在线一本码道高清

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Sino-Japanese War

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In 1894, Japan declared war on the Qing government under the pretext of North Korea. This was a long-planned war in Japan. As a result of the war, the fate of China and Japan changed: the victors entered the ranks of modern powers, but the ambitions of the Japanese empire continued to expand, and they finally embarked on the militaristic road of foreign aggression. The losing party not only suffered the humiliation of land reparation, but also the modernization process just started was interrupted. At that time, the Qing government claimed to be Asia's largest fleet of "Beiyang Marine Divisions", and the fingers of the fleet were wiped out. Today, China and Japan are on the starting line of a new round in history. Japan's constant provocations on the Diaoyu Islands issue, and some Japanese right-wing politicians continue to issue war speeches, and the historical memory deep in the Chinese mind is activated. After 119 years, looking back at the war between China and Japan, it touched the deepest trauma of the Chinese people in the past century, but in addition to pain, shame, anger, and regret, there should be more thinking ... History cannot Assumed, but may repeat itself. History does not simply repeat, but there are striking similarities.

Sino-Japanese War

Introspection: The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895

Post-war Reflection: Explanation and Analysis of the Causes of China's Failure in the Sino-Japanese War

REVIEW: Sino-Japanese War Information, Sino-Japanese War when, why Sino-Japanese War and the impact of the failure of Sino-Japanese War. In the late nineteenth century, the major capitalist countries have completed the transition to the imperialist stage, and capital export is of special significance, which will inevitably lead to more fierce competition for colonies. Lenin analyzed: The imperialist powers "apart from the periodic re-segmentation of the already divided world, the struggle for semi-independent states will inevitably be particularly tense." Therefore, the semi-feudal, semi-colonial China with vast land and natural resources became A piece of fat in the eyes of the imperialist powers. Since the Opium War, imperialist aggression against China has never stopped, but after the Sino-French war of 1884, due to the busy battles between the powers, it was relatively calm for about 10 years, and the nerves of Chinese politicians relaxed a bit. While the "friendliness" of Western powers were grateful, a neighbor in the east was staring.

I. The lack of foresight and inadequate preparation for the possible war of aggression is the reason for the failure of the war

After the " Meiji Restoration " in the 1860s, Japan's capitalism developed rapidly and combined with the feudal Bushido spirit, it created a militaristic freak that was extremely expansive and predatory.

Invading and defeating China is the established national policy of modern Japan. As early as 1855, Japanese reformist politician Matsushi Yoshida advocated: "Once the warship artillery is slightly enriched, you should open up Ezo. Know Ryukyu and make it the same as Hajj; blame North Korea for the tribute of Nabi; cut South Manchuria, Taiwan, Luzon Island, occupied the entire China, ruled India. "This idea of Yoshida, for his disciples, later became the politician of Japan Ito Hirofumi (Prime Minister of the Cabinet), Yamagata Yupeng (Senior Speaker) ), Etc. have had a profound impact and become the mainstream thought of Japanese politicians. In the early period of the Meiji Restoration, Japan laid down the mainland policy. Minister Tanaka Yoshiichi said in the memorial: "The legacy of the Meiji Emperor was to conquer Taiwan in the first phase, to conquer North Korea in the second phase, to conquer Manchuria in the third phase, and to conquer Ina in the fourth phase. The fifth issue of conquest of the world. "If these arguments are still a" blueprint ", they will be very specific by 1887. The Japanese government formulated the Strategy for Conquest of the Qing Dynasty, and decided to complete preparations for combat against China before 1892. The direction of the offensive was North Korea, the Liaodong Peninsula, the Shandong Peninsula, the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, and the Zhoushan Islands. Seven years later, Japan launched the war of aggression in accordance with this timetable and road map, and achieved almost all its goals.

In the past decades, Japan has consistently implemented the above-mentioned national policy, made full preparations in various aspects, and implemented 8 "Army Expansion Records" before and after. In the years before the Sino-Japanese War, the average annual military expenditure amounted to 31% of total revenue. In 1887, the emperor ordered that 300,000 yuan be squeezed out of the royal funds as a navy subsidy. Although this amount is not a lot, it expresses the determination of the supreme ruler and is bound to give a great incentive to the whole country. Sure enough, under the emperor's call, the wealthy nations donated one million yuan a year. This not only increased military spending, but also greatly encouraged popular morale. As Japan expanded its forces, it dispatched a large number of spies to conduct activities in China and North Korea. Before the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, each hillock and detailed roads including North Korea and China's Liaodong Peninsula, Shandong Peninsula, and the Bohai Sea were detailed. Japan is like a well-made war machine, constantly operating, and once the time is ripe, it will resort to force without hesitation. In contrast, the Qing government's judgment on the national security situation seemed inadequate, and it lacked due anticipation and vigilance against the aggression.

Some people of insight, such as Governor Jiang Yan of the two rivers, and Liu Mingchuan, governor of Taiwan, etc., see that "Korean people cannot be despised", but the understanding of Japan by the court and most of the dignitaries is still at the stage of "Korean small state" meaning". Li Hongzhang, who has an important responsibility for national defense, also believes that "many people are far-reaching and not near- worrying." At the critical juncture of Japan's efforts to expand armaments and the danger of war becoming increasingly imminent, the Qing government relaxed its defense construction and cut its military budget on the grounds of financial strain. It stopped purchasing warships from 1888 and ceased appropriating naval forces in 1891. Equipment and ammunition funding. It is in such an unconscious state that China has ushered in a fateful war.

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Brief Introduction to the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: In what year did the Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 erupt?

The Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War was a war of Japanese aggression against China and Korea at the end of the 19th century. It began with the outbreak of the Toshima naval battle on July 25, 1894 (twenty years of the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty, and the twenty-seventh year of Meiji, Japan), and ended on April 17, 1895, when the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed. According to the year of the Chinese dry branch, the year was the Sino-Japanese War, so it was called Sino-Japanese War. The war ended with China's failure. Under the pressure of Japanese militarism, the Chinese government of the Qing Dynasty signed an unequal treaty of bereavement and humiliation, the Treaty of Maguan. It has brought an unprecedentedly serious ethnic crisis to the Chinese nation and greatly deepened the degree of semi-colonialization in Chinese society.

Brief introduction: Sino-Japanese War (also known as Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War, First Sino-Japanese War, Qing-Japanese War, Qing-Japanese Sino-Japanese War; Japan is referred to as Sino-Japanese War). A war broke out on control of the Korean Peninsula. Since the year of occurrence was 1894, that is, the 20th year of the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty, the main branch was the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, and the history of China was called the Sino-Japanese War. The Sino-Japanese War lasted 9 months and was divided into two battlefields: land battle and naval battle. The Japanese captured Pyongyang in North Korea, defeated the Beiyang Marine Division in the Yellow Sea naval battle, and later captured China's Lushun and Weihai. In November 1894, On the 22nd, a mass slaughter was carried out in Lushun, and the whole city was washed in blood. After the war, the two parties signed the "Maguan Treaty" after the war, stipulating that China should pay compensation to the Japanese side. As a result, the Chinese Qing government was burdened with heavy foreign debts, and its national strength was declining, and it became a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country. However, due to Japan's huge war reparations, its national strength and military strength quickly grew, and it gradually embarked on the road of militarism's external expansion.

The entire process of the Sino-Japanese War during the war, including three stages:

The first phase was from July 25 to September 17, 1894. Conducted on the Korean Peninsula and at sea, the land battle was mainly the Pyongyang battle, and the naval battle was mainly the Yellow Sea naval battle.

The second phase, from September 17 to November 22, 1894. The war took place in the Liaodong Peninsula, including the Battle of the Yalu River and the Battle of the Golden Brigade.

The third stage, from November 22, 1894 to April 17, 1895. The war took place in the Shandong Peninsula and Liaodong battlefields, including the Battle of Weihaiwei and the Battle of Liaodong.

In the war of aggression in modern China, the Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War was the largest war with the worst failures, the deepest impact, the most serious consequences, and the most lessons learned. Because of this, it is most realistic to relearn and study this history. The Sino-Japanese War of 1894 was a war that broke out between China and Japan in the late Qing dynasty to fight for control of the Korean Peninsula. Since the year of occurrence was 1894, that is, the 20th year of the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty, the main branch was the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, and the history of China was called the Sino-Japanese War of 1894. On July 25, 1894, Japanese ships attacked Chinese ships, and the Sino-Japanese War broke out. On August 1, 1894, China and Japan declared war, and the Sino-Japanese War broke out. The Sino-Japanese War lasted 9 months and was divided into two battlefields: land battle and naval battle. The Japanese captured Pyongyang in North Korea, defeated the Beiyang Marine Division in the Yellow Sea naval battle, and later captured China's Lushun and Weihai. On the 22nd, a mass slaughter was carried out in Lushun, and the whole city was washed in blood. After the war, the two parties signed the "Maguan Treaty" after the war, stipulating that China should pay compensation to the Japanese side. As a result, the Chinese Qing government was burdened with heavy foreign debts, and its national strength was declining.

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Background of Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War: Sino-Japanese War situation

The Sino-Japanese War (also known as the Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War, the First Sino-Japanese War, the Qing-Japanese War, and the Sino-Japanese War of the Qing Dynasty; the Japanese-Japanese War) was a battle between China and Japan in the late Qing Dynasty for the Korean Peninsula A war of control broke out. Since the year of occurrence was 1894, that is, the 20th year of the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty, the main branch was the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, and the history of China was called the Sino-Japanese War of 1894. The Sino-Japanese War lasted 9 months and was divided into two battlefields: land battle and naval battle. The Japanese captured Pyongyang in North Korea, defeated the Beiyang Marine Division in the Yellow Sea naval battle, and later captured China's Lushun and Weihai. In November 1894, On the 22nd, a mass slaughter was carried out in Lushun, and the whole city was washed in blood. After the war, the two parties signed the "Maguan Treaty" after the war, stipulating that China should pay compensation to the Japanese side. As a result, the Chinese Qing government was burdened with heavy foreign debts, and its national strength was declining, and it became a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country. However, due to Japan's huge war reparations, its national strength and military strength quickly grew, and it gradually embarked on the road of militarism's external expansion.

Background of the war: the modern state vs. the old empire that is back to life

Japan

In 1868, through the Meiji Restoration , Japan "embarked from Asia and entered Europe" and began to embark on the capitalist road, and its national strength became stronger and stronger. At that time, Japan was undergoing two industrial revolutions. In 1888, the Japanese industrial revolution culminated, so the export of goods and capital was urgently needed. However, as an island country, Japan itself has scarce resources and a small market, coupled with the strong domestic feudal forces and the sharp contradictions in the social transition period, the Japanese ruling group headed by the Emperor is eager to find a way out from external expansion. For this reason, in 1887, the Japanese government formulated the so-called "Qing Dynasty conquest strategy", which gradually evolved into a "mainland policy" centered on aggression against China. The first step is to conquer Taiwan, the second step is to annex North Korea, the third step is to march into Manchuria, the fourth step is to perish China, the fifth step is to conquer Asia, dominate the world, and realize the so-called "Yayiyiyu." The Sino-Japanese War of 1894 was an important part of Japan's first two steps in realizing the "mainland policy."

China

At that time, China was in the late Qing Dynasty and was sinking into the abyss of a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society.

From the 1960s and 1970s, the Westernization movement in the Qing government set off a Westernization movement with the slogans of "self-improvement" and "pursuit of wealth". The Westernization Movement was on par with Europe and the United States in terms of science and technology (especially military technology), so the Qing dynasty once appeared " Tongzhi Zhongxing". The Qing Dynasty officially established the Beiyang Marine Division in 1888 and became a powerful naval force in Asia. Even the European and American powers slowed down the pace of aggression. However, the Qing government did not change the state system as Japan did, so the so-called "ZTE" was just back in time. At this time, Qing Dynasty politics was very corrupt and the people's lives were hard. The factions in the officialdom were fighting in secret, scamming for trouble, the defense military was strong, and the discipline was loose. In the East Asia region at the end of the 19th century, one is the old empire that is back to life, and the other is a modern country that is desperate to thrive. In this case, China and Japan must not avoid World War I.

Europe and America

At that time, the major capitalist countries in the world gradually transitioned to imperialism. Japan's aggression has to some extent been supported by Western powers. The United States hopes that Japan will be its aide to invade China and North Korea; Britain attempts to use Japan to contain Russia's forces in the Far East; Germany and France also support Japan's invasion of China in order to seize new benefits while Japan invades China. Although Russia has great ambitions for Northeast China and North Korea, it is not ready yet, so it has adopted a non-interference policy with Japan. The attitude of tacit approval or indulgence by the great powers has become a favorable condition for Japan to implement its aggressive plan.

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Comparison of military forces in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895:

Introduction: At the time of the Sino-Japanese War , the national strength was stronger than the weak, and the military strength was weaker. China's weakness is not in weapons, but in the organizational system, the quality of officers and men, and the lack of understanding of the laws of modern warfare. The national conditions are inferior and Japan is good, Japan is fully prepared, China hastily fights; the Japanese regime is stable, the Chinese regime is shaken; the Japanese nation is unified, and China is scattered. Due to military strength and national conditions, Japan won and lost.

In the history of wars from ancient times to the present, there are many examples of wars with very few wins and very weak wins. However, it is more about the strength and various conditions of the two sides in the war. In 1938, less than a year after the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, Mao Zedong asserted in "On the Protracted War" that China will not win or die in this war, but will be a protracted war and the final victory Belongs to the Chinese nation. The subsequent course of the war proved that Mao's judgment was completely correct. According to Mao Zedong's analysis, there are the "military, economic, and political organization" of the two sides, the comparison between the national conditions of China and Japan, and the influence of international relations. From the comparison of these conditions, Mao Zedong reached the conclusion of a protracted war. His analysis method is a good inspiration for us to study the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895.

"War is a race for power", first and foremost. The army is the basic tool of war, and we must first compare the military strengths of the two sides.

In 1893, the Japanese Army had seven divisions with nearly 70,000 people. During the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, Japan mobilized reserve forces, with a total of 240,000 troops mobilized and another 150,000 more in military service. More than 170,000 troops were sent to fight against China and North Korea.

As for the military , the Chinese military has a complicated name, and it is difficult to find exact statistics, but the total number should be more than 1 million. The old eight flags and green battalions were vulnerable, and those with combat capabilities accounted for only one-third of the total army. The Japanese staff headquarters had estimated that the effective strength of the Chinese army was 350,000. In 1898 after the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Civil Affairs had counted 360,000 troops in various provinces to train and defend troops. In terms of quantity, the Chinese army clearly has an advantage, but the combat effectiveness of the army is not solely determined by the quantity, especially after the modern industrial revolution. Equipment, establishment, training, officers and soldiers' quality and education, morale, strategy and tactics have a greater impact.

In terms of equipment , the Japanese army is generally better than the Chinese army, but it is not as different as many people think. On the one hand, the equipment of the Japanese army is far less than that of the Western powers; on the other hand, China has also greatly improved its weapons and equipment in the 30-year Westernization New Deal. The biggest weakness of the Chinese Army's weapons and equipment is that the types and specifications of the weapons are too mixed, which has brought great difficulties to logistics supply and actual combat.

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Causes of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894: Japan's attempt to remove North Korea from the control of the Qing government

Causes of war: Japan's attempt to free North Korea from Qing government control

Before the Sino-Japanese War , North Korea was still a vassal of China. At the time, North Korea was still under the control of a closed feudal dynasty, its productivity was lagging behind, and its domestic political situation fluctuated.

After the Meiji Restoration , Japan began to strengthen its development in North Korea, and through diplomatic means, strived to make North Korea out of the control of the Qing government and become an "independent country." Without sufficient strength to back it up, diplomatic efforts have been less successful. In 1884, while China was busy with the Sino-French war, the ambassador to the DPRK, Takeda, instigated a pro-Japanese "Cultivation Party" coup, which overthrew the conservative regime overnight on December 4. The next day, the king ordered a revolutionary politics and established the CCP government. Conservatives quickly requested the support of the Qing Army, so Yuan Shikai, in the name of protecting the North Korean government, led a 2,000-voice controversy to the party and broke into the palace on December 6. Zhu Tian was outnumbered by the crowd, set himself on fire, and absconded overnight. During the turmoil, the Prime Minister, Minister and more than 30 Japanese were killed.

The Japanese government received the urgent report from Zhu Tian and immediately sent the Foreign Minister to lead a large number of troops into the DPRK. The Qing government also sent a commissioner to bring the army and warships to North Korea. Feeling inadequate military preparations for Langzhong Japan, he did not take military action and instead used diplomatic means. At that time, many people in Japan advocated to start a war against China quickly while taking advantage of the Sino-French war. However, a group led by Ito Hirofumi , considering the lack of Japanese national strength, especially the lack of military strength, advocated "speedy and redundant, more railways, Add Navy "to accumulate strength.

In the spring of 1885, Japan sent Ito Hirofumi as special ambassador to the DPRK to negotiate North Korea in China. During the negotiations, Ito often clamored for his return to China. Later, Li Hongzhang was furious: "The North Korean affairs, China did nothing wrong, all its faults are in Zhu Tian; if it breaks down, I am ready to fight!" In the "Tianjin Treaty", Japan still obtained the right to send troops to North Korea.

After the treaty was signed, the Qing government appointed Yuan Shikai to lead North Korean affairs and step up control of North Korea. Japan, on the other hand, has stepped up economic penetration and stepped up its military preparations for war.

Since 1880, Japan has fully expanded its military power and has high morale throughout the country. With the goal of overtaking China, it is preparing for a war of "gambling with national games." As of the eve of the Sino-Japanese War of 1895, Japan had established an army with 63,000 standing troops and 230,000 reserve troops, and a navy with a displacement of 72,000 tons, surpassing the Beiyang Navy.

During this period of the Qing government, after decades of Westernization movements , in a series of military confrontations, foreign gunboats could not cope with it, as in the Opium War, so it was unavoidable. In the course of dealing with Western countries, they realized that Westerners had no intention of annexing the country, they just wanted to take advantage of trade, so they relaxed their awareness of armaments. Although it is said that some actions of eastward Japan in recent years make people vaguely feel that it will be a trouble in the future.

Since the Beiyang Navy officially established its army in 1888, it has not added any more ships, and its age is gradually aging. Compared with the newly added Japanese warships, its firepower is weak and its operations are slow. After 1891, Cixi spent heavily on repairing the Summer Palace, and even stopped buying guns and ammunition.

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The Process of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894: The Qing Army defeated and retired.

The course of the war: the Qing Army defeated the battlefield

The entire war lasted nearly nine months, and was roughly divided into three stages based on the battlefield transition and changes in the fighting situation of the two sides.

In the first stage, the Qing Army defeated the Yalu River from Pyongyang, and the Japanese Navy won the command of the Yellow Sea.

In early August, more than 10,000 people from the four troops assisting the Qing Army, including General Ruwei Gui, Ma Yukun, Zuo precious, and Vice President Tong Shengsheng, arrived in Pyongyang. At that time, the Japanese army occupying Seoul was a mixed 9th brigade with a total of more than 8,000 people.

In mid-August, the Japanese base camp was unpredictable according to the main battle time of the navy, and the Zhili Plain decisive battle could not be implemented during the year. Instead, the first phase of the "Basic Combat Policy" was revised, except that the remaining 5th Division had been sent to the DPRK. Another 3rd Division was added to the battle, and the two divisions were combined into the 1st Army. The Army's drafting operations in North Korea were changed to offensive operations, and the 1st Army carried out the Pyongyang battle and the camera attacked Fengtian (now Shenyang). At the same time, it was decided to form the 2nd Army, waiting to capture the Liaodong Peninsula, and establish a forward base for the Zhili Plain decisive battle.

At the beginning of September, the 5th Division and 3rd Division of the Japanese Army set out from Seoul and other places, and advanced to Pyongyang in four ways to encircle the Pyongyang Qing Army. The newly retired Admiral Ye Zhichao was ordered by the Pyongyang troops to clean up their troops. Because of their indefensible war, the ministries were disoriented. On September 15th, the Japanese army attacked Pyongyang in three directions, and the fighting was fierce. In the afternoon, Xuanwumen fell. After night, Ye Zhichao and others abandoned the city and fled, and all retreated to the territory of China north of the Yalu River on the 26th.

While the Army was competing for the Korean Peninsula, the Japanese Navy's joint fleet also advanced to the west of the Yellow Sea and even broke into the Weihaiwei and Lushun military ports to try to find opportunities to engage in the main battle with the Beiyang Fleet. The Beiyang Fleet was constrained by the order of "guarding the enemy against ships" after the Toshima Sea War, mainly patrolling between Weihai and Lushun, and surrendered the Yellow Sea to the Japanese Navy. In early September, in view of the war in Pyongyang, the Qing court planned to promptly transport troops by sea to assist the Beiyang Fleet. On September 17, after completing the escort mission, the Beiyang Fleet was preparing to return to the sea from outside Dadong Miguchi. The Japanese Fleet encountered with the search and advance, and the famous Yellow Sea naval battle broke out. The battle lasted more than 5 hours. The Beiyang Fleet destroyed 5 ships, injured 4 ships, and the Japanese Joint Fleet injured 5 ships.

During the first phase of the battle, the Japanese army adjusted its combat plan in a timely manner and attacked both land and sea. The Pyongyang battle not only defeated the Qing army in the DPRK, but also pushed the front to the Yalu River in one fell swoop, directly threatening China. Due to the rapid defeat of Pyongyang, the Qing Army not only failed the overall plan of "sea defense and land attack", but also had no time to organize a solid line of defense on the Yalu River front line, so that it remained passive in the second phase of operations. In terms of naval warfare, the strength of the Beiyang Fleet was severely weakened, and the Japanese joint fleet achieved the purpose of controlling the sea power in the Yellow Sea, so that the subsequent war situation could develop towards the first case of its second-phase battle plan.

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How the Qing government defeated in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: forced to sign the Treaty of Shimonoseki

Results and impact of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 : The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, known as the Japanese-Japanese War by the Japanese side, and internationally referred to as the First Sino-Japanese War, refers to a war that erupted between the Qing Empire and the Great Japanese Empire for control of the Korean Peninsula. . In 1894 (20 years of the Guangxu period), according to the Chinese Chronicle period, the year was the Sino-Japanese War, so it was called the Sino-Japanese War. The Battle of Toshima was a sign of the outbreak of war. In the end, the Qing government defeated and signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki with Japan.

Outcome: Forced to sign the Treaty of Shimonoseki

With the defeat of the war, the Qing government further stepped up begging activities. On February 11, it was decided to send Li Hongzhang as Minister of Plenipotentiary to Japan to negotiate peace. On April 17, Li Hongzhang signed with the Prime Minister of the Cabinet of Ministers Ito Fuwen and Foreign Minister Lu Aozongguang the Maguan Treaty, including the eleventh paragraph of the Treaty of Peace, the third paragraph of the Other Treaty, "Special Articles" and two "Special Articles on Armistice Extension".

The main contents of the treaty are: ① China recognizes North Korea's "complete and independent independence" and in fact recognizes Japan's control over North Korea; ② China cedes the Liaodong Peninsula, Taiwan Island and all its affiliated islands and the Penghu Islands to Japan; ③ China "compensates" Japanese military expenses Kuping silver 22 million; ④ open Shashi, Chongqing, Suzhou, Hangzhou as commercial ports, the Japanese government may send consular officers to station at the above ports, Japanese ships can enter the above ports to load passengers; ⑤ Japanese subjects have to engage in various craft manufacturing in the port cities of China, and import and export all kinds of machinery. Their products are exempt from all miscellaneous taxes and enjoy the convenience of setting up stocks in the mainland. ⑥ The Japanese army temporarily occupied Weihaiwei. The Chinese government pays 500,000 yuan in occupation fees each year. Japan will not retreat the occupying forces until the last payment is paid. After the swap is approved by the treaty, the two countries will return all prisoners of war. The Chinese government shall not dispose of prisoners of war. The enemy descendants immediately released the detained spies who served the Japanese army, and pardoned all Chinese who served the Japanese army in the war. Molecular, exemption from investigation.

Impact: China is in a deep national crisis and is facing a critical moment of life and death

The defeat of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 and the signing of the "Maguan Treaty" have led China to a deeper disaster. China has lost its status as a great power in East Asia, and semi-colonization has increased! The huge war compensation is equivalent to the national fiscal revenue for 3 years. The Qing government could not afford it. It could only borrow from Britain, France, Germany, and Russia. Not only the interest was high, but also the customs, taxation, and financial management rights were used as collateral. The large-scale renunciation of land has directly led to the tide of imperialist countries to divide China. In the years after the war, foreign countries divided their spheres of influence in China. The north of the Great Wall belongs to Russia, the ten provinces of the Yangtze River belong to Britain, Shandong belongs to Germany, Yunnan, Guangdong and Guangdong belong to law, and Fujian belongs to Japan. The rising imperialist country of the United States, under the banner of "all interests", uses support for Japan as its main means to seek greater rights in China. After the war, North Korea became a Japanese colony and became a springboard for Japan's external expansion. The security of Northeast China was seriously threatened. Taiwan was seized by Japan, and millions of compatriots have been bullied for more than 50 years. "The city head meets thunder and drums, and the sky is full of tears, but the Tatars cut Taiwan ...." The poem "Taiwan" expresses the poet Huang Zunxian's strong indignation and grief for Taiwan's occupation.

Japan was the biggest beneficiary of the war, receiving $ 120 million worth of silver trophy and $ 230 million worth of compensation. This huge sum of money was equivalent to Japan's 7-year fiscal revenue. The Japanese government and the country were encouraged by this. Foreign Minister Lu Okuzong said happily, "Before this compensation, there was no expectation of hundreds of millions of yen. It ’s only 80 million yen. When you think about 350 million yen will come now, both the government and private people feel extremely rich! ”After the war, Japan ’s economic and military strength expanded rapidly. The invasion of China in the 1930s laid a foreshadowing. In short, the defeat of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894 and the signing of the "Maguan Treaty" put China into a serious national crisis and faced a critical moment of life and death.

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People in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: see what the Qing government executives did

To this day, people still "remember" the Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War at the end of the Qing dynasty. This war, mentioned in countless movies and textbooks, defeated the North by the Qing Army and let the Japanese sever Taiwan. . Most people only know that Ci Xi and Li Hongzhang discredited the war, but in addition to these two people, there is another group of conspirators at the top of the Qing government.

1. Cixi : It's a must-have birthday

When the "big change that hasn't happened for thousands of years" came, what was the "helm" of the Qing Empire doing? She was preparing for the birthday celebration of her "sixty years", and when Huang Haihai's cannon sounded, she still cared about how to make this birthday a decent and decent one. what? No money? Then move away from military expenses!

2. Guangxu : Difficult enemy illiteracy was commissioned as "Taotai"

In the name of the head of the Qing Dynasty, the master of the billion trillion people, he exercised his power in a little gap exposed by the fingers of Empress Dowager Cixi. And just a few months before the Sino-Japanese War, the Emperor Guangxu couldn't help the pillow style of bribes, almost appointing an illiterate as a "prefecture-level" senior official.

3. Weng Tonghe : One battle is only for revenge

Two generations of emperors, the “Wang Master” who had the extraordinary trust of Emperor Guangxu, a generation of Qingliu leaders, took the lead in the Sino-Japanese War and won a great reputation. Who would have thought that this move was merely a political enemy Li Hongzhang's art of power is even more about revenge for decades.

4. Li Hongzhang : My Beiyang Navy

Li Yangzhang, the staff and equipment of the Beiyang Marine Division, gathered together. This modern navy, once known as Asia's first, placed high hopes on Li Hongzhang's self-improvement. However, the various ills of the great empire led this navy to establish itself. , Is doomed to its fate of tragedy.

5. Emperor Meiji : would rather just eat one meal a day than build a powerful navy

In order to build a powerful navy, the Emperor Meiji of Japan waved an invisible whip, donated a tenth of the royal expenses, and even took out the spirit of hungry belly, eating only one meal a day, encouraging his The subjects donated the last copper plate in the pocket for the battleship.

6. Fukuzawa Yukichi : Breaching Asia and entering Europe only to devour China

Japan ’s modernized ideological mentor, Fukuzawa Koji, sang a high-profile departure from Asia and Europe, which had a profound impact on Japan. But the ultimate goal of this character, who was deeply influenced by Han culture, was to completely destroy China.

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Sino-Japanese War warns China and Japan with dangerous genes and impulse

In 1894, Japan declared war on the Qing government under the pretext of North Korea. This was a long-planned war in Japan. As a result of the war, the fate of China and Japan changed: the victors entered the ranks of modern powers, but the ambitions of the Japanese empire continued to expand, and they finally embarked on the militaristic road of foreign aggression. The losing party not only suffered the humiliation of land reparation, but also the modernization process just started was interrupted. At that time, the Qing government claimed to be Asia's largest fleet of " Beiyang Marine Divisions ", and the fingers of the fleet were wiped out.

Today, China and Japan are on the starting line of a new round in history. Japan's constant provocations on the Diaoyu Islands issue, and some Japanese right-wing politicians continue to issue war speeches, and the historical memory deep in the Chinese mind is activated.

History cannot be assumed, but it may repeat itself. History does not simply repeat, but there are striking similarities.

History tells China Japan has dangerous genes and impulse to empire

In the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894, the Qing lost at ease, but lost at the end; it was lost in the arrogance of the boss empire. After more than 100 years, China's national strength has returned to a certain strength, but at the same time, the problem of how to face the neighboring Japan is once again in front of China. For more than half a century in Japan, which has been labeled as a defeated country in World War II, some right-wingers are again looking forward to a new conflict or war that will put Japan on the so-called normal country road and disrupt China's rise again.

After 119 years, looking back at the Sino-Japanese War , it was necessary for both China and Japan. After 119 years, looking back at the war between China and Japan, it touched the deepest trauma of the Chinese people in the past century, but in addition to pain, shame, anger, and regret, there should be more thinking ...

After the Opium War of 1840, the Qing fell into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal situation, and the European and American powers began to ravage Japan. This made the upper class of Japan at that time feel that if they did not establish a modernized state concept and bring these islands and vassal states together, even Japan surrounded by the sea would soon be "a state will not be a country."

At the same time as the concept of modern state, colonialism was introduced at the same time-Japanese who are good at learning "the most advanced" will immediately understand that if they do not want to be colonized, they must colonize. Therefore, Japan had the Meiji Restoration that began in 1868, and then there was the first large-scale foreign war launched in modern times-the Sino-Japanese War of 1894 (called the "Japanese-Japanese War" in Japan).

Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895

The promulgation of the Meiji Constitution, the partial change of the inequality treaty, and the Sino-Japanese War of the Sino-Japanese War were considered to be the three major signs of Japan's entry into modern society, which is the so-called "excession from Asia and Europe." The fuse of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894 was on the Korean peninsula.

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Conclusion

The history of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894 was not a glorious memory for any Chinese. An elephant tripped by an ant also caused a group of snake-worms, tigers, and leopards to spit and eat. People's frailty of the elephants and the insidiousness of the ants are always difficult to relieve. Out of our usual propaganda tradition, the explanation and analysis circulating among the masses seems that it is not enough to dispel hatred and anger by not looking for one or two intentional or unintentional "traitors" from this war decision maker. However, what we should do is to get more mirrors from this long-lost war, and we can no longer be as bad as our predecessors a hundred years ago.

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