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Guangwu ZTE

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During the 33 years of Emperor Guangwu's reign, he adopted a series of measures to restore and develop the economy. Politically strengthen the centralization of power and give generous honor to the heroes, but prohibit them from doing government. Rejecting the San Gong and aggravating the power of Shangshu, who had previously controlled the documents around the emperor . The National Government Affairs and Economic Affairs Desk took over the emperor, abolished the captains who controlled the army, demobilized the local army, abolished the system of higher service, simplified administration and reduced officials, and sacked More than 400 counties; economically liberating productive forces, has issued a ban on slavery, stipulated that slaves must not be mitigated, burned slaves are punished by law, exempted from being burned by slaves, and abolition of the law of slavery firing and capital punishment . The lighter taxation system of the Western Han Dynasty was restored, and thirty taxes and one tax were implemented. Organize army reclamation. The exempted prisoners were common people and used in the border county Tuntian. Ordered the field, inspected the hukou, strengthened the feudal state control over land and labor. Confucianism was also vigorously promoted in culture, and it was highly regarded in the Eastern Han Dynasty. Historians in the Eastern Han Dynasty also praised it as the era of "the most beautiful weather and the most prosperous Confucianism" (Sima Guang, Liang Qichao ) in Chinese history.

Guangwu ZTE

Guangwu ZTE-the most beautiful weather and the most prosperous Confucian era.

Why is Liu Xiu able to Guangwu ZTE? Generosity and fortitude

If Wang Mang did not usurp the Han, he would not have been born in troubled times, and Liu Xiu , the ninth grandson of Han Gaozu , would have been a farmer with a little culture and hard work throughout his life. This is very different from the Emperor Guangxiu Liu Xiu, the founder of the Eastern Han Dynasty, where the customs are the most beautiful and the Confucianism is the most prosperous ( Liang Qichao ).

"Hanshu Emperor Guangwu" records that Liu Xiu died at the age of nine and was raised by his uncle Liu Liang. After growing up, Liu Xiu was a talented man with a height of seven feet, three inches, a clear eyebrow , a big mouth, and a high nose. In his youth, Liu Xiu was "hard at work". This is quite different from his brother Liu Yan (Bo Sheng). Liu Yan is a "chivalier," and likes to dance with guns and make great clubs. Therefore, Liu Xiu was not ridiculed by his brother. Liu Yan ridiculed his second brother like Gao Zu Liu Bang , and only suffocated his crops. However, Liu Liang's family seems not to be too bad, and it is not bad to be a nephew. Therefore, Liu Xiu had the opportunity to go to Chang'an to listen to Chinese doctor Xu Ziwei's "Shang Shu" and "tell a little justice" during the period of Wang Mang Tianfeng (AD 14-19). It was just that during the school year, there was no money to use. I collected money with a student named Han to buy a donkey, and let the attendant take care of the rent and pay the tuition fee. It can be seen that Liu Xiu is not a big boss. He can live a kind of country life that is sunny and plentiful.

Liu Xiu became emperor in the future, obviously beyond the expectations of the female elders in the family. In the seventeenth year of Emperor Guangwu's founding (41 AD), in October, after Liu Xiu held a sacrifice event in his hometown, he drank and enjoyed the fun and rewarded everyone. Several female elders of the Liu family used the excitement of drinking to discuss together: "Uncle Wen (Liu Xiuzi) was cautious and honest when he was young, he didn't know how to deal with people, and he was blunt and docile. I can't think of becoming such a person today! After listening, Liu Xiu laughed and said, "I want to govern the world, and I want to use meek methods."

"The Analects of Confucius · Taber" recorded a sentence that Zeng Zi said, "Scientists must not be forged, but have a long way to go." Hong, Zhang Taiyan considers the meaning of "strong" according to the word "bow". But that is the original meaning of the word "Hong" and it has a broad meaning after being extended. Yi means to be firm. Taken together, Hony means generosity and perseverance. As a human character, I think that among the emperors of all ages, Emperor Guangxiu of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Liu Xiuyu, was close.

Liu Xiu's generosity has made him famous in his youth. Wang Mangdi emperor for three years (21 AD), Liu Yan gathered to join the army and embarked on the road of rebellion against Wang Mang's regime. At the beginning, the children of the relatives were afraid, afraid of being connected, and fleeing and hiding everywhere, shouting "Bo Sheng is going to kill me". When I saw that Liu Xiu was also a general with a “dark suit and crown”, he was all surprised and wondered: “Those who are cautious and loyal are like this.” But then, the heart gradually calmed down.

Liu Xiu's generosity was mainly manifested in a series of policy measures such as the release of slave prisoners, the promotion of thin funeral and thrift, the reduction of taxes, and the notion of merits. In this regard, there is a systematic narrative in the history textbooks. I don't plan to make a detailed discussion here, just to give two examples: one of the examples, Liu Xiu claimed that the emperor in September of that year, the Red Eyebrow Army invaded Changan, and the emperor Liu Xuan hurriedly The deserted city fled, and his wife and children were incompletely clothed and were on the road. Liu Xiu expressed his sympathy and ordered: "Seal Liu Xuan as the King of Huaiyang. If his officials hurt him, he would have the same sin." We know that Liu Xuan had a vengeance against Liu Xiu-Liu Yan died In the hands of Liu Xuan. Liu Xuan was later killed by the Red Eyebrow Army. In the second example, in February of the 11th year of Jianwu, an edict was issued: "The nature of the heaven and earth is precious. It is not a crime to kill slaves and slaves." The moxibustion burner is ridiculous. "How careful is the care for the people at the bottom!

Liu Xiu's generosity also manifested in treating his wife and children. The title of queen was abolished because of her contempt for queen Guo. However, Liu Xiu did not put it to the end like other emperors, but only reduced to the Queen Mother of Zhongshan. Instead of cracking down on her relatives, she gave preferential treatment. For example, Liu Fu, her neutron son, was promoted to King Zhongshan, and Changshan County was placed under Zhongshan Kingdom. Her elder brother Guo Guode was a great country, Yang Anhou. His cousin Guo Jing was conquered as a new concubine from the captain of the army due to his success in the battle, and was officially promoted to the East China Sea. Guo Cang was later promoted to Da Hongyu, and Liu Xiu visited his house many times, rewarding him with countless money. At that time, people in Beijing called Guo Cangjia a "golden cave." When her mother died, Liu Xiu led Baiguan to the funeral and buried her parents together.

In fact, Guo's fall from grace was not because Liu Xiuxi was tired of the old. Liu Xiu's favorite woman is Nanyang Xinye beauty Yin Lihua , who was married to his wife earlier than Guo's. Liu Xiu passed Nanyang in his early years and heard of Yin Lihua's good name. Later, when I arrived in Chang'an, I saw that the Jin Wu (commander of the garrison troops) was very prestigious and sent out a famous emotion: "Shi Yan, as the Jin Wu, marries his wife as Yin Lihua." Liu Xiu married Yin Lihua in the beginning of the first year (23 ) In June, the marriage of Guo Shengtong , a true dweller, was in the spring of the second year. After Liu Xiu became the emperor, originally she wanted to establish the "elegant and generous" Yin Lihua queen. However, Yin Lihua gave birth to a son because of Guo's son. She did not have a son at the time. She resolutely resigned. The Queen's. It can be said that Yin Lihua is not only Liu Xiu's first love, but also his lifelong love. In Liu Xiu's heart, Yin Lihua's status is always beyond anyone's reach. Guo's struggle with Yin Lihua is very unwise.

Liu Xiu's persevering character was vividly displayed when he was in danger in the process of fighting against Wang Mang. In the first year of the first year, in the area around Kunyang, Wang Mang dispatched Situ Wang Xun and Dasi Kong Wangyi, "one million soldiers and four hundred twenty thousand soldiers." Later, Yan You and Chen Mao's troops were reunited. Liu Xiu's men, but thousands of soldiers died, and serious shortage of food. When the army was under pressure, the generals fled into Kunyang City, panicking, worrying about their wives, and all wanted to run back to their towns. At this time, Liu Xiu calmly analyzed the situation and pointed out that there was only one way out, which was to "work together with one's name and courage" instead of "keeping his wife's belongings." He said: "If you defeat the enemy today, you will have thousands of treasures , and you can do great things; if you lose, you will have no leader, no money!" Finally, they convinced everyone. Under Liu Xiu's ingenious arrangement and brave charge, he achieved a small victory of dozens of enemies. The generals were very happy. For Liu Xiu, "I saw a small enemy in my life, but a brave enemy today." I was charged at the forefront. At the same time, I was surprised, but also had confidence and was willing to follow Liu Xiu. At last, Wang Shao defeated the army with less victory than strength, and Wang Yi, Yan You, and Chen Mao rode on the soldier's body on horseback, barely crossing the river to escape.

After the victory in Kunyang, Liu Xiu captured Puyang again. Unfortunately, during this period, his brother Liu Yan was killed by Liu Xuan. In order to protect himself, Liu Xiu went to Wancheng instead of confessing his sins and thanked Liu Xuan. When Liu Yan's subordinates greeted him, Liu Xiu didn't tell them a whisper, and he was always reviewing his sins. He didn't show his complacency because of Kun Yang's work, and he didn't dare to mourn for his brother. All the same as usual. The emperor Liu Xuan was ashamed, and worshipped Liu Xiu as a broken general and sealed Wu Xinhou. Liu Xiu's patience and hard work are absolutely first-rate.

In the late Western Han Dynasty, after Wang Mang usurped the throne , the princes rallied, and the heroes galloped. Liu Xiu was able to unite the world with a civilian through more than ten years of war, and create a dynasty that lasted for nearly two hundred years. If Liu Xiu was the king of ZTE, then none of the other ZTE kings in Chinese history was Can be compared with him. Liu Xiu's way of success is directly related to his generosity and perseverance.

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How did Emperor Guangxiu Liu Xiu realize the resurgence of Guangwu?


Emperor Guangxiu Liu Xiu of the Han Dynasty (January 15, 5 BC-March 29, 57 BC), uncle Wen, born in Caiyang County, Nanyang County, born in Jiyang County, Chenliu County, the founding emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty, in Chinese history Famous politician, military strategist.

In the last years of the new dynasty king, the sea collapsed and the world was in chaos. As a commoner, Liu Xiu had the blood of the former dynasty and started his army in his hometown. In 25 AD, Liu Xiu broke openly with the Gengshi regime, and he became emperor at Qianqiuting, Taonan, Hebei. In order to show Liu's rejuvenation, he still used "Han" as his country name and historically called "East Han".

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Which emperor is Guangwu ZTE? Why is it called Guangwu ZTE

Liu Xiu , Emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty . No. Guangwu. The Han dynasty established by Liu Bang was stunned by Wang Mang's usurpation. Liu Xiu led the rebels to clear up the rebellion and unified the Han Dynasty again. Under the rule of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the society was quiet, and the country's strength was slowly restored. Probably such a process.

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In ancient China, the feudal dynasty pursued a "family world" system. In ancient times, the process of establishing a nation by the rise of a surname was called "Xing". For the Liu family, the process of Liu Bang establishing the former Han was called "Xing", and the process of Liu Xiu establishing the Han was called "Re-Xing", that is, the second rise Meaning. The Liu family is the only family in the history of feudal society in China to "resurrect a family name." In order to show that the Liu family can rise again and again after Liu Bang and Liu Xiu in the future, the rulers of the Eastern Han Dynasty called Liu Xi's post-Han Dynasty process "Liu Jiangshan"-"Zhongxing", that is not the last time for Liu Jiangshan Rise.

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Guangwu ZTE: the resurgence of the glory of the Han Dynasty

Six years after Jianwu (AD 30), Emperor Guangwu ordered the division of the Ministry of Lizhou, the Ministry of Civil Affairs, the county to reduce the number of officials, the county government can not be merged with the long officials, and the chief princes and chief princes. So "the ritual has more than four hundred counties, and the number of officials is reduced, and one of ten is set." At the same time, the local military system in the Western Han Dynasty was abolished, the local soldiers in counties in the mainland were abolished, and the post of county captain was abolished. The annual trials for recruiting and training in the county were abolished. The local defense reform was replaced by recruited professional troops. However, in the late Eastern Han Dynasty , the history of the state animal husbandry gradually gained weight, with both military, political, and financial power, and local forces gradually rose.

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Guangwu, in view of the corruption of corrupt officials and extravagant corruption of bureaucrats in the late Western Han Dynasty, paid attention to rectifying officials, thrifty, rewarding honesty, selecting virtuous people as local officials, and strict requirements on local officials. Therefore, after the rectification, the official atmosphere has changed. Therefore, " Hou Han Xun Li Chuan" has the reputation of "banditing inside and outside, the people forgive".

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Release slaves and prisoners. Since the late Western Han Dynasty, peasants have become slaves and prisoners have been increasing, which has become an important issue in the increasingly sharpening of class contradictions in the late Western Han Dynasty. In the last years of Wang Mang , many slaves and prisoners participated in the uprising; at the same time, there were also many slaves and prisoners in some army that divided themselves. During the reconstruction of the feudal regime of Liu Han, Emperor Guangwu, in order to disintegrate the enemy, strengthen his strength, and also to stabilize social order and ease class conflicts, he repeatedly issued slaves to release slaves, and stipulated that anyone who abused and killed slaves was punished. The scope of the order to exempt slaves from being tartars is mainly that the officials and the people were illegally confiscated as slaves during the Mang Dynasty, or sold to slaves due to poverty and married wives; in the last year of Wang Mang, they were sold as slaves due to famine or war. The one who was ransacked during the war. In addition, it also stipulates that the arbitrary killing of slaves and the abolition of the "law of slaves shooting and abandoning the city" are abolished, indicating that slaves have a higher status than in the past. At the same time, in the provincial decrees for reducing sentences, the release of prisoners was also announced several times, that is, "seeing a prisoner as a public".

Implement the Dutian policy. The Eastern Han Dynasty was originally established with the support of powerful forces. However, the development of powerful forces and the gradual merger of land gradually threatened the imperial power and affected the lives of the people. In order to strengthen the court's control of the country's land reclamation and labor, the average taxation of the burden of unlawful taxation was imposed in 15 years of Jianwu (AD 39 The next step is to “check the land and hukou age of the land reclamation by the county and county, and inspect the 2,000-year-old senior officials who are not equal.” It is to make the counties to measure the land and verify the hukou, which is the basis for correcting the land reclamation, population, and tax . After His Majesty, he encountered resistance from powerful forces.

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In view of Wang Mang's lessons, Emperor Guangwu of the Han Dynasty, Emperor Guangwu of the Han Dynasty, changed the conquest of ethnic minorities and Wang Mang ’s nationalism since the change of the Emperor Hanwu, and determined his own set of national policies based on the general policy of rest and recuperation. Recovery and development provide a peaceful external environment. For example, the implementation of "Easy Government" Anbian without war; focusing on cooperation and development, implementing supportive policies; experimenting with "by-edge" and adopting an "autonomy" policy. From the mainstream point of view, Emperor Guangwu adopted a policy of friendship, friendliness, autonomy and mutual assistance to the surrounding ethnic minorities, which belongs to the rule of virtue. These policies successfully eased ethnic conflicts and avoided large-scale wars. Tongdu Dayi has prosperous business, and merchants have traveled far and wide to the Western Regions and abroad.

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Conclusion

Due to the above measures, social stability, economic recovery, and population growth appeared in the early years of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Because Liu Xiuyi was named Guangwu, this period was called Guangwu ZTE.

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