voices of opposition, just like the Western Jin Dynasty at that time, Kuang Jian believed that "the truth is in the hands of a few people". From the perspective of his military actions, his policy of annihilating the Jin was also inherited. The way to destroy Wu in the Western Jin Dynasty:

With Yao Kun as General Long Jing, Du Duyi and Liang Erzhou's military, they fought against the Jingzhou soldiers.

Pei Yuanlue's 70,000 navy forces threatened him from the flanks of Jingzhou along the Bashu Shunjiang River.

On the Jianghuai side, Fu Rong was the main general, and he led more than 200,000 troops against the Northern Government of the Eastern Jin Dynasty.

The reinforcements in Liangzhou and other places continued to go to the Lishui battlefield,

At that time, the Eastern Jin Dynasty did not know that they still had a "historical aura." For the Eastern Jin Dynasty at that time, they faced the heavy pressure of the former Qin Dynasty, and they could be described as having many difficulties:

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The disparity is too great to defeat the enemy directly

The battle of Xishui can be divided into two battlefields: one is the Jingzhou battlefield run by the Ji 's family, and the other is the frontline of Xishui faced by Xie Xuan and others. However, regardless of whether they were on the front line or the battlefield in Jingzhou, their situation at that time was extremely optimistic, and they had to face two to three times their enemies.

Wu Jian's cutting Jin can be said to be a soldier of the whole country. According to historical records recorded at 870,000, but based on the actual transport capacity of the ancient times and the former Qin troops who have not yet reached the Lishui battlefield, these 870,000 troops actually have some moisture. However, even so, the situation in the Eastern Jin Dynasty was still not optimistic. Both Jingzhou and Lishui front lines had to face two to three times the enemy:

According to historical records, we can learn that the former Qin army that confronted the Jianghuai front line and the Eastern Jin Dynasty was a former Qin army of about 250,000 led by Fu Rong, and tens of thousands were taken away by Murong Chu to aid Jingzhou in the northern government. There are still more than 100,000 or even 200,000 enemies facing the front. Under this huge gap, the North Government Army could not move even if it had achieved the victory of the "Lord of Luo".

On the eastern front of Jingzhou battlefield, Yao Chong faced Yao Yao ’s Liang, Yi Erzhou ’s soldiers, and Pei Yuanlue ’s 70,000 navy. The former Qin Guangshui had 70,000 troops, plus Liang and Yi Erzhou ’s army led by Yao Yan. He has never entered the battlefield, and Ying Chong has never dared to move in Jingzhou, which proves that Yao Jun's army is not in the minority. Of course, the author has also seen the analysis of various gods and believes that Yao Ying's strength is roughly equivalent to Fu Rong.

Troop strength is not the only factor that determines victory or defeat, but it is a factor that cannot be ignored. Although the "Fighting of Luoyang" effectively killed the enemy and effectively reduced the morale of the opponent, it was still unable to defeat the former Qin, proving the loss. More than 10,000 people did not let Fu Rong's frontline Fu Rong reach the stage of hurting his muscles. Former Qin Dynasty still had great advantages for the Eastern Jin Dynasty.

Of course, some people say that Jian Jian ’s split operation is an extremely stupid approach. However, in the overall situation, Jian Jian already has a significant advantage. Even if he conducts a split operation, he still maintains a huge advantage over the Eastern Jin Dynasty; instead, Jian Jian ’s split operation The East Jin Dynasty has been under tremendous pressure. The East and West Frontiers of the East Jin Dynasty can only protect themselves on the huge gap in force, and alleviate the pressure on the other side, but they cannot help each other.

Eastern Jinjiang River, Jingxiang defense line almost collapsed

A few years before the Battle of Yuanshui, the former Qin captured the Eastern Jin Dynasty's Liang and Yi two states. The loss of Liang and Yi two states was a very serious military strike for Jingzhou. Jingzhou not only had to bear the pressure from the north. To bear the military pressure from the west, considering the situation at the time, Heng Chong had to change the strategic approach, change the offensive and defensive situation, and focus on Jiangling. This has both advantages and disadvantages for the Eastern Jin Dynasty:

The advantage lies in that Chongchong can better respond to attacks from two aspects and avoid falling into a situation of two-line operations.

The disadvantages are also very obvious. The relocation of the center of gravity to Jiangling led to the omission of Xiangyang's defense, which led to the loss of Xiangyang a few years later. The loss of Xiangyang made the Yangtze River Tianhe in the Eastern Jin Dynasty no longer have an advantage, which directly led to the exposure of the Jianghuai battlefield.

While capturing Xiangyang, the former Qin launched an attack on the Eastern Jinjiang-Huaihuai battlefield. The intention was to further attack the strategic policy of "defending the river and defending the Huai" in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. At that time, Peng Cheng, a very important part of the Jianghuai defense system, was besieged by the former Qin Dynasty. Xie Xuan took Wei Wei to rescue Zhao to solve the siege of Pengcheng, but he still couldn't change the situation. Under pressure, Xie An adopted the same method as that of rushing: shrink the line of defense, give up Huaibei, and mainly preserve the living force.

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Prior to the outbreak of the Battle of Yuanshui, Huaibei had been occupied by the former Qin Dynasty, and the Yangtze River Tianli could only rely on the Huainan defense line. Under the disparity of the military strength and the near-collapse of the defense line, the Eastern Jin Dynasty could be defeated with fewer wins and more defeats. The former Qin was indeed a "miracle."

As long as one of these two routes cannot resist the attack of the former Qin Dynasty, the defense line that has been painstakingly operated for decades in the Eastern Jin Dynasty will directly collapse, and the Eastern Jin Dynasty will be destroyed. The principle of establishing a nation in the southeast has always been based on "Yangzhou as the root and Jingzhou as the outsider." Once one party breaks the rules, the other party is doomed to be unable to stand alone. The former "Soochow" and later " Southern Song " are the best. example.

How did Dongjin defeat the victory ?

Speaking of the reasons for the victory of the Battle of Lushui, there are many reasons, and many historians will analyze the reasons for the defeat of Jian Jian. After all, under such circumstances, the disastrous defeat of Jian Jian is indeed a very controversial topic. .

However, compared to how the Eastern Jin Dynasty defeated and defeated, the author is more concerned about what Jian Jian did to lead to such a big defeat. From the history books, it can be seen that the Eastern Jin Dynasty did very little in the battle of Yuanshui. The victory of the "Battle of War" and the stalemate battle between the two parties, in fact, many mistakes were caused by Jian Jian himself, and these mistakes combined became a prelude to the death of Jian Jian. Taken together, Jian Jian's failure is nothing more than the following factors:

Internal instability;

Improper employment;

Tactical errors;

In my opinion, tactical mistakes and misuses are more convincing than internal instability:

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Employing mistakes

Employers' mistakes are mainly reflected in the use of Zhu Jian by Xu Jian. When the former Qin Bing sent the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the defenders in the Eastern Jin Dynasty did not touch it. However, after the Eastern Jin Dynasty reacted, the offensive of the former Qin was eased. At that time, the reinforcements in various places had not yet arrived. The Eastern Jin and the former Qin were in a strategic stalemate. The situation was very unfavorable to the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Qin is also disadvantageous:

The supply and demand of hundreds of thousands of troops was a great challenge for the former Qin Dynasty.

The cause of internal instability is not without consideration.

Therefore, under these circumstances, Jian Jian adopted the strategic policy of "siege down and attack heart up", and constantly sent messengers to persuade the Eastern Jin Dynasty. One of them was Zhu Xu, the general of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Wu Jian's idea is good, but he did not consider two points:

The determination to swear by the Eastern Jin Dynasty: It is true that the pressure of the former Qin heavy soldiers caused the gates of the Eastern Jin Dynasty to panic, but at that time, no one had proposed surrender. Once the surrender, the interests of the gate valve would be damaged, and the family's accumulation of generations Eventually it will be lost.

Scholars' sense of belonging to Eastern Jin: Before Wang Meng died, he advised Jian Jian not to sue Eastern Jin. The reason was that the great scholars still belonged to Eastern Jin. Eastern Jin was still orthodox, as can be seen from Zhu Xu. He surrendered to the former Qin It was a last resort by itself. Under the siege of Xiangyang's heavy soldiers, he fought alone, returned to his native land after surrendering before Qin, but repeatedly failed, but Jian Jian always failed to kill.

Therefore, Zhu Jian's use of Zhu Xu had to be said to be a major mistake in his employment. After Zhu Xu arrived in the Eastern Jin camp, he did not persuade the Eastern Jin princes as Xu Jian would, but instead told the Eastern Jin Dynasty about the truth and the truth of the former Qin Dynasty. It helped strategically to the victory of the Eastern Jin Dynasty.

Tactical mistake

Before the battle of Yuanshui, Jian Jian could be described as lofty and lofty aspirations. Among the opposition of the Manchu dynasty, he had lofty sentiments such as " throwing the whip off the stream ". In the past, the previous Qin expeditions were unsuccessful, and they were not cheap at all in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. With the war becoming more and more unfavorable, during the Battle of Yuanshui, Jian Jian repeatedly made tactical mistakes, which eventually led to decisive battles. failure:

Before the end of the war, Jian Jian himself could be described as full of ambition. With the defeat of the battle, as a major general, Jian Jian had a war-fearing thought, so that when he saw the grass and trees fluttering in the wind on the Badong Mountain, With the idea of "all soldiers are soldiers ", its fear of war is a huge blow to morale itself, which can be said to be one of his tactical mistakes.

After the defeat of the Battle of Luoyang, the morale of the former Qin army was low. For the former Qin at that time, they still had significant advantages in military strength, but they did not take advantage of this advantage, but entered a strategic stalemate. At the stage of strategic stalemate, Jian Jian did not detect the truth and reality of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, so he never dared to take any action. Instead, because of his repeated persuasion, Dong Jin understood the truth and reality of the former Qin Dynasty, which was the second of his tactical mistakes.

When Dong Jin proposed to them the idea of "retreating the decisive battle", he only thought of the strategy of "fighting while he was halfway through it", but often ignored the principle of "moving the whole body with one shot". The pre-Qin army was unstable at that time, morale was low, and the sources of the former Qin troops were different. There were a lot of speculative internal people, and information transmission between each other was not smooth. A series of factors were mixed in the former Qin army. And these factors are mixed together and combined with Jian Jian's "Military Order" has undoubtedly become Jian Jian's life-saving sign. The "backward decisive battle" adopted by Jian Jian is the third of its tactical mistakes.

In fact, judging from this series of actions, a large part of the major failure of the Battle of Luoshui was caused by Jian Jian himself. Even he himself did not expect that this massive defeat would cause the huge former Qin to fall apart instantly, and The internal instability that I said before created the main cause of the collapse of the former Qin Dynasty.

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Views on the former Qin Yunjian

Although Jian Jian suffered a fiasco defeat due to a "Battle of Water", he once again fell into chaos in the unified north. However, there are still many outstanding points in Jian Jian:

It is commendable to unite the world. Jian Jian and the sixteen kingdoms and the Eastern Jin Dynasty in the south are different. We can see from his series of measures that Jian Jian has always been for the unification. Efforts, whether to reuse Wang Meng or to subdue Murongchui, the purpose is to strengthen centralization and draw the needs of the Xianbei aristocracy to maintain their rule.

He Jian and the major monarchs of the northern regime are different. He did not have the cruelty of Shi Hu and others. During his reign, he established a series of actions such as Confucianism, improving people's livelihood, and recuperating, which brought vitality to the former Qin. Qin was able to flourish during his reign.

Tong Jian's over-tolerance was a major mistake in his employment. However, his forgiveness and forbearance won him the hearts and minds of the people in the north. Although Murongchui and Yao Yan were misconducted by him, there were many of them. The minister's allegiance to him at the moment of his life and death is also a characteristic of Jian Jian's administration.

Therefore, the author believes that Jian Jian is a character like Xiang Yu , that is, "do not judge heroes by success or failure". Although there are also faults, they can be praised for unifying the North and improving people's livelihood.

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