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Liu Liu Liu Qi Uprising

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The Liu Liu Liu Qi Uprising, also known as the Liu Liu Liu Qi Min Bian, was a large-scale peasant uprising that marked the outbreak of the Ming Dynasty in northern Zhili (now Hebei). After the Ming Dynasty's orthodox period (1436-1449), politics became dark and corrupt, land mergers intensified and were highly concentrated, people were displaced, class conflicts became increasingly fierce, and peasant uprisings continued everywhere. The Liu Liu and Liu Qi uprisings that erupted in Hebei are the product of this historical background. Liu Liu and Liu Qi were originally robbing the rich and helping the poor , and they were called "the horse thieves." In October of five years (1510) of Zhengde, they launched an uprising in Bazhou, the state's toughest government, and thousands of farmers responded. The following year, the insurgents attacked Shandong from Hebei, and later returned to Beijing from Shandong. The insurgents were strictly disciplined and did not kill people at will, so the insurgents quickly developed to tens of thousands. The uprising lasted for three years, and it fought in the north and south of Zhili, Shandong, Henan, Huguang, and other regions. Wherever the rebels passed, it won the support of the people. The lack of close coordination between the two insurgents, which continued to flow, was defeated by the Ming army and failed.

Liu Liu Liu Qi Uprising

Liu Liu Liu Qi Uprising-A large-scale peasant uprising in the middle of the Ming Dynasty

Liu Liu Liu Qi Uprising Introduction: A large-scale peasant uprising in the middle of the Ming Dynasty

The Liu Liu Liu Qi Uprising, also known as the Liu Liu Liu Qi Min Bian, was a large-scale peasant uprising that marked the outbreak of the Ming Dynasty in northern Zhili (now Hebei).

Liu Liu and Liu Qi were originally robbing the rich and helping the poor , known as the "sounding horse thief". They launched an uprising in Bazhou in October of five years (1510) in Zhengde, and thousands of farmers responded. The following year, the insurgents attacked Shandong from Hebei, and later returned to Beijing from Shandong. The insurgents were strictly disciplined and did not kill people at will, so the insurgents quickly developed to tens of thousands.

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The uprising lasted for three years, and he fought in the north and south of Zhili, Shandong, Henan, Huguang, and other regions. The places he visited won the support of the people. There was a lack of close coordination between the two insurgents, and they had fought for a long time and were defeated by the Ming Army and failed.

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Liu Liu Liu Qi Uprising Background: The implementation of horse politics in the Ming Dynasty is increasingly difficult

After the Ming Dynasty's orthodox period (1436-1449), politics became dark and corrupt, land mergers intensified and were highly concentrated, people were displaced, class conflicts became increasingly fierce, and peasant uprisings continued everywhere. The Liu Liu and Liu Qi uprisings that erupted in Hebei are the product of this historical background.

In the middle of the Ming Dynasty, farmers in Hebei were deeply affected by the government's horse policy. In order to ensure the supply of horses by the Ming Army, since the early Ming Dynasty, the Ming government has forced farmers in Hebei and other places to serve as horse farmers. The burden of horse service is extremely heavy. To ensure good horses, it costs a lot, not only delaying agricultural production, but also compensating for losses when the horses that are raised die or the stallion fails to survive, and the poor farmers have to "sell farm products." There are many men and women who can't be miserable . At that time, some people described it as "the most troubled food in Jiangnan and the most troubled horse in Hebei."

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Hebei is close to the Beijing Normal University, which is where the special agents of the factory guards and bureaucrats and landlords abuse them. Coupled with the intense land annexation, the exploitation and oppression are very cruel, the social contradictions are very acute, and peasant uprisings occur from time to time. In order to settle the situation in Gyeonggi Province, in four years (1509) of Zhengde, the eunuch Liu Jin sent Yu Shi Ningyu to Hebei to arrest the robbers to suppress the peasant uprising. Ning Min used extremely brutal and high-pressure methods to kill and suppress the peasants. He "played the method of sitting in a row, the thieves captured the sunless days, each thief entered the truth, and he preached with a lead, and the voice of the golden drum continued."

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Liu Liu and Liu Qi Uprising: How did this uprising happen?

During the Ming Dynasty in Zhengde, peasant uprisings led by Liu Liu, Liu Qi brothers, and Yang Hu. Liu Liu's pets and Liu Qichen were born in Wen'an County (now Wen'an, Hebei) in Bazhou and came from farmers. Ren Xiayi is righteous, brave and good at riding and shooting. Because of the unbearable merger and crushing of the landlords, Qi Yanming and others set up houses in Bazhou and other places, and they were called "Hebei Xiangma". In Zhengde four years (1509), the Ming Dynasty government sent additional supervisors to Tianjin, Zhending and other places to "specialize in theft." Liu Liu and Liu Qi's family members were persecuted. Qi Yanming was also arrested and rescued by Liu Qi and other prisoners. In October of five years, Liu Liu and Liu Qi led dozens of riding uprisings in Bazhou. Poor farmers responded in a rapid manner and quickly developed into more than 10,000 people. At this time, Yang Hu, who was uprising in Shandong, also led his department to meet with Liu Liu and others, and the rebel army grew stronger, and he was active in the south of the capital and Shandong. In March of the following year, the insurgent army went down to prefectures and counties such as Boyo, Raoyang, and Nangong, Hebei, and continued to Shandong, conquering more than 20 prefectures including Rizhao, Qufu, and Tai'an. The Ming army fled all the way. The majority of poor farmers are happy to supply the reeds with straw and straw. The insurgents killed landlords, bureaucrats, burned officials, hijacked arsenals, and released prisoners. The Ming government sent Ma Zhongxi, Zhang Wei and others to supervise military affairs. Because they were deterred by the power of the volunteers, they could only support the army to defend themselves, and did not dare to confront the volunteers.

In a situation of constant victory, the insurgent army put forward the slogan of "founding the country and helping the virtuous people", and formulated the policy of taking Hebei and Henan first, expanding troops and horses, and then occupying Nanjing to establish political power. Next, the rebel army divided into two routes, led by Liu Liu, Liu Qi, and Qi Yan in the east, and was active in the Shandong area; led by Yang Hu and others in the west, and was active in the Henan area. In May, the rebels on the East Road entered Shandong from Henan, entered Huguang and turned to Jiangxi, and then commanded northward to reach Bazhou. On the west road, Yang Hu branched from south to north, entered Shanxi in June, and then entered Hebei in the east, reaching Wen'an directly. In August, the two armies would attack Bazhou and threaten the Beijing division. Under this situation, the Ming government stepped up its fortifications, replaced Ma Zhongxi and Zhang Wei, reassigned the army's right servant Lang Luti to supervise military affairs, and led the border soldiers and the Beijing camp officers and soldiers to block the rebels. After that, Liu Liuyi broke through the siege and went east to Shandong Le'an (now Shandong Guangrao), while Yang Hu's division was transferred to the Dongchang area of Shandong to contain the enemy.

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In September, two rebels attacked Cangzhou, Hebei, and blocked the transport of Ming Dynasty. In October, Yang Hu entered Tianjin, Jingzhou (now Hebei Jingxian), Zaoqiang and other places, entered Damingfu (now Hebei Daming), eastward Shandong, siege the city slightly, leaned against Liu Liujun, and shocked Shandong, then Transferred to Anhui, but Yang Hu crossed the river in Yimen (Anhui, Zhouzhou, Guoyang, Anhui), and was attacked and sacrificed by the Ming Army. The division was led by Liu Hui and Zhao Jun, and transferred to Henan to continue fighting. Liu Liubu went south to Shandong, and even ten counties, including Keyang Valley, Shouzhang, Yishui, and Qufu, attacked the Ming dynasties such as Qingzhou, Luzhou, and Yizhou, and then turned to Jining, which burned 1,200 Ming grain carriers. From Jining to the north, it fought in the vast area from Bazhou in the north to Tangyin in the south.

In the first month of seven years, he went deeper into Beijing and Bazhou again. At this time, Liu Hui and Zhao Yan fought in Anhui, Henan and other places. They elected Liu Hui as the marshal of Fengtian, Zhao Zhao as the deputy marshal, set up the five armies, ranked 28th battalion, commissioned the superintendent, commander and other officials, and had 130,000 step riding. Land "," Reopening the Chaos Sky "banner, also affirming military discipline, not arbitrarily killing civilians. The insurgent army connected many states and counties in Henan, and at the home of Jiao Fang, the former cabinet minister of Liu Yang, who was guilty of mischief with Liu Jin , the soldiers reached Huguang, Xiangyang and other counties. In February of seven years, the Ming government sent the right capital, Yu Shi Peng Zeti, to increase its military service. He increased the number of soldiers on the same side and Huguang soldiers, adopted tactics of blocking on all sides, and the followers to follow up the Henan Uprising. In May, Liu Hui was killed during a battle with the Ming Army in Nanzhao (now Henan Nanzhao East). Zhao Yan was also captured in Wuchang and then executed in Beijing.

Liu Liu and Liu Qi marched into the rebels in Beijing and saw that it was difficult for Jingshi to attack. They went south from Wen'an (now Hebei), entered Jiangsu, and then transferred to Shandong. Ming Lu Wan gathered 100,000 soldiers in Deng and Lai areas of Shandong and surrounded the rebels. The insurgents strove to break through and mingled with the Ming army in the counties and counties south of the capital. With the setback of the Henan Rebel Army, this rebel army gradually moved to the south. In May, from the south to Huangzhou, Hubei (now Huanggang, Hubei), Tuanfeng Town captured the boat and entered the river. Liu Liu was sacrificed because of the boat cover. Liu Qi and others descended from Wuchang. Up and down the loose river. The Ming government dispatched Peng Ze to reinforce Lu Wan, stationed in areas east of Nanjing and Susong area, and strengthened the armaments in key areas along the river. On July 18, the insurgents attacked Tongzhou (now Nantong, Jiangsu), and then occupied Langshan, southeast of Tongzhou, to defend themselves against danger. On the 21st, Ming soldiers attacked the Wolf Mountain Rebels from both the north and the south. The insurgents fought lonely and were outnumbered. Liu Qi and Qi Yanming died successively, and the uprising failed.

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The ending of Liu Liu and Liu Qi Uprising: What impact did Liu Liu and Liu Qi Uprising have?

The reason for the failure of the peasant army is that, compared with the Ming army, it is weaker and weaker. Although Liu Liu's army claims to be tens of thousands, it is mostly poor peasants who have no livelihood. They have no combat experience and have very little combat power. The second is the long-term mobile combat of the peasant army. Although it has the characteristics of mobility and flexibility, it can be unexpected and has achieved some victories. However, due to the lack of a strong base and rear, the soldiers are tired of running, and the soldiers and the supply of the army have some difficulties, affecting the combat effectiveness. Play. Third, the two larger insurgents fought independently and lacked coordination, and they did not get in touch with the peasant insurgents in Sichuan at the time to jointly fight against the enemy, which made it easier for the Ming government to concentrate their forces and defeat each.

The uprising led by Liu Liu and Liu Qi lasted 3 years before and after, they fought in Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Hubei, and Jiangsu provinces, and severely attacked the ruling class. In order to suppress the uprising, the Ming government spent a lot of financial resources to drain the treasury's silver. Wherever the insurgent army went, the local government cracked down on corrupt officials and landlords. This uprising gave the Ming rulers a heavy and profound lesson, and made the Ming rulers realize that it is difficult to maintain long-term rule by high-pressure policies alone. It is necessary to take effective measures to alleviate social contradictions.

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In the second year of the uprising failure, the Ming government ordered the reduction of taxes and grains in Gyeonggi, Shandong, Henan and other places, and announced that "the exiles will be reinstated by officials, and food will be given to farmers, sheds, and cattle for five years." The court was also reorganized, and Yang Ting and his leaders were reformed. Some eunuchs were dismissed, redundant officials were abolished, Huangzhuang and Guanzhuang were checked, and some land was returned to farmers. In the Ming Dynasty, a relatively clear political situation emerged in the early Jiajing period.

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Conclusion

The uprising led by Liu Liu and Liu Qi lasted 3 years before and after, they fought in Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Hubei, and Jiangsu provinces, and severely attacked the ruling class. In order to suppress the uprising, the Ming government spent a lot of financial resources to drain the treasury's silver.

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