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The Opium War What wars followed after China was invaded? What treaties have been signed?

Do you know what kind of wars happened after the invasion of China? The history editor will explain it for you.

As the last feudal dynasty in China, the Qing Dynasty was different from other classical dynasties. The Qing Dynasty was a turning period, a period of transition from ancient times to modern times in China. This turning point occurred in 1840 when the Opium War broke out between China and Britain. Prior to this war, the Qing Dynasty was an upper kingdom in the heavens. Due to the long period of seclusion, many European countries did not understand this big eastern country. But when the British artillery bombarded the Qing dynasty's door, the world re-recognized the strength of the Qing dynasty. After the Opium War and the defeat of the Qing Dynasty, it signed the first unequal treaty in the modern history of China with Britain: the " Nanjing Treaty ", marking the beginning of our country's decline into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society, and national sovereignty has been destroyed, but this is only the beginning.

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From the Opium War in 1840 to the demise of the Qing Dynasty in 1912, there were 1,175 unequal treaties, contracts, agreements, and contracts signed between the Qing government and foreign governments or foreign businessmen and international organizations. Of these, we are familiar with the Nanjing Treaty and the Tianjin Treaty. ", The" Beijing Treaty ", the" Maguan Treaty ", and the" Xin and Ugly Treaty . " These treaties were signed by the great powers invading China to force the Qing government by force. So how many wars between the Qing Dynasty and the outside world since the Opium War, and how many times have they been invaded by foreigners?

The first was the Second Opium War from 1856 to 1860. This was the war of aggression against China launched by Britain and France with the support of the United States and Russia. Its purpose was to further open the Chinese market and expand its own interests in China. . Of course, the war needs to be famous. Britain used the Yaro incident as a reason, and France used the horse priest incident. After the British army invaded Beijing in 1860, Emperor Xianfeng fled to Chengde in haste, which is equivalent to giving up Beijing city, and the British and French coalition forces were not relentless. They broke into the Yuanmingyuan to plunder the treasures, and smashed them if they could not take them. Forget a fire that burned this garden of thousands. Tsarist Russia, which was so embarrassed in the north, also took advantage of the fire to rob the Qing government to cede over 1.5 million square kilometers of land on the grounds of sending troops to mediate. In the end, the Qing government signed the "Sino-Russian Beijing Treaty", "Sino-British Beijing Treaty", "Sino-French Beijing Treaty" with Tsarist Russia, Britain, and France, collectively referred to as the "Beijing Treaty". This war was also the first invasion of the Qing Dynasty since the Opium War.

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The second was the Qing Army's battle to retake Xinjiang from 1875 to 1878. In 1865, Aguber invaded Xinjiang, and also helped Busuluk to establish the Jedeshar Khanate. In 1867, Aguber abolished Busuluk to become the king and established Hongfu Khan in Xinjiang. In 1871, Tsarist Russia invaded Xinjiang and occupied Yili. At this time, the Qing dynasty court was still discussing whether Hai Phong should be the first priority or Sai Phong first. In the end, Zuo Zongtang convinced everyone and the Qing government agreed to Zuo Zongtang's request to retake Xinjiang. In 1875, Zuo Zongtang took command, and the following year successively received retro pastures, Urumqi, Manas and other places. In 1877, Qing soldiers entered the southern Xinjiang in three ways, and successively went to Daban, Toksun, and Turpan. After Agubo's violent extinction, the Qing army took the opportunity to recapture the eastern four cities of southern Xinjiang, without giving the enemy troops a chance to breathe, and immediately rushed into the western four cities. The Qing Army regained Hotan in early 1878, at which time all regions of Xinjiang except Yili were recaptured by the Qing Dynasty. This was one of the few victories since the Opium War in the Qing Dynasty.

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Then came the Sino-French war from 1883 to 1885. This war was caused by France's invasion of Vietnam. At that time, Vietnam was still a vassal state of the Qing Dynasty. The Qing Dynasty naturally sent troops to protect it. There were two stages of the Sino-French war, the first stage was in northern Vietnam, and the second stage was on the southeast coast of China. During the war, both the French navy and the army had certain advantages, but they could not completely defeat the Qing Dynasty. Although the French Far East Fleet achieved a complete victory in naval battles, it was a pity that it suffered setbacks in the battle at the end of Shanghai, and then the epidemic became epidemic, unable to completely take over Taiwan. Qing dynasty leader Feng Zicai led various ministries and defeated the French army in the battle of Zhennan Pass. The French commander Nigri was seriously injured. The victory of the South Gate of the Qing Army Town directly led to the collapse of the French cabinet. Unfortunately, in the end, France was invincible, and the Qing Dynasty was invincible. The Sino-French Treaty on Vietnam signed by China and France acknowledged that the Qing government recognized the French right to protect Vietnam, and China-Vietnam land trade opened to trade. This battle allowed France to annex Vietnam, and China's southwestern gateway opened wide.

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Then the Sino-Japanese War broke out between 1894 and 1895. This war also allowed Western powers to recognize the true strength of the Qing Dynasty after the Westernization Movement , and the Qing Dynasty was completely surpassed by Japan. In fact, Japan was bullied by the powers as much as the Qing Dynasty, but Japan embarked on the capitalist road through the Meiji Restoration . This is different from the Westernization movement in the Qing Dynasty. It has not changed, and the domestic people are still just ants in the eyes of the rulers. The cause of the war was civil strife in North Korea. North Korea was also a vassal state of the Qing dynasty. In 1894, when the Eastern Academic Uprising broke out in North Korea, the North Korean government army was beaten back and forth. It had no choice but to ask the Qing government for help. Japan also took the opportunity to send troops to North Korea to deliberately provoke war with China. On July 25 of the same year, the Battle of Toshima Island broke out, and the Sino-Japanese War was officially started. Japan was already embarrassed by the Qing Dynasty and launched a war for a long time. The Qing Dynasty rushed to fight. As a result, the entire Beiyang Marine Division was annihilated and the Westernization Movement was completely bankrupt. The government was also forced to sign the "Maguan Treaty" with Japan. This treaty is an unprecedented humiliation. The Qing Dynasty had to cede the Liaodong Peninsula, Taiwan, and the Penghu Islands to Japan and compensate 200 million silver. This is an astronomical figure. For the first time, the compensation was in billions. The failure of this war has brought an unprecedentedly serious national crisis to the Chinese nation. After all, it is understandable to lose to the Western powers, but it is impossible to lose to its original younger brother, Japan. The two hundred and two billion silvers have also allowed Japan to develop rapidly, laying a foundation for its ranking among the great powers, which is very sad.

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The last was the war of aggression against China by the Eight-Power Allied Forces that broke out in 1900. Because the Empress Dowager Cixi received false information and thought that the Western powers wanted to force themselves to surrender power to Emperor Guangxu , the angry Cixi issued the "Declaration of War" to the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Italy, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. , Spain, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Finally, Britain, the United States, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Italy, and the eight countries of the Austro-Hungarian Empire joined forces to march into Beijing on the grounds of suppressing the Boxer Movement and "protecting the embassy." On the eve of the coalition's invasion of Beijing, the Empress Dowager Cixi hurriedly fled to Xi'an with a group of people including Emperor Guangxu and left an empty city. When the Eight-Power Allied Forces entered Beijing, they did nothing evil. The treasures snatched from the Forbidden City, Zhongnanhai, and the Summer Palace were countless. The Yuanmingyuan was once again looted by the Allied Forces and became a complete ruin. The coalition commander Wadexi later admitted that "the details of all the damage and robbery of the Qing empire this time will never be found, but the number will be extremely significant." The following year the Qing government negotiated with the eight nations and signed The "Xin and Ugly Treaty" completely reduced China to a semi - colonial and semi -feudal society.

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The above five times were the wars that were invaded by the Qing Dynasty since the Opium War. In addition, in 1900, Tsarist Russia invaded the Northeast of China while the coalition forces invaded Beijing, and they were confronted by the military and civilians of the Northeast of China. Britain, the United States, and Japan had conflicts of interest. They also intervened, and Germany and France also expressed opposition. Finally, due to external pressure, Tsarist Russia and the Qing government signed the "Sino-Russian Treaty on the Collection of the Three Eastern Provinces." Only withdrew from Northeast China.

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