What is the " Five Virtue Ends " that the interesting history editor brought to you today? I hope it can be helpful to you.
When we mention the "gold, wood, water, fire, earth", the five elements are in harmony with each other, we will always think of the wonderful world of yin and yang in Taoism . In fact, the Five Elements is also closely related to ancient politics. The application of the Five Elements doctrine to politics gave rise to the Five Virtues. Come and learn with Lanke Renjun!
One, five elements and five virtues
After hundreds of years of annexation wars in the Spring and Autumn Period, the Warring States period entered, leaving only a few major powers to compete. At this time, the philosophers have launched their own doctrine, selling to various monarchs. At the end of the Warring States Period, due to the advancement of the war for hegemony, countries believed that the original title of "king" could no longer represent its status, and countries successively claimed to be emperors. In such an era of imperialism, an idea for its service is urgently needed. Qi Yan Zou Yan's Five Virtues finally came into being. The core of "Five Virtues" from the beginning of the Five Virtues originated from the concept of "Five Elements" in the early history of our country.
The specific time when the Five Elements Concept was produced is not available for testing, but it is closely related to the daily production and life of Chinese ancestors, transportation trips, and totem worship. Due to insufficient materials, scholars have been arguing over the most primitive references of the "Five Elements." But "Yi Zhou Shu" records that when Zhou Gong answered the question of King Zhou Wu, he said: "Five elements: one black, bit water; two red, bit fire; three Cang, bit wood; four white, bit gold; five yellow, bit soil. Therefore, in the Western Zhou Dynasty, there should be no doubt that "gold, wood, water, fire, and soil" were regarded as the five elements. The five elements are considered to be the five basic substances that make up the world, and they can both restrain each other and derive from each other.
Zou Yan used the theory of the five elements to overcome each other, combined the traditional "yin and yang" concept with the theory of heaven and human induction, to construct a set of ideas to legally explain the change of power. He first applied the Five Elements Doctrine to the change of dynasty. He pointed out: Huangdi was Tude; Xia Dynasty was Huangdi lineage, so Xia was Mude; Shang Kexia, Shang was Jinde; Zhou Keshang, Zhou was Huode. Those who will replace the Zhou dynasty in the future will surely be the water virtue to overcome fire. So why did the Germans change? He said it was because of the immoral behavior of the monarch. If the monarch had immoral behavior, auspicious creatures such as dragons, phoenixes, and unicorns would not appear. At the same time, there will be many auspicious omen in the place where the new monarch is born, this phenomenon is called "Fulfill". After the establishment of the new regime, it is necessary to formulate corresponding policies according to the German Games to which it belongs.
2. From "five virtues to each other" to "five virtues to each other"
Qin Shihuang was the first monarch to adopt the Five Virtues. The Zhou Dynasty died and was not deadlocked. Although it had long lost its authority, it was defeated by Qin after surviving the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. After Qin unified the world, in order to create the legitimacy of the Zhou Dynasty, Qin Shihuang used the five virtues all the time. He inherited Zou Yan's claim that since Zhou was a fire virtue, Qin Dynasty was a water moral. The color of the water is black, so the Qin Empire is still black, and the palace coats are mainly black. In addition, he concocted that before the fall of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the royal family moved eastward, Qin Wengong encountered a black dragon while hunting, which was a sign that Heaven instructed Qin Dynasty Zhou. However, Qin Shihuang abandoned the moral part of Zou Yan's doctrine, and instead used water-based coldness as an excuse for his torture law.
(Image of Qin Shihuang's film and television drama)
Qin was violent and died. After Gao Zu Liu Bang established the Han Dynasty , he believed that the 15 years of Qin unification was still the remnant of the Warring States Period, and he really ended the chaos. Therefore, Liu Bang also decided that Han was a water virtue, still black, and attacked the Qin uniform. By the time of Emperor Hanwu , the situation had changed. Emperor Hanwu was an ambitious emperor . He maintained a high degree of agreement with Emperor Qin Shihuang. He was a poor soldier and a great meritorious service . In addition to the expeditions and vassals, he was bound to fall behind in the reform of Dingde. With the assistance of Dong Zhongshu's theoretical construction, he acknowledged the existence of Qin Shuide, Qin of the Han Dynasty, native soil, and color is still yellow. However, Dong Zhongshu was a descendant of Confucianism. On the basis of Zou Yan, he strengthened the moral restraint in the theory of the Five Virtues and emphasized the phenomenon of heaven and human induction. In order to use the sky to warn and restrain the monarch, and urge him to implement benevolence.
(Hanwu Emperor Statue)
After the middle of the Western Han Dynasty, due to the serious consumption of the Emperor Wu's national power and the accumulation of social contradictions, a serious crisis of dominance appeared. Due to many earthquake disasters at the same time. These circumstances make many people think that the Han Dynasty is over. The Confucian scholar Hong Hong believed that the Han emperor should be located in the wise man. He pointed out: "After the Han Dynasty was Yao, there is a legacy. Han emperor should send the world, seek sages, and give way to the emperor, and retreat from the hundred miles, such as Queen Yin on Tuesday. Cheng Shun's destiny. "He used Dong Zhongshu's doctrine of the Five Elements, and reordered the order of moral movement, that is, Yao was a fire virtue; fire was born soil, Shun was a soil virtue; earth born gold, Xia was a gold virtue; Jin Shengshui, The quotient is Shui De; the aquatic wood, the Zhou is Mu De. Therefore, Han Cheng is from Zhou and Han is a fire virtue. After the Han family was Yao, Yao had the virtue of concession, so he should take the initiative to make way.
In the late Western Han Dynasty, Wang Mang usurped the throne for restructuring, and Han Jiayao later said that it provided a solid theoretical basis for it. He asked Liu Ye to enrich and develop this theory. Liu Ye also incorporated Qin into the system, but put it into the throne, arguing that Qin was not a moral movement in the normal dynasty. Emperor Guangxiu , the Emperor Guangwu of the ZTE Han Dynasty, used the saying in Qiwei's "Red Fu Rune" when he started his army: "Liu Xiufa's soldiers could not catch the road, Siyi gathered in Longdouye, and the fire was mainly on the fourth and seventh days." Heir to Fire. Therefore, in the Eastern Han Dynasty , Liu Xiu affirmed the doctrine that Han is a fire virtue and a virtue. The Han family's Wei Yao saying is also considered to be the most reasonable. As a result, we often hear the saying "The Three Hundred Years of Yan and Han".
The end of the third and fifth virtues
Since the establishment of the Five Virtues in the Eastern Han Dynasty, from the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties to the Sui and Tang dynasties, whether it was the Northern Dynasties of the Sixteen Kingdoms and Northern Wei established by the Hu people, or the Song , Qi, Liang, Chen and other regimes of the Southern Dynasties after the Eastern Jin Dynasty, even the unified Sui and Tang dynasties. The great empire, and even Zhao Song of the Five Dynasties, used the theory of the five virtues as the basis of their legitimacy. At the same time, whether it is usurpation of power by ministers or seizure of power by force, when the regime is transferred, they must perform a slapstick farewell to falsely show that their regime originated from the initiative of the former emperor. The combination of the Five Elements theory and the Zen concession system have created naked lies in medieval history.
(Portrait of Ouyang Xiu)
But in the Song Dynasty, this political idea was challenged. Song Ru started a great discussion on the issue of "orthodoxy". Among many views, the most influential comes from Ouyang Xiu. Ouyang Xiu pointed out in his "Orthodox Theory" that "everyone who is orthodox wants to be consistent and endless. To the point that it is not but to belong, he will continue with a dummy and continue with his argument. The husband is right in the world, the world is in one, and Sri Lanka is orthodox. "In the construction of Ouyang Xiu, the legitimacy of the source of political power was emphasized. In the end of the Five Virtues, the legitimacy of the source of the political power was emphasized, that is, the political power had a certain relationship with the previous dynasty. The Five Virtues finally said that each dynasty was playing tricks on the inheritance relationship with the previous dynasty. In order to obtain the continuity between the dynasties and the Germans, they will not overly consider whether the way to win the country is legitimate from the moral level. Moreover, Song Ru especially emphasized the discrimination between Yi and Xia. The traditional regime incorporated the regime established by the Hu tribe into the Five Virtues system, which made them absolutely unacceptable.
Wude finally said that he was eventually buried in the grave with the demise of the Southern Song Dynasty . Although some Confucian scholars have been demonstrating moral fortune to the rulers of Meng Yuan, they have not been ignored by the rulers of Meng Yuan. The rulers of the Yuan Dynasty did not accept the Five Virtues, of course, there was a reason for the poor understanding of the ethnic Han culture. However, from the point of view of its large acceptance of the Han system, the main reason for denying the German Movement was that it had undergone a large-scale discussion of the Five Virtues in the Song Dynasty. People's beliefs about the end of the Five Virtues are not so religious.
(Portrait of Zhu Yuanzhang)
After the establishment of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang no longer cared about the inheritance of the moral movement, but instead emphasized the legitimacy of his way of gaining power. He pointed out: "The thief bee rises, the men fight, steal the state and county. Last resort, the soldiers want to be self-sufficient, and the strength of the army is flourishing, it is the east to the west to discuss, remove the canal, and open up the territory. At that time, the world was no longer the Yuan family .矣 ... Take the world in the hands of the heroes, not in the hands of the Yuans. "The Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty also pointed out that" I will revenge and seek thieves for the Ming Dynasty, set the tripod to the Central Plains, and unite the sea, which is the most positive of the world since ancient times. " During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the emperor's attention had shifted from the legitimacy of inheriting the previous imperial power to the legitimacy of gaining political power.
Wen Shijun said:
The "Five Elements" originated in the production and life of the ancestors of our country. At the time of the Warring States Period, Zou Yan used it to develop the Five Virtues and Win Victory, serving the Warring States hegemony war. For the first time, Qin Shihuang used it to emphasize the legitimacy of his regime. The Han Cheng Qin System continued the system of scheduling the German Games. But in the Western Han Dynasty, Dong Zhongshu, Liu Xiang , and Liu Xie repeatedly deduced this system and creatively proposed the theory of five virtues. After the reorganization of Wang Mang and the repeated dynasty replacement of Guangwu ZTE , the theory of the Five Elements Symbiosis replaced the position of the Xiang Sheng Theory. From Han to Song, due to the ostensibly existence of Zenrang system, the theory of the Five Elements was the best partner. But Song Ru questioned the system, emphasizing "orthodox theory." In the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties, the replacement of the dynasty became a direct force seizure of power. This theory was also inconsistent with reality. With the influence of the Song Confucian theory, the Five Virtues finally said that they officially withdrew from the historical stage.
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