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Jiading Santu

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The Jiading Santuo was an event in which the Qing army general Li Chengdong ordered the massacre of civilians in the city three times after the Qing army broke Jiading in 1645. The Qing army issued a shaving order, and the people in Jiading refused to comply. Hou Yong once led the Jiading Gentry uprising against the Qing Dynasty, and Li Chengdong, the general soldier of the Qing Dynasty Wu Wu, led an army of 5,000 to attack. The city of Jiading was destroyed. Li Chengdong ordered the slaughter of the city. The massacre lasted for a day, and about 30,000 people were killed. Li Chengdong led the army to leave Jiading City. The calamity in Jiading is still not over. Three or four days after the Li Chengdong massacre, the survivors began to slip back into the city. After returning to the city, under the leadership of a righteous man named Zhu Ying, they regrouped and executed traitors and officials. Li Jiadong led the Qing army to kill him back, the Qing army killed him, and Jiading was tragically attacked again. Twenty days later, a general named Wu Zhifan from Nanming led the rest of the assault on Jiading City, and the surrounding people responded, killing the Qing soldiers and fleeing. Soon, Li Chengdong's entire army counterattacked, defeated the Ming Army and slaughtered nearly 20,000 people who had just arrived in Jiading to avoid chaos. The blood flowed into the channel, which was the famous "Jiading Three Massacres."

Jiading Santu

Jiading Three Slaughters-Bloody Massacre Caused by Shaving Order

The historical background of the Jiading Santu: enforcement of mandatory shaving orders in the Qing Dynasty

When it comes to " Jiading Santu ", we still need to start with "shaving orders." The Qing dynasty was quite cautious about letting the Hans shave their heads. After the surrender of Hongguang Dynasty, Prince Yuduo Duo entered the Nanjing area and made such an announcement:

Shaving his head is a common practice. When the soldiers arrived today, they would not shave the soldiers, shave the soldiers, or the people, so they must shave themselves. Before a shameless official asked for help, his country had scolded him. Special note.

However, not long after, this policy changed 180 degrees. There are two reasons for this: one is that the political situation has progressed unexpectedly and that the southern half of the Jiangbi region has surrendered, except for the southwest and southwest, Manqing has basically controlled the entire Central Plains, and the policy of reassurance has achieved its purpose; the second is that Chinese officials have contributed to the situation, and some have already reverted Although the officials changed their masters, they would not be lonely, or they would automatically shave their hair to show loyalty; or they suggested in the letter to seek appreciation from Mei Shang. Manqing felt that the time was right for pursuing Manchu system, and his doubts were eliminated. In June, the Qing Army issued another shaving order, ordering the people in Jiangnan to shave their heads within ten days.

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However, "the skin of the body, parents who dare not be damaged, and the beginning of filial piety." Confucianism of Confucius and Mencius has influenced the ancients for more than two thousand years, and the ancient Han people would not have implemented shaving orders! This will inevitably cause large-scale Rebellion! Scholars Hou Yizeng and Huang Chunyao stood up in Jiading (now Shanghai Jiading) and rebelled against Qing rule.

On the first day of July, the two armies fought. Although the local "township army" gathered more than 100,000 people, they were all civilians, bustling and crowded. They belonged to the black people, without discipline, let alone organization and fighting power. Li Chengdong Although they have less than 5,000 troops, they are all well-equipped and trained elite soldiers. As a result, Hou Huang's "township army" was defeated. The Qing Army began three white terrors in Jiading, and the Jiading Three Massacres began.

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The process of the three killings in Jiading: How did the three killings in Jiading occur?

In the first year of Ming Hongguang (1645) on the ninth day of May, the Qing army broke through Nanjing, and Emperor Hongguang fled south. On the 30th, the county ordered Qianmo to flee.

On June 24, Zhang Weixi, the magistrate of the Qing Dynasty , was appointed. On that day, Ming Jiading's chief Wu Zhikui led a hundred people, wrapped his head in white cloth, and his family grave outside the east gate of the day, approaching the county town with torches in the evening, threatening to capture Zhang Weixi and Zhang Fuzhi. On the 27th, Wu Zhikui returned to the county seat, and Shimin took the road to welcome the Fuming division.

On the seventh day of June, Ming Jiang drove Li Chengdong's cavalry across the Xinyu Bridge in the territory, killing seven women and killing them. On the eighth day, Li Chengdong personally led a hundred warships and more than 2,000 horse infantrymen moored at the east gate of the county and ransacked. On the ninth day, Li led the soldiers to Wu Yan, leaving 300 to guard the ship, such as Liang Desheng.

On the 12th, the Qing Army issued a shaving order, infuriated with sentiment, far and near the soldiers, and besieged to siege the Li Chengdong fleet. All the ships and the plundered property were burned down, killing 84 Qing officers and men.

On the 15th, Li Chengdong went to Taicang for help. He went to Luodian and was hunted down by the village soldiers, causing heavy casualties. So, Li Chengdong madly retaliated by killing innocent people.

On the 17th, Ming Du Cha Yuan watched politics, Jin Shi Huang Chunyao and Di Yuanyao, and former Zuo Tongzheng Hou Zeng and Zi Yuan (Xuan) Yan, Yuan (Xuan) Jie proposed to defend the city.

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At dawn on the 18th, Li Chengdong led his troops to attack Luodian. Zhihong and Lu Wenhuan led the local soldiers to resist. Li An sent his elite soldiers to the east and to the west, and the west soldiers, the village soldiers suffered from the enemy on their backs and retreated into the town. At the early morning market, the Qing army entered the town and slaughtered. 1,604 residents were killed.

On the 19th, Huang Chunyao and Hou Xun gathered public opinions and decided to keep the ground. The city hangs the banner of "Jiading Huiyi Righteous Master" and makes all kinds of weapons.

On the 25th, Wu Zhikui sent a guerrilla to Cai Qiao and led more than 200 troops to support Jiading and camp outside the city.

On the fifth day of the next day, Li Chengdong was attacked by soldiers and Cai Qiao died. When Li Chengdong led his troops back to Wusong and crossed the Xinye Bridge, he set fire to the house, leaving no dogs .

On the first day of July, more than 100,000 soldiers from various villages gathered in the brick bridge to fight the Qing soldiers. The Qing soldiers smashed into the left and right wings, the rural soldiers were defeated, and countless were hunted down. After Li Chengdong's ministry entered Loutang Town, he massacred 1073 people and committed adultery against women.

On the third day, Li Chengdong Hui attacked the city with Taicang Qingbing and bombarded day and night.

The fourth and fifth days of the year were even more rainy , and the guardians of the city had been exposed for three days and nights. Qing soldiers took the opportunity to make an aggressive attack, breaking the East Gate into the city. Hou Xun was still sitting in the town tower, and the second son screamed, "What's the matter?" Hou Xun replied, "It's just death, and the hated person sends away the ears of the people in the city." The second son left urgently, the second son. Take a few steps and return. Hou Yi had been angry; "I have nothing to do with my national affairs, and my grandmother is here. If my generation should serve me, what is it about loving me?" The second son wailed and was killed until the children's bridge was killed. Hou Yan was killed by the Qing soldiers since he died in Shen Xuanjiachi (Yechi). The East Gate was broken, and residents in the city rushed to the West Gate to escape. Seeing that the situation was irreversible, Huang Chunyao, who was in charge of Ximen at the time, and his younger brother, Yuanlin Yao, rode horses until studying in the early years, and said to the monk: "The master is in a hurry, and a brother has resigned from it!" Minister Huang Chunyao arbitrarily ruled at the Xicheng Monk House on the fourth day of July in the first year of Hongguang. Woohoo! You ca n’t declare your dynasty, you ca n’t hide yourself. You ca n’t read a book, you ca n’t succeed in learning. Kou Fang regained consciousness, and the Chinese scholars said goodbye to the sun, and on the world, they should know the heart. South Gate Keeper Zhang Ximei, heard the city broke, and threw himself to death. I left a poem: "I will never die, I live in Zili. Lu Yuan is a relative, and I am separated by the same spirit. It is righteous to live and die with the city. The gentleman after you, I will not give up." The city generals Gong Yongyuan and the brothers Gong Yongguang heard the city break and hugged and wept and said, "My grandfather is innocent and has passed three generations. Today, with all his plans, how can I see my ancestors underground?" They both drowned and died. At 10:00, Li Chengdong entered the city and ordered a firecracker to slaughter the city. The streets and alleys are endlessly searched. Every time someone meets, he shouts to offer treasure, if there are not many offerings, he will cut three swords and kill everything. The sound of the knife across the city was screaming, howling, and it was shaking. Suspended beams, well-throwers, limb-breakers, and blood-faced people have been chopped to death, and there are countless people who move their hands and feet. Flesh and wolf are everywhere. Thousands of people drowned in the river. Three days later, from Ximen to Gelong Town, the floating corpse was full of rivers, and the boat was nowhere to bow. Blood stains floated on the water surface, several points higher. If a woman looks bad, she will kill, and if there is a beautiful one, she will commit adultery in public. If you do not comply, nail it. On the sixth day of the sixth day, Li Chengdong gathered more than 300 civilian ships and sailed to Taicang full of laundered gold owls, women, cows, pigs and sheep. After the Jiading slaughter, Ge Long, Wai Gang, Ma Lu, Yang Xing and other towns and villages reunited, and then discussed resistance against the Qing, sworn back, and occasionally attacked and killed the Qing soldiers.

On the 26th, the Fifth Genghis Khan Brigade arrived in Gelong. After entering the town, they slaughtered, bleed, and slaughtered Waigang Town.

On the 27th, Pu'er and Pu'er led their soldiers to slaughter Jiading, killing everybody, regardless of old and young, and looted the property in Taicang.

Since the beginning of June, the people of Jiading initiated the protest against the Qing. In two months, they fought more than ten times, and the people sacrificed more than 20,000. It was historically called " Jiading Three Massacres ."

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The historical relics of Jiading Santu: what memorial sites are on the original site of Jiading

After Li Chengdong's three killing orders, the Jiading Anti-Qing Dynasty movement basically subsided. There are different accounts of the number of deaths, generally between 50,000 and 200,000. According to Zhu Zisu's Chronicle of Jiading Yiyi, "I have witnessed the injustice, I ca n’t bear to remember, I do n’t dare say anything, I do n’t dare to add words, and when I am in the news, I have to visit the old, agree with each other, and then write it down. Later, there were people who hanged the ancients, and those who cried injustice under the wind and the tragic moon, were able to test the letter.

The shaving order was psychologically unbearable for the Han people at the time. "The parents of the body must not be damaged." This is an ethical view formed over the millennium, and it is also a deep-rooted way of thinking. Shaving hair is not only contrary to tradition, it is also considered an insult. As a result, this policy was not only resisted by traditional intellectuals, but also provoked the lower class.

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In Jiading, there are still many monuments in memory of Hou Yizeng and Huang Chunyao. There is Hou Huangqiao in the west of Jiading City, and the monument of Mr. Hou Huang in Huilongtan Park. The old address of Xilin Temple in Jiading Campus of Shanghai University has the "Tao Li Liu Bi" inscription written by Wu Yuzhang. The back of the tablet is engraved with Wu Yuzhang's Qilu Poem: "Changhong Biqi Soaring into the sky, patriotic heroes continue to make millions, and the new era of the epoch is changing the world. "In Fang Tai, there is a graveyard of Mr. Huang.

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The historical records of Jiading Santu: How is this recorded in the history books?

Hou Yan Zeng, the word Yu Zhan. Formerly Nanming Hongguang Dynasty ’s General Secretary Zuo Tongzheng, after the fall of Nanjing, he took refuge in his hometown Jiading. Huang Chunyao, the word Yunsheng. Nai Chongzhen Jinshi lived in Jiading City with his brother Huang Yuanyao. Under the command of Hou Yizeng and the Huang Brothers, the people in the city, regardless of their gender, have joined the ranks of resistance. In order to boost morale, Hou Yi ordered the banner of "Jiading Huiyi Righteous Master" to be hung on the tower of Jiading. At the same time, "collective discussion" was decided on the city tower, and "demarcation and division" was decided. Jiading City: Nan Ming Zhu Sheng, Zhang Ximei led the public to guard the South Gate, Xiushui County teacher Gong Yongyuan Zuozhi; Nan Ming Guozi Superintendent student Zhu Changzhou guarded the North Gate, the squire Tangshen Zuo Zhi; Huang Chunyao's brothers guarded Ximen; Hou Yun once guarded the East Gate, and the students Gong Sunxuan Zuozhi. In addition, Zhu Sheng Ma Yuandiao (at the age of 70) and Tang Changquan, Xia Yundi and other logistics providers.

The meeting has been decided, and the leaders will patrol the city day and night. "Jia people are eager to obey, and their feelings are very encouraging." In order to prevent the Manchurian army from invading, Hou Yi once ordered the bridges outside the city to be destroyed. "The east and north gates use the big stone barrier to cut off the street, west and south. The second gate crossed the road with round wood and rocks. "At dawn, the brutal Qing army defeated the village soldiers in various villages and towns outside the city and surrounded Jiading City on all sides. Immediately, Li Chengdong ordered the centralized artillery Qi Hongdong and Xi'ermen. "The Qing soldiers were very urgent to attack the city. Many soft ladders were tied down to the city, and the bricks and stones were like rain on the city." Although the people of the city guards "lost many people", they were still tenacious and unyielding. If a broken city wall is bombarded by artillery, people in the city block it with wood and soil-filled bags in time. "If there are casualties in the city guardian, it will be added immediately." Or said: China has two societies, boasting up and down and roughing up; Honesty speaks loudly! At dusk, the sudden rainstorm is like a note, and the violent wind rises suddenly. The people in the city guards still fearlessly, resisting the rain. At that time, because "the city could not open the lights, (Li) Chengdong ordered the soldiers to lurk in the cave city under the city, and the guardian Fujue also." (Wen Bing "A and B Incident") At dawn the next day, the storm continued. At that time, the people in the city had been guarding the city for three days and nights, and their bodies were wet, and their diet was gone, so everyone was exhausted. Li Chengdong then ordered the soldiers to "place the lamp in the crypt, and fire the city." The sound of artillery "shocked all the time, the ground split and the sky fell, and the gunite plume fell on the house in the city, like rain, baby women, and wolf running ." (Zhu Zisu's "Jiading Tucheng Strategy")

In this bloody storm, disaster finally came. As the wall fell suddenly in the sound of artillery, the Qing army flew into the city and swarmed in. Qing soldiers "learned from the house and passed without hindrance. The city's refugees were blocked by bricks and stones on the street and could not escape, and they all cast their feet to death. The water did not flow." At this moment, Hou Yi was on the East Gate tower. The city fell, "The soldiers all said: 'I once accepted the generosity of the public, but I can still run away.'" Zeng Zeng said: 'To survive with the city, righteous also.' Xuan Yan, the second son Xuan Jie was in the dozens of knives, and died. "When the city fell, Huang Chunyao and Huang Yuanyao brothers rushed to a monk house in the city. "Chun Yao asked his followers:" Hou Gongruo? "Said: 'Deadly!' Said: 'I and Hou Gong colleagues, I am not the only one.' You ca n’t make it into the dynasty, you ca n’t retreat, you ca n’t stay away from it, you ’re not alone. That ’s why. It is also for the people of the North. 'Chun Yao is in the east and Yuan Yao is in the west.' The words, the big book pants on the cloud: "I have no life, I live and die with the city, death is righteous!" Teacher Gong Yongyuan went to the water to die, the second son followed. Zhu Sheng Ma Yuan Tune, Tang Changquan, Xia Yunzhang, Lou Fuwen, the city also died. Another Huang, in the lane battle with the Qing Army, "handed iron Jane, killed hundreds of people before and after, and later died."

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The death of these "philosophers and benevolent people" is, historically, caused by the fundamental pursuit of their Confucian concept of "benefits". But from the perspective of the rise and fall of the nation, did the spirit of the husband who died for the survival of the nation also become a part of the Han national spirit? When the order of the city was issued, the Qing soldiers "home to the home, alleys, alleys, all Poor search, chaotic grass and thorns, will use a spear to stir. "" Among the citizens, beamers, well-throwers, river-throwers, blood-faced people, amputated people, those who have been chopped, and those who still move, have flesh and blood. "If you see a young beautiful woman, then" the daytime neighbourhood commits adultery in public. "Someone who refuses to do so" stabs his hands on the board with spikes and still commits prostitution. "(Zhu Zisu's" Jiading Tuchenglue ") After the bloody massacre The Qing soldiers plundered the property. Shi Zai: If you meet the citizens, then you shout to donate treasure, "Evil takes the waist and sacrifice it, and it is full of interpretation." At that time, "the sound of the sword was utterly far and wide. The sound of begging was as noisy as the city." Furthermore, Li Chengdong, the culprit of the slaughter of the city, actually transported the Jin Yao woman he plundered with 300 ships. In this calamity, there are many gangsters. Another historical record: The Qing army is like the north gate, "It is the treacherous people who lead the enemy in." As for the robbery while the fire is in the minority. The traitor Xu Yuanji, "in the name of cutting hair, acted at sunrise, cut people's stomachs, beat people's hearts, and moved hundreds of people." However, the atrocities of the Qing Dynasty did not put out the people's resistance.

On July 24, Zhu Ying, a Jiangdong native, declared himself a guerrilla general and led more than 50 soldiers back to Jiading City. At that time, Zhu led the ministry to drive the Qing army out of the city with the citizens in the city. The next day, Li Chengdong, who fled to the outside of the city, urged Wang Guochang to send troops to reinforce. Li himself sat at the Temple of the Weavers outside the town and directed the soldiers and horses to attempt a second siege. In the early morning of July 26, the Qing army had not yet assembled in the city's civilian armed forces, and again invaded the city. Some traitors in Pu'er offered a proposal to Li Chengdong: "If they do not die, there will be changes later." Therefore, the Qing army slaughtered the city for the second time. At this time, many residents in the city had not yet risen. "Then they were suddenly killed in the house." Suddenly, "there were dead bodies in the city, but three or four monks withdrew the houses and gathered them." In the middle, Pu Li took the lead and showed his skills. He even killed the whole family of his friend Lou. For this reason, the people in Jiading City "are dying every day, and do not stay." A citizen with a surname of Guo once scolded him indignantly: "Humans and beasts will not eat food." Mouse rattles! From Li Chengdong, Xu Yuanji, and Pu Erzhi's actions, we can see that whenever there is a great change in society, some people will definitely benefit from the change in society. In addition to the necessity of the current situation, there is also a relationship that can not be ignored in the moral virtues of various classes of individuals and the rise and fall of their status. The loss of morality will inevitably lead to the extreme expansion of personal possessiveness. Mencius said: "No one can be shameless, shameless, shameless." Xinfu! The second slaughter of the Qing Dynasty failed to weaken the people's will to resist. On August 26, Wu Zhifan, the former chief of the Nanming army, led the rest and counterattacked Jiading City. The soldiers in the city were caught off guard, but they collapsed. People in the city rushed to Wu Jun, "actively obeying." However, Wu Jun is a black man. When the Qing soldiers fought back, "the moment broke up." Shi Zai: Wu Zhifan "Slave several people, can't be determined. Hutian said: 'I die, I'm divided. I defeated without a fight, I am frightened!' Ting The gun wants to go to the east gate to die. "Qing soldiers embraced the city, and the third blood-washed Jiading City. If the first two slaughters of the city had left some "hidden dangers" to the Qing Dynasty, then this third slaughter of the city could be described as "wishful." Because on the full bones of this city, the banner of "cutting orders has been done" was finally inserted! Shi Zai: Of the three massacres of the Qing army, none of the people in Jiading surrendered and more than 20,000 died. people.

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Brief Introduction of Jiading Santu: A Massacre Under Shaving Order

The three killings of Jiading were in 1645 (the first year of Hongming of Nanming, the second year of the Shunzhi reign of the Qing Dynasty ). After the Qing army broke through Jiading, the general Li Chengdong ordered the mass murder of civilians in the city three times. The Qing army issued a shaving order, and the people in Jiading refused to comply.

The squire Hou Yi led the Jiading gentry uprising against the Qing, and the chief Wu Cheng Li Chengdong immediately led the army to attack. The city of Jiading was broken, and Li Chengdong ordered the slaughter of the city, among the citizens, beamers, well-throwers, river-throwers, blood-faced persons, limb-breakers, those who were not cut, the hands, feet, and people still moving. Women were brutally raped. In the event of resistance, the army nailed the resisting woman's hands to the door panel with spikes, before committing adultery. The massacre lasted for a day until the corpses blocked the river and about 30,000 people were killed.

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Li Chengdong led the army to leave Jiading City. But the calamity in Jiading City is still not over. Three or four days after the Li Chengdong massacre, the survivors of Jiading, who escaped by accident, began to slip back into the city. After returning to the city, they were regrouped under the leadership of a righteous man named Zhu Ying, with a total of more than 2,000 people. Zhu Ying led survivors to launch an anti-slaughter campaign in this broken city, and executed traitors and officials appointed by the Qing Army.

Li Chengdong led the sergeant straight into the city, killing many residents who were still asleep, turning them into mounds and setting fire to death. The Qing army was killed, and Jiading was tragically attacked again. Twenty days later, a general named Wu Zhifan from Nanming led the rest of the assault on Jiading City, and the surrounding people responded, killing the Qing soldiers and fleeing. Soon after, Li Chengdong's army retaliated, killing and killing hundreds of Wu Zhifan soldiers, and incidentally slaughtered nearly 20,000 people who had just arrived in Jiading to avoid chaos. The blood flowed into the channel, which was the famous "Jiading Three Massacres."

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Conclusion

After Li Chengdong's three killing orders, the Jiading Anti-Qing Dynasty movement basically subsided. There are different accounts of the number of deaths, generally between 50,000 and 200,000. According to Zhu Zisu's Chronicle of Jiading Yiyi, "I have witnessed the injustice, I ca n’t bear to remember, I do n’t dare say anything, I do n’t dare to add words, and when I am in the news, I will visit the old and agree with each other, and then write it down in Jane. Later, there were people who hanged the ancients, and those who cried injustice under the wind and the tragic moon, were able to test the letter.

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