Foreword: Of the Seven Warlords of the Warring States Period , Qin State was not a vassal state destined to achieve final victory from the beginning. It seems that in addition to Yan and South Korea , Chu, Wei , Qi , and Zhao all have the possibility to complete unification. Although the decline of these four vassal states can be traced, if you want to find out the most It is a pity that the vassal states are regarded by many as Chu states. If you think about it, as a Chu country entangled in the south of the Yangtze River, the heyday was the most extensive area among the warring states vassals. This was actually the capital that ruled the king . After all, in the cold weapon era , land was wealth, and land was the warring state The focus of the vassals. However, although the Chu State had occupied its advantages at the beginning, the fruit of the final victory was robbed by the Qin State. This also led to the Chu State that created a glorious history thousands of years ago, but today people know it well. less. Of course, many people do not know that the first Great Wall, the first county, the first writing brush, and even the first iron sword in Chinese history all appeared in Chu. Chu had a glorious past, so why was it perished by Qin? When we looked through the history of thousands of years with doubtful eyes and looked at Wu Qi, who had presided over the reform and made Chu strong for a while, he didn't have the slightest wave, Just said calmly: from the moment I died, it was doomed. In this article, the author starts with Wu Qi ’s official career, and talks about why Wu Qi ’s reform failed, and then talks about why Chu State was eventually destroyed by Qin State.
Bronze perfectly interpreting the superb technology of Chu State
Wu Qi was a professional bureaucrat during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period.
At first Wu was only a disrespectful young man. Although his family was not poor and rich in money, his goal was to become an official, so he spent all his fortune to get a half-office job , but Wei Guo let Wu Qi down. Because even if he had run away with his family fortune, he didn't get it as expected, but was also joked by his neighbors. Wu Qi could not bear it, so he "killed more than 30 people who slandered him."
In this way, Wu Qi was completely unable to stay in the Wei Kingdom, but Wu Qi was not panic, because during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period, the vassals of the country were established. Wu Qi believed that there was always a world of his own. After careful consideration, Wu Qi chose to go to Lu Why do you want to go to Lu country, because "Zhou Li is in Zhou".
As Gao Shiqi of the Qing Dynasty said: Zhou Zhi is the closest to Lu, and Lu Suoyi wears Mo Ruzhou. The meaning of this sentence is that the princes of the world and the royal family of Zhou are the most "close" to Lu. It was also the Zhou royal family. In addition, Lu Guo was also the birthplace of Confucianism at that time. Wu Qi, who was pregnant in the world, naturally wanted to get a "diploma" issued by Confucianism, so Wu Qi went to Lu Guo, which was also his starting point as a professional bureaucracy.
After Wu played the Chu Kingdom, he entered the Confucian Zengzi 's door. Whether Zengzi was a Zengshen or Zengshen had different views, but he died in the first 435 years, so it was almost impossible for him to teach Wuqi Confucianism.
Wu Qi Statue
Wang Yinglin ’s “Certificate” quoted Liu Xiang ’s “Beilu”, saying: Zuo Qiuming taught Zeng Shen and Wu Qi. From this, we can know that Wu Qi ’s teacher should be Zeng Shen instead of Zeng Shen, but Zeng Shen was the son of Zeng Shen, so he is also called Zeng Zi is also reasonable.
In 412 BC, Qi Xuangong attacked Lu Guo, Lu Jun was very anxious. After all, the etiquette advocated by ordinary days could not stop the attack of Qi Guo soldiers, but Lu Guo did n’t know anything. Lu Jun thought of Wu Qi when he thought about it, but Wu Qi ’s wife was Qi Guoren, this put Lu Jun into a contradictory situation, and Wu Qi's next move made everyone petrified, because Wu Qi "became a name, and then killed his wife, so as to be incompatible with Qi".
There is something else to say, so Lu Jun appointed Wu Qi as a general, which broke the Qi army, but this was not the starting point of Wu Qi ’s rise in Lu Guo, but the end point. Because Lu people looked at Wu Qi ’s excellence and could not tolerate it, he said Wu Qi Bad words, and Lu Jun also doubted Wu Qi, so Wu Qi can not stay in Lu Guo.
War in the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period
Wu Qi's experience in the country of Lu made it clear that the monarch can understand the importance of human goodness. Looking at all the princes in the world, only Wei Wenhou of Wei Guo can match these four words. So Wu Qi left Lu Guo and went to Wei Guo, Wei Wenhou really It was a master of the Ming dynasty. When he heard that Wu got up and voted, he asked Li Ke (Li Ye). Li Ke replied: He was greedy and lascivious, but he couldn't live with Bing Sima.
Here we are going to talk about the subordinate Ma Ma. This person is a famous warrior in the Spring and Autumn Period. Tai Shigong once commented in the "Taishi Gong Autonomous Preface" that he has Sima Fa since the ancient king. It can be seen that in the eyes of Li Ke, Wu Qi's talents in military affairs are quite outstanding, so Wu Qi has become a general of Wei Wenhou.
Wu Qi did not disappoint Wei Wenhou. After being appointed as a general, Wu Qi achieved a very proud record. "Historical Records of Sun Zi Wuzi" records: Wei Wenhou thought that he would strike the Qin and pull the five cities, and then Wei Wenhou ordered Wu Qi to serve Xi Heshou, "I reject Qin and Han."
After Wei Wenhou's death, Wei's scepter was passed to Wei Wuhou 's hands, but Wei Wuhou was very frightened of Wu Qi. Furthermore, Wu Qihou could not be Wei Wuhou's confidant, and framed by the prime minister of Wei Guo, Wu Qi was excluded by Wei Guoxin's leadership, and the result was "Wu Hou suspected and believed, Wu Qi feared offending, then went, that is, Chu."
Wu Qi left Wei and went to Chu. His last life will end here, and in Wu Qi of Chu, he also made a change. It can be said that it burned the last light and heat in life, from Lu to Wei. In Chu State, Wu Qi can be said to be one of the few professional bureaucrats of that era. It can be said that Wu Qi, as a commoner, then pointed out a road to Kangzhuang, that is, "good birds choose wood for habitation."
Wu Qi's Reform in Chu State.
The political structure of society is by no means a corresponding reform that closely follows the drastic changes in social economic living conditions. -Engels ' Anti-Dulin Theory
The above Engels statement shows that this inherently conservative nature of the socio-political structure exists in various social forms experienced by human beings. There is no doubt that before Wu Qi went to Chu State, the political system and society of Chu State at that time There are contradictions between the economies, and compared with other vassal states at that time, this contradiction in the Chu State is even more prominent.
Against this background, Wu played the Chu Kingdom, and Wu Qi had a profound understanding of the situation of the Chu Kingdom. This understanding is clearly recorded in " Han Feizi and the He Family ": The former Wu Qi taught Chu to mourn Wang Yichu The custom of the country is: "The ministers are too heavy, and the monarchs are too many; if so, the Lord will abuse the people, and this poor country will also have weak soldiers."
Weapons unearthed from the tomb of King Chu
The meaning of this sentence is that Wu Qi believes that the Minister of the Chu Kingdom has too much power and that there are too many nobles in the clan. These people will force the monarch and abuse the people. This will make the country poor and weaken the army, which is not conducive to The strength of the country, that is to say, from Wu Qi's point of view, the crux of the country's strength lies in politics.
Before Wu Qi was in Wei Kingdom, he also participated in Li Zhi ’s reform. Many people think that Wu Qi ’s reform in Chu was actually carrying Li ’s reform. In fact, it ’s not true, because the core of Li Qi ’s reform is to do his best "Teaching" and "Ping An Law", the content of the two reforms is aimed at the field of social economic life.
In terms of politics, although Li Zhi proposed to abolish hereditary aristocratic privileges, it did not involve the most fundamental political system, and Wu Qi ’s reform in Chu was mainly political. Therefore, Wu Qi ’s reform in Chu required corrective measures, and It is impossible to completely copy Li Zhi's reform in Wei Kingdom, so what exactly happened to Wu Qi in Chu Kingdom?
Ming law trial order, to donate the urgency of alienation to raise warriors, must be strong soldiers, break the words of the persecutors. -"Historical Biography of Sun Tzu, Wu Qi"
Wu Qi was the majesty of the Minister of Legislative Affairs of King Chu Mourning King. He was incompetent, abolished and useless, and did not hurt the officials. -"Records of the Historian Fan Ye Cai Ze Biography"
(Wu Qi) So it made the nobles go to the real and empty place. —— " Lv's Spring and Autumn Guigui"
The armor of Chu soldiers during the Warring States Period
How Wu Qi carried out the reform and what the specific process is, there are few records in the literature, but through the above sporadic records, we can conclude that the core of Wu Qi ’s reform in the Chu Kingdom is at the political level, not only to abolish the worldly system It is also necessary to uproot the maggots in these old nobles, which means that Wu Qi has become a sharp knife for King Chu to declare war against the old nobles.
Consequences and interruptions of Wu Qi's reform.
Baiping in Nanping , Chen Cai in the north, but Sanjin and Qin in the west. -"Historical Biography of Sun Tzu, Wu Qi"
Wu Qi's reform in Chu was very effective. As the above quoted records, in a short period of time, Chu was able to make the country rich and powerful and dominate the vassals. Of course, this kind of rich country and powerful soldiers was only for a short time, because with Wu Qi Behind the back of the mountain, when Chu mourned the king's death, Wu Qi's reforms came to an abrupt end, which we will talk about later.
In addition, the " Han Han · Nanbi Southwest Yi Biography" records: Wu Qi commemorates the king, and the south is quite Yue, there are Dongting and Cangwu, that is, under the reform of Wu Qi, the territory of the Chu country has been expanded. .
Ruins of the ancient Great Wall of the Chu Kingdom used to defend the Qin Kingdom
During the period of the Wu Qi Reform, the Chu State also rescued Zhao and attacked Wei. As a result, Wei State was defeated. The Warring States Policy • Qi Ce records: Fighting in the west of the state, out of Liangmen, in the forest of military houses, and drinking in the river From this record, we can also learn that the Chu country hit both banks of the Yellow River in the battle to rescue Zhao from attacking Wei. This is a proud achievement. Of course, it also illustrates Wu Qi ’s power to reform.
Speaking of the defeat of Wei State this time, the author thought that when Wu Qi was in Wei State, Wei Wu swept across the world and hit "Seventy-six with the princes, sixty-four victory, Yu Zejun solution (from" "Wu Zi Tu Guo") ", but when Wu Qi went to Chu State, the Chu army defeated Wei Wudi. Is Chu State really stronger, or is Wu Qi too good?
No matter what kind of factor, Wu Qi has strengthened the Chu country. This is beyond doubt. With Wu Qi's political and military talents and the trust of the King Chu Mourning, coupled with the unlimited potential of the Chu country, Wu Qi could have been before the princes. Show it again, but the good times don't last long , because Chu Mourning King died.
As a result of the reform, Wu Qi has become a thorn in the eyes of the old nobles of the Chu country. There is no longer a tree to rely on. When the King Chu died, the old nobles could n't wait to fight back. Wu Qi became the fish on the cutting board of the old aristocracy. Eventually Wu Qi was shot and killed.
Wu Qi's death was an inevitable result of the struggle between two incompatible political forces, and the reform of the Chu State was therefore interrupted. Although Wu Qi made his last effort before his death, he pulled a lot of old nobles to be buried, but the old nobles passed Development eventually occupied the ruling class of the Chu State, which means that the Chu State still returned to the old path before Wu Qi's reform.
The failure of Wu Qi's reform and the demise of Chu State.
King Chu Mourning appointed Wu Qi to reform, it seems that the new landlord class has the upper hand on the political stage of Chu Kingdom, but in fact this power is very weak, at least it has not established a foothold, then the failure of Wu Qi Reform and Chu Kingdom What is the relationship between demise?
Wu Qi's reform in Chu can be said to be successful in the military. Of course, this is also Wu Qi ’s goal. After all, he is in Chu to build an army that can sweep the world like Wei Wudi. Soldier, and he declared war on the old aristocracy, the purpose is to "money", the money can arm soldiers.
Luo Quyuan Temple of Chu State
When Wu Qi was in the Wei Kingdom, he did n’t need to worry about money, because Li Zhi ’s reform provided an economic foundation for Wei ’s military reform. What Wu Qi had to do was concentrate on training soldiers. Unlike the Chu country, the royal family was not rich and the old aristocracy Dividing and dividing up the wealth of the Chu State with the slave owners , Wu Qi had no choice but to operate against the old aristocracy, which also caused the conflict between the two political forces to be irreconcilable, which can be said to be endless.
With the support of King Chu, Wu Qi had the upper hand, so Chu made the country a rich country and a strong soldier in a short time, and these performed incisively and vividly, but as soon as King Chu died, the old aristocratic forces immediately made a comeback , so if you ignore the country of Chu in the military It can be said that Wu Qi ’s reform was actually a failed reform.
This result was not only Wu Qi ’s personal sorrow, but also the sorrow of the entire Chu State. Wu Qi did his best to change the situation and failed to solve the chronic illness of Chu ’s conservative and backward political system. The best time to destroy Qin.
From the death of Wu Qi to the demise of Chu, in the intervening period of more than 100 years, Chu has not undergone major political reforms. The old political system firmly controlled the life of Chu, let alone a feudal one. Political reforms, although the "Qu Yuan Reform" appeared during the period of King Chu Huai , but in the end, it was only a short-lived , and it can even be said that his reform measures had not yet begun to be put into action, and they had ended.
Wu Qi Reform
In contrast, Qin State has established a feudal political system since the Shangyang Reform. Qin Guozi has been active in the political stage of Qin State. This has not only cracked down on the power of the old aristocracy, but also has injected freshness into Qin State ’s politics. In the blood of Qin State, although the "four nobles in power" also appeared, it did not form hereditary in the end. This is also due to the political system of Qin State.
Why was the Chu Kingdom perished by the Qin Kingdom? In fact, the moment when Wu Qi died, Wu Qi was not doomed to reform the backward political system of the Chu Kingdom, and later people failed to do so, so from a political perspective, Qin Mingchu was not an accident, but an inevitable development of history. Of course, there were many factors in the destruction of the Chu Kingdom by the Qin Kingdom. Although decaying politics was not the only factor, it was the most fundamental factor.
It seems that Qin Michu is only a victory in war. In fact, it is not just a manifestation of military superiority. The military is a concentrated embodiment of politics. The vassal states with a decaying political system can have invincible military power. It can be said that those who destroyed Chu, also Chu, but not Qin.
There is such a record in the "Warring States Policy · Zhongshan Policy": At this time, Sergeant Qin was a soldier, with the army as his home, the commander as his parents, and he agreed with each other, he never believed, he worked with one heart, and he never died. The Chu people went to war for themselves and paid attention to their homes. They had their own distractions and no fighting spirit. Does this exactly explain the gap between Chu and Qin?
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