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Why did the ancient counsellors always come up with three plans? And why does n’t the protagonist always choose the best policy?

Today, the interesting history editor brought you an article about the strategies of ancient counselors, welcome to read ~

Many people often see in some TV dramas that when ancient counselors proposed some strategies to their protagonists, they always said that they had three strategies, and there were three solutions to the same thing. It ’s a good thing to have the best solution, but the three methods are mentioned, but the last one is always not the best policy. Since the best policy is naturally the best, why not use the best method? What ’s so bad about it? Why is it called the best policy if it ’s not good?

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1. Why do counselors say three strategies

In ancient times, the situation was turbulent, and decision-making was about life and death. Therefore, the kings attached great importance to decision-making, and they managed to recruit wizards and counsellors to provide them with decision-making services. The conspirator usually puts forward three strategies, for the monarch to choose, which has also become a more interesting phenomenon in history.

The earliest saying of "upper, middle, and lower three strategies" originated from " Sun Tzu's Art of War ". The book says: seek the top, get the middle; find the middle, get the bottom; A person can only achieve relatively good results if he sets himself the highest goal.

The "Strategy" also said: "Therefore, the soldiers fell into the plot, followed by the troop, followed by the troop, and then the siege. The method of siege is a last resort." The superior martial arts uses strategy to defeat the enemy, and the second is To achieve victory through diplomatic mediation, once again is to use military deterrence to force the enemy to yield. The most inferior method is to siege the city to achieve victory.

In 613, the Emperor decided to go to Korea for the second time. Yang Xuangan believes that the time for the cavalry to fight against the Sui Dynasty has matured-Emperor Kundi led a multi-million army to conquer Korea in the previous year, which was almost annihilated ; this time, he was again empty, and his rear was very empty. The conspirator Li Mi gave him three strategies: the top strategy was to lead troops straight to Liaodong, blocking Emperor Gao's army from conquering the enemy, and letting him suffer the enemy; the middle strategy was to enter Guanzhong and seize Chang'an as a base; Both Luoyang, but in case of long-term attack, the emperor's army rushed back, it was very dangerous.

In the three years of Tianxi (1019), in order to please Song Zhenzong , inspecting Zhu Neng and his internal servant Zhou Huaizheng conspiracy, forged the "Tianshu" in Ganyou Mountain, southwest of Chang'an. At that time, Kou Zhun was the chief of the Yongxing army here. At this time, some people said that if Kou Zhun entered the heavenly offerings, the officials and the people would be convinced.

In mid-May, Kou Zhun received his death to enter the DPRK, and packed his bags to set off . After hearing this, his students were deeply improper and gave him three strategies: when he went east to Heyang (now Mengzhou, Henan), he could call for a firm decision to be an outsider. This is the best policy; When Gong Yan saw His Majesty, it was an imaginary matter to reveal the final Nanshan Tianshu, and it is still possible to preserve the name of the First Life;

Why did the ancient conspirators like to propose "upper, middle, lower, and three strategies"? This has something to do with the ancient times and the responsibilities and positioning of the conspirators. The current situation is complicated, and it is impossible to have only one strategy. The counselor proposes three strategies of "upper, middle, and lower" in order to exhaust everything possible. The second point is that the position of the counselor is "scheme" rather than "breaking". They also have a certain tendency when they propose their own different strategies. They use "upper, middle, and lower" to distinguish, not only can they express their ideas, but also Leave the decision to it without taking the corresponding risks.

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2. Why don't the king choose the best policy

Then, in the face of the three strategies of "up, middle, and down" proposed by the counselors, how should the king choose? The knowledge is great, not only related to the political structure and military literacy of the king, but also to the personality and personality of the king. Relationship.

During the Han Dynasty , Wang Yingbu of Huainan rebelled, and Liu Bang questioned Xue Gong. Xue Gong said: "It is not surprising that the British cloth rebellion. If Ying cloth uses the best strategy, then the Shandong area is not owned by the Han Dynasty; if he uses the medium strategy, then it is unpredictable who wins and who loses; if he If you make a decision, Your Majesty will be able to lie down on his back. "

Liu Bang asked, "What is the best policy?" Xue Gong replied: "Early capture Wu Di to the east, capture Chu Di to the west, swallow all the land, seize Lu Di, and publish obituaries to both Yan and Zhao, asking them to stick to their place. In this way, Shandong is not owned by the Han Dynasty. "

Liu Bang asked, "What is the middle strategy?" Xue Gong said, "Early capture Wu Di to the east, capture Chu Di to the west, swallow Korean land, capture Wei Di, occupy Ao Geng's Mi Cang, and block Cheng Cheng's pass. Who wins? Whoever fails is unpredictable. "

Liu Bang asked, "What's the next best thing?" Ling Yin said, "Take Wu to the east and Cai to the west, focus on South Vietnam, and return to Changsha by yourself. Your Majesty can sit back and relax, and the Han Dynasty will be fine. . "

Liu Bang asked, "Which strategy will he adopt?" Xue Gong replied, "He will adopt the next strategy."

Liu Bang asked, "Why did he say that he would not use the best strategy or the middle strategy, but he would do the best?" Xue Gong said: "Engbo was a slave in Laoshan. He himself became the king of the Great Power, all for himself. He didn't know how to think about the future of the people. So, I said he would take the next best move. "

Later, as Xue Gong expected, Yingbu took the next best move. Liu Bang led his army to personally defeat Yingbu. Yingbu fled to the Jiangxi generation and was later lured by his brother. Xue Gong analyzed accurately the political structure and personality of Ying Bu, and accurately determined that he would choose the next best policy.

In the last years of the Sui Dynasty, facing the three strategies proposed by Li Mi, Yang Xuan heard and said, "I think what you said is the best strategy. Now the family members of Baiguan are in the eastern capital. If you do n’t bring them out, how can you direct them? Humans! Besides, how can we show our majesty when the city is inseparable? "As a result, Yang Xuangan did not use Li Mi's strategic plan. Abandoning the best strategy and choosing the lower strategy, Yang Xuangan's choice is obviously wrong. However, from the perspective of history, the Sui Dynasty's rule at that time had not yet broken down, and Yang Xuangan's army was too early. No matter what strategies he used, he might face failure.

According to the comparison of enemy and enemy forces and changes in circumstances, the top three strategies of the counselor may become the optimal strategy. As a decision maker, the most important thing is the ability to analyze decisions. As for which of the three strategies is the best, it is not only related to the plan itself, but also from the strategic goals and the overall responsibility of the strategy, so that the best method can be selected.

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3. Why don't counsellors say the best policy

There are no good or bad differences between the three strategies, mainly the difference between radical and conservative. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. What is the duty of a counselor? Tell your protagonist what choices he has, and analyze the pros and cons, what is the disadvantage of each choice? Can you accept it? If only the best policy is mentioned, it will be tantamount to make a choice for your main character in disguise.

No one likes to make choices for their own subordinates. From another perspective, this is Yue Yue. You only give me a suggestion. It is clear that I have no choice but to choose your strategy. It ’s okay to say that if it succeeds, can it fail? The counsellor can afford this responsibility? Obviously, he cannot afford it. From these two perspectives, the counselor would not dare to do so unless he is the master.

From another perspective, the decision maker needs to consider a lot of things. Reputation, heavy crops, and external reactions. For the decision maker, the person who bears the risk is only himself, but the decision maker is also very busy. Nothing is possible. Everyone knows that the role of the counselor is reflected in this, providing advice, and considering the pros and cons from the perspective of the decision maker as much as possible, and then giving a plan for the decision maker to choose.

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