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What were the flaws in the system of the ancient emperor selecting heirs? Why did Yongzheng set up a secret reserve?

Today's interesting history editor brings you the defects of the ancient emperor 's system of selecting heirs. Interested readers can follow the editor to take a look.

In ancient China, because it was a feudal dynasty , the rulers attached great importance to the inheritance of the throne and often implemented a system of "preparing reserves". However, this system has two major flaws:

First, after Chu Jun was prepared, officials were easy to see the wind to make the rudder, to attach Chu Jun, to form a party and private business. After the prince had not ascended the throne and the prince inherited the throne, these parties were easily divided, causing chaos in the imperial court.

The second is who Chu should choose, this issue is very important. If we do not formulate a relatively fair system that will convince everyone, it will easily lead to the dissatisfaction of the ministers, leading to constant disputes between the princes and political unrest.

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At the founding of the kingdom, the monarchs usually had two options:

One is to pass the throne to the brother who fights the world with himself. This kind of plan is what we often call "brother and brother".

One is to pass the throne to his son, which is "father's death."

However, we all know that the emperor's wives and concubines are numerous, and there are naturally few children. However, there is only one throne, and each child is his own biological flesh. At this time, who should he pass to?

As a result, the system of the eldest son of "Li Li, who grows up by virtue but not by virtue, and Li Zi, no matter how expensive, does not grow up" was born. However, this system has its own inherent and insurmountable disadvantages. In ancient Chinese families, the children born to the wife of the main room were called children born, and the children born to the children of the side room were called children born. Such a distinction is also part of the ancient Chinese hierarchy.

In the royal family, the throne competition between the puppet ranks is even more intense, and the contradictions are also very sharp. Although the eldest son system has been formulated, it cannot fundamentally solve the problem of inheritance of the throne.

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In summary, these shortcomings of the throne inheritance system also attracted the attention of rulers during the Qing Dynasty.

Therefore, the Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty implemented a relatively special " secret reserve " system. However, this system of secretly establishing the monarch can only eliminate to some extent some shortcomings of the succession of the throne. In order to explain the origin of this system, we will first briefly introduce the evolution of the Manchu royal monarch system.

At the beginning, the founder of the Qing Dynasty, Nurhachi , was the eldest son of Li Er as his heir. Later, the eldest son was abolished, and the second eldest son was elected instead of the first eldest son. The second eldest son was abolished soon after. Therefore, it is stipulated that after the death of Nurhachi, one of the banner leaders will deduce one person to play the role of "big sweat". In the end, Taizi Huangzi was elected, and later, he was named emperor.

After Huang Taiji's death, his brother and son began to fight for the throne. Finally, another son of Huang Taiji, Fulin, ascended to the throne with the support of Xiaozhuang and Doerji, later Emperor Shunzhi . This result was actually a throne battle between "brother and brother" and "father died and son succeeded". In the end, father and son succeeded in gaining initial victory.

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Later, due to the early death of Emperor Shunzhi, he failed to establish Xunzi as Chujun, but the thought of his father's death and son's succession has become the dominant concept in the royal family. When Kangxi reached the throne of God, it also marked the succession of the throne to the royal father and son, which was eventually established.

During the Kangxi period, the San Francisco rebellion brought turmoil to the country. In order to stabilize this situation and consolidate his rule, Emperor Kangxi established his youngest ignorant eldest son as his prince. Decades later, the prince grew up. At this time, the prince was in his thirties, so he was not satisfied with the position of "prince" and wanted to take the throne, but at this time Kangxi was still in position and healthy.

As a result, the contradiction between Kangxi and the Prince has deepened. At the same time, the prince continued to gang up in private, and gradually formed his own power. In addition, he was born and raised from a young age, and looked down on the Prince and often humiliated them. At the beginning, Kangxi just opened his eyes and closed his eyes. Later, Kangxi was so intolerable that he deposed the prince.

However, Kangxi had only one such sister-in-law, so for a moment, all the princes rushed out to fight for the crown prince. Forced by such fierce competition among the princes, and the helplessness of the ministers requesting Li Chujun, Kangxi had to re-establish the original prince. However, the Prince was still deadly and did not change the gang. The other princes were not idle, and continued the battle, both secretly and implicitly, to frame the prince.

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The battle over the princes' storage places made Emperor Kangxi very upset. In the end, he severely punished some of the most active members of the princeling to kill chickens and monkeys . Subsequently, Kangxi abolished the Prince again. In the years since then, the dispute over the reserve has continued, and many officials have split into multiple parties due to the question of the monarch, which has caused serious political impact. Later, the four princes became heirs to the nine sons and daughters.

After Emperor Yongzheng took office, he learned the lessons of the emperor's reserve dispute during the Kangxi period, and decided to implement a new method of reserve establishment: the secret reserve system. To put it simply, the emperor wrote the same Prince Secret candidate he chose into two identical secrets:

A secret key is kept in a small box and sealed. It is hidden behind a plaque at the highest point of the palace in front of the ministers, so as to convey a message to the people that "the prince is standing and the world is stable."

The other secret was kept by the emperor himself.

Before the emperor was dying, he passed on the names of the princes written on the two secretaries. In this way, even if the emperor encounters accidents, he cannot take out the secret key he keeps, or if others cannot find the secret key, the secret key is also used as a voucher. Thereafter, the four emperors Qianlong , Jiaqing , Daoguang , and Xianfeng were selected in this way to ascend the throne.

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Emperor Xianfeng had only one son, so he had no choice but to inherit the throne after this death. The following emperors, Tongzhi and Guangxu , had no sons, so they could only choose their favorite heirs from the side branches of the family.

In fact, in order to secretly establish the Prince of Chu like this, in addition to keeping the name of the prince to be established secret, it is also necessary not to be constrained by the eunuchs, starting from the comprehensive evaluation of the princes. When Qianlong first set up Chu Jun secretly, he was actually influenced by the concept of 嫡 长. And this may be deeply related to his relationship with his uncle's wife. Therefore, he loves Wuya and Wu , and also loves his uncle 's wife.

After the death of Xunzi, Qianlong thought deeply about the eldest son of the eldest son. After weighing the pros and cons, Qianlong decided to abolish the traditional eldest son of the eldest son system and choose Chu Chu according to the character of the emperor. In order to allow his ideas to be implemented smoothly, Qianlong also wrote a copy to show his attitude. He said: It is ridiculous that Li Chujun's statement that "you should not grow by virtue but by virtue, do not grow by virtue".

In fact, if you want to implement a secret reserve plan, there is an important link that is to remove the restrictions of the oldest eldest son system. From this point of view, the Emperor Yongzheng was the first emperor to choose Chujun regardless of his identity, expulsion, and age.

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At that time, the identity of the Emperor Chu Zhenghongli (later Emperor Qianlong) secretly established by Emperor Yongzheng was not the most honorable or the oldest among many princes, but Yongzheng still established Hong Calendar is Chu Jun, among them, Yongzheng is because of fancy Hongli's character and talents. After that, the emperors were all the same. Among the princes, they considered and selected their talents and morals.

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