Where did the "Five Hus" all ethnic groups go during the "Five Hus"? The questions asked by many people are detailed below.
The "Five Huhu and the Sixteen Kingdoms " refers to a number of regimes active in the North during the period from the end of the Western Jin Dynasty to the unification of the Northern Wei Dynasty. The Wuhu refers to five ethnic groups: Xiongnu, Xianbei, Wa , Wa and Wa. The sixteen countries refer to: Qianliang , Houliang , Nanliang, Beiliang, Xiliang, Qianzhao , Houzhao , Qianqin , Houqin , Xiqin , Qianyan, Houyan , Nanyan , Beiyan, Xia Cheng Han.
Since the Han Dynasty, Hu people have continuously migrated to the Central Plains. Under the tolerance of the emperor's tolerance policy for many generations, Hu people have gradually increased, entangled in North China, and their power has continued to grow. By the time of the Western Jin Dynasty, the Hu people had already lived in Guanzhong and the Huangshui and Weishui basins, forming a trend of encircling the capital of Luoyang in the Western Jin Dynasty. After the rebellion of the eight kings during the Emperor Jinhui's reign, the Jin room was divided, the national strength was empty, the people's livelihood withered, the military power of the Jin dynasty rapidly declined, and Huaxia was seriously injured.
At the end of the Western Jin Dynasty, the world began to become chaotic. There was no powerful force. Other small forces robbed the territory and established their own national government. The ethnic minorities in the north also took the opportunity to establish their own political power. Among them, the "Wuhu" was the most powerful. Together with the Han people , these five nations established 16 nations. Over this century, these countries have attacked each other with little time for peace.
Therefore, this period is also known as the "Five Hushuanghuahua" period. Of course, this period is also the most turbulent period in Chinese history. During this period, the Han population was reduced by half in an instant.
This is the "Five Hus" mentioned. They are the heroes who once dominated the world, and their light has covered other countries. But it didn't take long for the four other ethnic groups to disappear except the Dai.
So, how did they disappear? What happened in the middle?
The first is the evolution and migration of their country.
Here, we first talk about the Huns. In the late Eastern Han Dynasty, a severe drought occurred in the northern Mongolian steppe. Due to the chronic lack of water, the vegetation has withered. As a result, the Huns split and were divided into South and North Huns. The Southern Xiongnu were attached to the Eastern Han Dynasty, while the Northern Xiongnu migrated to Eastern Europe.
Later, Liu Yuan , the descendant of the Xiongnu, unified the five tribes of the Southern Xiongnu, and claimed to be the descendant of Liu Bang , the ancestor of the Han dynasty . Not long after, Liu Yuan was replaced by his nephew Liu Yan , and the country name was changed to "Zhao". This is the origin of the former Zhao. It can be said that the rule of this country is also one of the heydays of the Huns.
In 329 AD, former Zhao died, and Shi Le replaced it. Therefore, the Xiongnu people withdrew from the regional competition in the Central Plains. Although the Xiongnu also established a great Xia Kingdom in the later period, its influence is negligible.
Next, we talk about the Dai people. This nation has established several countries, including Cheng Han, Qian Qin, and Hou Liang. Among them, only Qian Qin was a bit of influence. In 351 AD, Jian Jian established himself as a king and established the former Qin Kingdom. The former Qin gradually became stronger in the hands of his successor, Jian Jian , unified the area north of the Yellow River and formed a confrontation with the Eastern Jin Dynasty in the south.
By 383 AD, the former Qin had finally accumulated enough strength, and Qian Jian took a million soldiers to govern the Eastern Jin Dynasty. In the Eastern Jin Dynasty, they appointed Xie Shi as the governor and Xie Xuan as the forward governor, and led their troops to meet the enemy. The two armies faced each other across the Strait. This war was the result of Yi Jian's stubborn dedication, and Jian Jian thought that the country had a large army and was fully capable of conquering the Eastern Jin Dynasty, but he forgot the exhortation of his original subordinate Wang Meng .
Before Wang Meng's death, he warned Xun Jian not to easily attack the Eastern Jin Dynasty, but he soon forgot it. When Jian Jian came to Lishui, he saw that the Eastern Jin Dynasty troops on the other side were neatly preparing, and he felt a little timid, and even felt that the swaying grass and trees in the distance were all done by the Jin army. Prior to the start of the war, the Jin army demanded that Jian Jian's army be able to retreat some distance to facilitate Jin's landing. In this regard, Jian Jian agreed.
When the Jian army began to retreat, the Jin army immediately shouted, "The Qin army failed!" Hearing this sentence behind the Jian army, seeing that the army was indeed moving backwards, so he believed that it was true and hurry up He fled, and Jian Jian's army was defeated. After this war, the former Qin collapsed and slowly declined. Later, the former Qin was replaced by the latter.
Next, let's talk about the Dai people. In 386 AD, the Qiang people established the post-Qin Dynasty with Chang'an as the capital under the leadership of Yao Kun . The areas ruled by the post-Qin Dynasty include Shaanxi, Gansu, and Henan. In fact, the post-Qin country had no achievements in history. Thirty years later, the country was defeated by Liu Yu from the Eastern Jin Dynasty, and the Dai people could only withdraw from the Central Plains. However, this nation has not disappeared, and their descendants still gather in today's Sichuan Aba Prefecture, Mianzhu, Pingwu and other places.
It can be said that the political power established by these ethnic minorities in the north is not strong and is often just a bluff. Historian Lu Simian once said: "The Five Huhu and Sixteen Kingdoms of the Eastern Jin Dynasty did not become a single country, so their foundations were not stable. It seemed to be magnificent, but it did not encounter a strong enemy and was defeated in World War I. Then, they can be overthrown. "These ethnic minorities are very dependent on the political power. If the political power perishes, they can only migrate; some have left the country, some have been assimilated by the Han people and become part of the extended family.
Secondly, let's talk about the process of extermination of these peoples.
Among these five ethnic minorities, the demise of the Dai people is the most violent. In 319 AD, the general of the Dai nationality Shile established himself as the king, claiming to be King Zhao. After ten years of discussions, Shi Le eliminated former Zhao and succeeded as emperor, establishing the later Zhao. This country has also flourished for a while , with Shandong, Shaanxi, Jiangsu, Anhui, Liaoning, Hubei, Gansu and other places.
Zhao Wang Shile's life experience is very amazing. When he was young, he was trafficked into slavery by the family and lived a life of inferiority. After growing up, he gathered eighteen people and agreed to make a career, so he kicked off the uprising. Shile himself had the courage and conspiracy , and he emerged as a leader in an era of wild wars. Later, through his own efforts, he established a family power, and he can be regarded as the dragon among people .
In these 16 countries, Shi Le is definitely a Mingjun. He is very clear in political governance, while adopting the " Hu Han division " approach in ethnic policy, treating Han and Hu people separately. The state stipulates that: “Hu people ’s needs are given priority, and even if the interests of Han people need to be violated, they are allowed.” For example, Hu people snatching Han people ’s property is allowed at the national level, and Han people Can't resist yet. The state also stipulates that the Han people cannot call the nomadic people "Hu people", they must be called "Chinese people".
The reason why Shile formulated such a policy is also targeted. The regime established by the Han people often oppressed ethnic minorities and sold them as slaves. This led to a general resistance in ethnic minorities. Now that ethnic minorities are in power, they must also target revenge against the Han ethnic group so that they can also experience the taste of discrimination. The former Zhao established by the Huns also adopted the "Hu Han divide" rule. After Shi Le passed away, his nephew snatched the throne and implemented a more brutal ethnic policy.
Shi Hu once called for 400,000 Han people to build palaces in Luoyang and Chang'an. At the construction site, the conditions were very bad, and the Hu people slammed Han people's workers, causing many Han people to die innocently. Shi Hu also robbed many Han women to enrich his harem, killing and abusing these women at will, resulting in many deaths.
It can be said that it was also during the Shihu rule that the number of Han people in the north dropped sharply to 6 million. When there is oppression, there will naturally be resistance, and the Chinese General Ran Min has risen. Ran Min defeated Shi Hu and killed all relatives of Shi Hu. He liberated the Han women who were plundered by the Hu people. This time there were as many as 200,000 women. After that, Ran Min even adopted a more extreme way to avenge Hu Ren.
He once issued an order: "People who are concentric with the officials, and those who disagree with each other." He wanted to see who would be on his own, and who betrayed himself. As a result, the Han people flocked into the city, while the Dai and Xiongnu fled. Two streams of people met at the gate of the city, blocking the gate. So Ran Min ordered the Qiang and the Huns to be killed.
In addition, as long as the people in the city with dark eyes and yellow hairs are Hu people, they should be killed. At that time, Tancheng alone killed 200,000 Hu people. After this catastrophe, the Hu people can no longer do evil because they are almost extinct.
There are also cormorants and cormorants in Wuhu, which originally lived in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. They were unified by Songtsan Gambo in the early Tang Dynasty to establish the Tubo Kingdom, which disappeared in history. In addition, part of the southward migration formed the six cormorants in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. In the end, it was unified into Nanzhao , and after the fall of Nanzhao , it was divided into various ethnic groups; the rest continued to move south, writing the history of Myanmar together with the various ethnic groups at the time.
Finally, let's take a look at the path of integration of these peoples.
The disappearance of the Xianbei ethnic group was mainly due to their choice to become Chinese and integrate with the Han people. We often hear some surnames, such as Murong , Yuwen , and Tuoba, all of whom are Xianbei people. This ethnic group has established many countries, such as Qianyan, Houyan, Xiyan, Nanliang, Nanyan, Northern Wei and other countries. It has almost continued the entire history of the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties .
In 439, Tuobayu ended the chaos in the north and established a new country. In 490 AD, Emperor Xiaowen Tuobahong took over the pro-government. The new emperor acknowledged the Han culture more. He adopted a different ethnic policy than the Emperor Wuhu. He chose to take the initiative to border the Han people and strive for great national integration. Tuobahong moved the capital to Luoyang, the Han cultural center, and changed the Hu's last name to the Han's last name in accordance with the habits of the Han people.
For example: "Tuba" was changed to "Yuan"; he also required that the original national language must not be spoken in the country, and it must be changed to the language of the Han people; moreover, the Hu people must marry the Han people or marry the Han people. Marriage. This Tuobahong is kind of visionary, knowing that it will be Han Chinese in the future, and now he has to learn from Han actively.
It can be said that the policy he formulated is actually the general trend. The Hu and Han people have fought for hundreds of years, and each time they lose each other. He felt that it was time to make a change in his generation. It is better to be tolerant to fight each other, so that we can get along with each other friendly. To this, Tuobahong is quite insightful.
Not only that, in the process of Hu people being Hanized, Han people were gradually "Hu Hanized." In fact, the later Sui and Tang dynasties were the result of the "Hu Hu" of the Hans. Although both dynasties were dominated by the Hans, they advocated martial arts, which were not available to the previous Hans. This was obviously the result of ethnic integration. That's why historians have said: The Li Yuan family does have Hu descent!
The law of history tells us that national integration has its inevitability. This is a historical trend and no one can stop it. Therefore, we can no longer say that we are the most primitive and pure Han descent.
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