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Rule of benevolence

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The rule of Renxuan is also known as the Prosperous Age of Renxuan. It was a series of policies adopted by the Emperor Mingzong Zhu Gaochi and Ming Xuanzong Zhu Zhanji to administer the country loosely and provide peace for the people. For one, the later generations called the Yongle Prosperous Age and the Taiping of Xuan De together "Eternal Prosperity." In the early Ming Dynasty, the economic and economic development of Hongwu, Jianwen, and Yongle revived and developed, and to the Renzong and Xuanzong dynasties, social and economic prosperity appeared. After Emperor Yongle died, his son Zhu Gaochi and grandson Zhu Zhanji took the throne successively, for Ming Renzong and Ming Xuanzong. This period is considered to be the strongest and most politically clear period of the Ming Dynasty. Ming Renzong ordered the soldiers to support the people, and stopped the treasure ship from going to the west, and stopped the royal procurement of jewelry. After the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of the Ming Dynasty, he quickly calmed down the rebellion of King Zhu Gaoxin of the Han Dynasty, and continued Mingrenzong ’s philosophy of governing the country. The world is stable and the social economy is developing rapidly. Ren Xuan and the two dynasties, cabinet university scholars Yang Shiqi, Yang Yan, and Yang Rong were in charge of the administration, and they had many achievements.

Rule of benevolence

The Rule of Renxuan——The Great Ming Dynasty of Ming Renzong Period

Brief introduction to the rule of Ren Xuanzhi: the Ming Dynasty with the strongest national power in the Ming Dynasty

The rule of Renxuan is also known as the prosperous age of Renxuan. It was a series of policies adopted by Ming Renzong Zhu Gaochi and Ming Xuanzong Zhu Zhanji to administer the country loosely and provide peace for the people. For one, the later generations called the Yongle Prosperous Age and the Taiping of Xuan De together "Eternal Prosperity."

In the early Ming Dynasty, the economic and economic development of Hongwu, Jianwen, and Yongle revived and developed, and to the Renzong and Xuanzong dynasties, social and economic prosperity appeared. After Emperor Yongle died, his son Zhu Gaochi and grandson Zhu Zhanji took the throne successively, for Ming Renzong and Ming Xuanzong. This period is considered to be the strongest and most politically clear period of the Ming Dynasty.

Ming Renzong Shi "stopped buying and redressing, redressing injustice, giving all assets with belongings, Huchi and the people benefit." Ordered soldiers to support the people, and stopped the treasure ship from going to the west, and stopped the royal procurement of jewelry and other acts. These practices have eased social contradictions, allowed the people to rest and recuperate, and developed productive forces, which has opened a stable and strong era. After the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of the Ming Dynasty, he quickly calmed down the rebellion of King Zhu Gaoxin of the Han Dynasty, and continued Mingrenzong ’s philosophy of governing the country. The world is stable and the social economy is developing rapidly. [5] Ren Xuan and the two dynasties, cabinet university scholars Yang Shiqi, Yang Yan, and Yang Rong were in charge of the administration, and they had many achievements.

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During their reign, they had clear politics, strict laws and disciplines, economic development, substantial warehouses, common people's settlement , social stability, and the image of peace. They formed the peaceful landscape of Guotai and Min'an in the early Ming Dynasty . Later generations called it the "rule of benevolence", which was comparable to the "rule of Cheng Kang" in the Zhou Dynasty , the " rule of literary scenery " in the Han Dynasty , and the rule of Zhenguan in the Tang Dynasty .

Ten years of Xuande (AD 1435), Zhu Zhanji died, only 38 years old. This concludes the rule of Ren Xuan.

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Ren Xuan's governance background: Ming Renzong and Ming Xuanzong recuperated and recuperated

The Daming Dynasty established by the peasant uprising at the end of the Yuan Dynasty was the same as many dynasties in history at the beginning of the founding of the country. After the ancestors of Taizu and Chengzu stabilized the mountains and mountains, the Emperor Ren and Xuan Emperors emerged during the Han Dynasty , which could be followed by the Wenjingzhi and Tang Dynasty The prosperous world situation of "Government of Zhenguan " is equal to " Governance of Renxuan ".

Ming Taizu was the first civilian emperor in China. He raised pigs and cattle for a living. He had been a monk for a meal and experienced hardships. Therefore, Ming Taizu knew the source of the suffering of the people and pushed for the policy of "rest and rest." The Ming Dynasty from Ming Taizu to Ming Xuanzong was a period when the society was relatively stable, the economy was developed, the culture was relatively prosperous, and the national strength was strong. This is inseparable from Ming Taizu's "rest and rest " policy.

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In the 22nd year of Yongle (1424), after the death of Ming Chengzu , his son Zhu Gaochi and grandson Zhu Zhanji successively succeeded. Zhu Gaochi is Ming Renzong ; Zhu Zhanji is Ming Xuanzong. Ming Renzong's reign was named Hong Xi. Hong Xi only died for one year. Ming Renzong died. Ming Renzong's eldest son Zhu Zhanji took office and established Xuande. Historically, Ming Renzong and Ming Xuanzong were often compared to Zhou Cheng and Zhou Kang of the Zhou Dynasty, Emperor Han Wen and Han Jing of the Han Dynasty . Following "the rule of Chengkang" and "the rule of Wenjing", the "rule of benevolence" is a good example created by King Shoucheng. The so-called "good" refers to being able to inherit the legacy of the entrepreneurial king and better govern the country.

During the reign of Emperor Renzong, he “stopped buying and redressing injustices, and contributed assets to the concubine, benefiting the people and the people.” He pardoned the emperor Jianwen and the family members of the officials who had been exiled at the border during the ancestors. The rebellion of King Zhu Gaoxi of the Han Dynasty was pacified, and King Zhao was soothed, which stabilized the domestic situation. Shi Zai: "The rule of Ren Xuan, the official called his post, his politics was decent, Gang Jixiuming, Cangjie full of envy, Yan Yanye, can not be a disaster at the age. Gai Mingxing is sixty years old, the popularity is gradually comfortable, there is steam Zhiping's elephants are awe-inspiring. " Qing historian Gu Yingtai listed the volume of" Ren Xuan Zhi Zhi "in" The Chronicle of Ming Dynasty Chronicles ", and said:" Ming has benevolence and proclaimation, and there is still Cheng and Kang in the Zhou Dynasty, and writing and scenery in the Han. "

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Decryption: What kind of political achievements did the Emperors Renxuan of the Ming Dynasty have?

Through the management of Zhu Yuanzhang and Zhu Xi in the Ming Dynasty , the unification of China was completed, socio-economic development was achieved, and the invading forces of northern Mongolia were defeated, the frontier areas were consolidated, and a well-off situation emerged in the Ming Dynasty . But behind the prosperity, there is also a social crisis. Zhu Yuanzhang's severe punishment sharpened the contradictions within the ruling class, and the late feudal society in the Ming Dynasty also deepened the contradictions inherent in feudal society, and the class contradictions became increasingly tense. Emperor Ren Xuan adopted a series of political measures to adjust the internal relations of the ruling class, eliminate internal disturbances, support the people, and rectify government administration in order to solve the malpractices left over from the Hong Yong period.

Shuffle cabinet

By reorganizing the cabinet, Ming Renzong awarded some of his henchmen's consultants with a distinguished taste, and enriched the administrative bureau with the well-known Hanlin bachelor and capable officials to start his work of organizing a new government. Many of his newly appointed officials have served him during his regency in Nanjing or Beijing, and some have been punished for supporting him when he had differences with Ming Chengzu . Ming Renzong paid special attention to Confucian morality and personal character. One example is Quan Quan, a junior official who entered the cabinet in the first year of Hongxi (1425) because he was extremely filial. Similarly, Ming Renzong appointed talented and disciplined people to hold local administrative and judicial positions. In order to make the bureaucracy more efficient, Ming Renzong made some changes to the civil service examination system. He believed that this system favored the southerners, so he set a quota to ensure that the northerners accounted for 40% of all jinshi; this policy was slightly modified and was implemented in the Ming and Qing dynasties.

Later Ming Xuanzong retained the original government structure, allowing many outstanding officials to continue to serve. But he did make some changes in the political system and in administrative practice. This is evident in the changing role of the Cabinet and the involvement of eunuchs in the exercise of executive power.

As a result of the reorganization of Ming Renzong, the cabinet appointed by Hanlin Scholar now enjoys a high prestige. Since the reign of Ming Chengzu, the cabinet has been called an advisory body. At this time, he began to exercise greater administrative and deliberative powers. Sanyang, Jin Youzi, and Huang Huai each re-appointed in the cabinet. Not only do they have an official residence, they have special court titles, but they also serve as Shang Shu in the foreign court.

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The cabinet's prominence has also been strengthened by new administrative procedures: regular visits to the emperor to discuss the more pressing government affairs. Following Ming Renzong's precedent, the emperor asked them to submit a sealed proposal directly to him to determine the appropriate action. In addition, the emperor adopted a formal procedure called a rule or a draft, which required university scholars to review the submissions submitted by officials and submit appropriate responses to each drafted decree for royal approval. . The emperor generally accepted their suggestions and distributed the order to the competent department for implementation; he no longer called his consultants for reconsideration unless the main content was disputed. In this way, the cabinet has become a bridge between the emperor and the Six Tribes, and it has become a decision-making force more than ever. Its leaders can then make recommendations without consulting the ministry in charge, and these decisions come into effect automatically whenever the emperor feels that they should acquiesce in their decisions.

For social stability and economic development, Ming Renzong and Ming Xuanzong adopted a lot of effective measures. Anti-corruption and honesty are a very important aspect. In this series of measures, the remediation of the Duchayuan , It is one of the most distinctive measures among them.

Wide open

In addition to recuperating with the people, the two emperors Ren Xuan opened their mouths and were good at taking care of their subordinates. Ming Renzong once said to officials such as Lu Yi and Yang Shiqi: "People in the past, or self-esteem, bad news, the subordinates and Ah Fu, were defeated. Xi and Qing etc. should be used as a warning." Further inherit and carry forward this open-minded and accepted style. He told the minister: "Han and Tang princes, Emperor Wen and Taizong were able to take care of him, and Emperor Wenzong almost punished him , and Taizong ruled on the concept of virginity , all of which had good effects." Suggestions are always accepted with an open mind, and the relationship between the monarch and the minister is very harmonious. "When it is, Dili strives for good governance, (Yang) Shiqi is equal to the heart, and the domestic name is Zhiping. Dinai antique monarch and prince Yuyou, first at the age of each year, give a hundred officials a ten day off. The car is also fortunate for Xiyuan Wansui Mountain, Zhu All bachelors are accustomed. Fu is polite and calmly asks folk suffering. "

Use criminal law with caution

Punishment measures are also a characteristic of governance at the time of Ren Xuan. Ming Renzong said to the Ministry of Criminal Affairs and the Metropolitan Police Department: "Being stunned by criminal law and not daring to increase losses with joy and anger, Qing and other prisoners should also listen modestly and be truthful, not guilty, and not torture if not guilty "And said:" If Lianlian is too ill for a while, the extra-legal membership does not meet the Ling Chi's criminal test, the law division repeatedly plays, and the third play is not allowed. As for the fifth play, the fifth play is not allowed, and it will be allowed to play with the San Gong and the minister. It has always been custom-made. "In the short period of his rule, he also abolished some torture laws. If he was not allowed to" punish the whip and other punishments outside the law in order to hurt people, he was not allowed to join the court, and he would never continue. " It is also stipulated that "everyone who commits treason against treason now sits in accordance with the law, and the rest has the sitting itself, and no one can use the same method."

Ming Renzong issued a decree shortly before his death, further admonishing the judicial authorities to make judgments according to the law, and to review the charges against the prisoners before they are pronounced, especially before the death sentence is pronounced. In addition, he prohibits the abuse of corporal punishment against prisoners, and implicates relatives of prisoners (except for major treason) when punished. He asserted that these practices seriously violated Confucian principles of benevolence and filial ethics.

After the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of the Ming Dynasty, he not only continued to impose light punishments, but also paid attention to enlightenment. He said: "People are guilty of breaking the law because of indoctrination." Therefore, officials at all levels should apply for indoctrination and popularize legal knowledge to reduce crime.

The Emperor Xuanzong of the Ming Dynasty had certain judicial talents. During his reign, he used the judicial power of the feudal emperor to make more fair decisions in many complex cases, and improved the judicial system. It not only reflects some legal traditions of the Ming Dynasty, but also reflects feudalism. The characteristics of the combination of ethics and law of the times. For some reason, Zhu Zhanji was more lenient towards the military officer's crimes, but his judicial activities played a positive role in the social stability of the Ming Dynasty.

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Declassification: What military achievements did the two emperors of the Ming Dynasty Renxuan have?

Rectify military affairs

The Emperor Xuanzong of the Ming Dynasty tried to eliminate military corruption and vigorously establish civilian rule. In previous battles, corrupt officers only mobilized the poor and sold waiver coupons to the rich. When expropriating materials, they extorted the people from extortion. They illegally used soldiers as their own personal slaves, embezzled their military garrisons and rations, and withheld their winter clothes. Such illegal extortion and harsh treatment have damaged the morale of the soldiers, promoted small differences, further damaged the entire military organization and severely reduced the combat effectiveness of the troops. In order to eliminate these ills and restore discipline to military organizations, the Ming Xuanzong sent a group of inspectors from the first year of Xuande (1426) to three years (1428) to inspect and improve the military conditions of the provinces. One of the purposes of these investigations was to inventory the roster of soldiers in order to determine the actual number of soldiers in each military unit and the required military salaries and rations, thereby removing the main causes of corruption. This type of mission is called the Qing Army, and it has since become a normal task for the Royal Historians. In addition, Ming Xuanzong promulgated new regulations on recruiting and detaining deserters in three years (1428) of Xuande, and the clauses were increased from 8 to 19; in October of four years (1429), he added the aim of eliminating malpractices. Article 22. In the same year, in order to show his concern for the military and improve the morale of the army, he held one of the most memorable public military inspections of the dynasty outside Beijing. The troops under the training of the Beijing Division regularly follow the imperial driving tour of the northern border and conduct large-scale hunting activities.

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Calm down the rebellion

After Emperor Xuanzong of Ming Dynasty ascended the throne, the biggest problem before Ming Xuanzong was the problem of foreign ancestors left by Zhu Yuanzhang . This problem was not fundamentally resolved in the Jianwen, Yongle, and Hongxi dynasties. After Ming Xuanzong took office, he immediately set about rectifying the military affairs and preparing to meet the challenge from the strong clan. His emperor Zhu Gaojiu was very successful in the battle of Jingnan, and he would lead troops. After Yongle Dynasty was Feng Lean, he never gave up his ambition to seize power. Finally, the opportunity came. Zhu Gaochi died and Ming Xuanzong ascended the throne. The country was turbulent, and the emperor was young. It was a good time to rebel. After careful preparation, he also raised the banner of "Qing Jun side" like his father Zhu Xi, but the rebels were defeated by Ming Xuanzong and won. After the division returned to Beijing, the Emperor Xuanzong of the Ming Dynasty uploaded a call to another emperor Zhu Gaojiu, implying that he surrendered his military power. Zhu Gaojiu did not resist, and obediently handed over the three guards and horses. The problem was finally resolved in the Xuande Dynasty.

Later Han Zhuzhu Gao and Zhao Wang Zhu Gaohu never gave up the idea of competing for the throne, threatening the stability of society at all times. Facing the rebellion of Zhu Gaojiao, Ming Xuanzong decided to enlist. The news of the emperor's enlistment greatly encouraged the six army generals, quickly settling the people's hearts, and easing the turbulent situation. Later, the threats of King Han and Zhao were removed, ensuring political stability and social stability, and providing the necessary opportunity for the smooth and smooth development of the Ming Dynasty .

Stable border defense

Ming Xuanzong was worried that the Hu people would invade the border when Qiu Gaomafei was fattened , so he reorganized the soldiers and horses and stationed at Xifengkou to wait for the enemy. Shoujiang played Wuliangha and led 10,000 iron riders to disturb the frontier. The enemy army saw the army coming from a distance, thinking that it was a soldier guarding the frontier, that is, the whole army came to face it. Zhu Zhanji ordered that Tieqi be divided into two lanes to attack the enemy, and he personally shot and killed the enemy vanguard and killed three people. The two wings flew like clouds, and the enemy dared not advance. Then, Zhu Zhanji ordered the continuous launching of the God Machine, and most of the enemy soldiers were killed and wounded, and the rest all fled. Ming Xuanzong traveled directly with hundreds of iron rods. The enemy saw the Huanglong Banner and knew that it was the emperor's enlistment. So they all dismissed and fell to the ground and descended. Ming Xuanzong bound these people and captured them.

Annan Lili rebelled, defeating the army many times. Li Li asked the court to re-establish Chen as King Annan. Ming Xuanzong believed that the middle school was exhausted and that the expedition was useless, so he agreed to him, and banned Chen Hao as King Annan, and then recruited the soldiers. Later Li Li usurped Chen Hao and established himself as king. Send people to pay tribute to Nagong and ask the emperor to seize the monarchs. Some people asked the emperor to conquer Lili, which was forbidden by the Emperor Xuanzong. Li Li was named King Annan. Annan is also a country of cochin, and has been a tribute ever since.

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Demystification: What kind of economic achievements did the two emperors of the Ming Dynasty Renxuan have?

Rest with the people

Because Ren Xuan was in the middle of the world, when the people's mind was settled, Ming Renzong actively promoted the policy of rest with the people after he was appointed. He told the Ministry of Households, "Farmers are the people who live and drink, and they ca n’t be lost when they work hard. From now on, all the urgent tasks, including those who use manpower, are all farming gaps. The former generations covered farming issues. Use rumours and arable farming to summon the dead. Don't be distressed. "

After the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of Ming Dynasty, he also continued the policy of rest with the people. He once said: "Its prosperity is also based on recuperation, and its decline must also have civil soldiers. In addition to Han Wu Chengwen and Jing Jing, after Emperor Sui's succession in the Kaiyuan era, there was a chaos in history . Isn't it rich or unwise? At the end of the Han Wu Dynasty, he repented, and the Emperor Emperor died, and Xuanzong died and relocated.

Ming Xuanzong knew and cared about the sufferings of the people. On one occasion, Zhu Zhanji went out to Beijing and saw several farmers plowing the fields. He personally went to the field to talk to the peasants, and took the plough in the hands of the peasants three times. He said to the followers with emotion: "I only feel tired after pushing the plough three times. The common people work hard all year round, and the hard work is even more conceivable!" After returning to Beijing, Ming Xuanzong wrote "Feng Fu Ji" One article was shown to the close relatives of Lu Yi, Yang Shiqi, etc., which said: "Agriculture is in the fields, spring is ploughing, Xia Zeyun, and autumn is ripe. All three use diligence. After all, why dare not neglect? ... Dong then took the position of serving as a county magistrate, and it was my job, and I did not dare to neglect. "

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Frugality

Both Emperor Renxuan advocated frugality and advocated for disaster relief. In the first year of Hongxi (1425), in April, disasters occurred in Shandong, Huaian, and Xuzhou. Ming Renzong immediately ordered Yang Shiqi to draft an edict, exempting half of summer tax and half of the autumn grain, and stopped all materials bought by officials. Yang Shiqi believes that through the Ministry of Households and the Ministry of Industry, Ren Zong said: "To save the poor, such as saving the life, we are afraid that we will not be able to do it. If we put it in place, we will use the lack of state to transfer to hesitation." Xuan Zong also continued while in office We will implement the policy of exempting land and relieving famine.

When constructing the tomb of Ming Renzong and presenting the tomb, Ming Xuanzong complied with the will of Ren Zong of the lighting, strived to be frugal, and paid attention to economy. The tomb project was completed in three months. Ming Xuanzong took this head, and the tombs of the Ming emperors of the later generations were built more frugally. This rule did not break until the reign of King Sejong.

Building water conservancy

There were many large-scale water conservancy projects carried out during the Ming Xuanzong period. Ming Xuanzong once said: "Where water conservancy becomes popular, it will be held without delay .... Slow people will be punished by sin." In the meantime, repairing Poyang Hongquyan, Dujiang Weir, built Jinan Canal, Meizhou Xinjin Tongji Weir, and dredged the Taihu inlet seawater channel, which relieved the flood in Susong area.

Food production continued to increase during this period. During the Hongwu period, the average annual tax and grain amounted to more than 20 million shi. During the Yong, Xi, and Xuan years, the average annual tax and grain increased to more than 31 million shi. There is ample storage throughout the country. "At the time of Hong, Yong, Xi, and Xuan, the people were enriched and the government treasures overflowed." Government and private handicrafts are flourishing, iron mining, shipbuilding, porcelain making, weaving and dyeing, weapons, gunpowder making, and special handicrafts and civil architecture, The quality has exceeded the previous generation level, and the quantity has also doubled. On the basis of production development, commodity circulation is particularly active. The social and economic development during the Renxuan period reached the highest level in the Ming Dynasty .

Army Tuntian

In the first year of the Emperor Xuanzong of the Ming Dynasty (1426), the abolition of wasteland road tax was abolished. On the first month of the following year, the deceased declared the Law of Tuntian, and ordered the army to settle down. Xuanzong told the householder and his aides that "there is nothing in the country, the sergeants are left in reserve, and I know that the seeds are enough for food and clothing, the country can save the cost of raising soldiers."

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Decryption: What kind of cultural achievements did the two emperors of the Ming Dynasty Renxuan have?

In terms of ideology, Ming Renzong advocated Confucianism and praised loyalty and filial piety. During his reign, Confucianism was fully developed. Ming Renzong also built a Hongwen Museum outside the Sishan Gate in Beijing. Ming Renzong was very good at accepting concubines, and once gave Yang Shiqi and others a small seal to encourage them to enter concubines. Therefore, the politics of the Hong Xi Dynasty was very clear, courtiers could express their own opinions, and the emperor could choose good deeds. Ming Renzong did not love women in the harem, except for Queen Zhang , only Tan Fei. Empress Zhang is very virtuous and respects and loves Ming Aizong; Princess Fei is also a virtuous helper. After the death of Ming Aizong, she was hailed as Zhao Rong and concubine.

Ming Renzong also made important contributions to the imperial examination system. At that time, due to the cleverness and hard work of the southerners, most of the scholars were southerners. In order to ensure that the northerners can enter the junior college, Ming Renzong stipulated the winning ratio of "South 60s and North 40s". This system was used until the Qing Dynasty .

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The cultural development of books has developed rapidly. Eight years of Xuande (1433), Ming Xuanzong ordered Yang Shiqi and Yang Rong to choose 10 books in the pavilion. Take five classics, "Saoyuan" and other copies, and store them in Guanghan, Qingdian two halls and Qionghua Island for viewing. He also built "Tongji Library" and "Huang Shisheng" to collect ancient books and archives. The cabinet has about 20,000 books and nearly one million volumes. Thirteen percent are printed and 17 percent are transcripts. History said that "when it is, the classics are the most prosperous", "the two masters of benevolence and Xuan, the world is Chengping, cultural relics flourish."

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Demystification: What diplomatic achievements did the Emperors Renxuan of the Ming Dynasty have?

During the reign of Ming Renzong , he was content to let lean military generals guard the northern outposts to prevent the invasion of the Eastern Mongolians, and continue to maintain Nagon relations with Central Asian and South Asian countries. But his main concern is Annan. Although Annan has been merged for several years, he has not yet been settled. He longed for peace and offered to recognize Lely's regime as soon as possible; but because the time was not ripe for this, he continued to implement his father Zhu Xi's policy of seduce Lely. He concluded that Huang Fu was too cautious and could not continue to serve as an inspector in the city of Annan, so Rongchangbo Chen Zhi replaced him. However, the Ming Army was not strengthened, and in the end of Hongxi, this situation remained unchanged. Historians believe that the recall of Huang Fu was the main reason for China's failure in Annan, and he was too much emperor because Huang Fu had extensive experience in local administration and was respected by the locals.

Ming Renzong accepted Xia Yuanji's proposal, cancelled Zheng He's scheduled sea voyage, canceled the tea and horse trade at the border, and stopped sending gold and pearl ambassadors to Yunnan and Jiaozhi (Annan).

Soon after the Emperor Xuanzong of the Ming Dynasty , Hami Huihui, Manchu Sardinia, Zhancheng, Ryukyu Zhongshan, Java and other dozens of countries around the Ming Dynasty came to pay tribute to the Ming Dynasty, almost every year.

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Five years of Xuande (January 1431), Ming Xuanzong ordered Zheng He to sail again on the ground that he did not pay tribute to Fanfan. During the return journey, Zheng He died of overwork in Xuande eight years (1433) in early April on Guri, the west coast of India. The fleet was led by the eunuch Wang Jinghong, and returned to Nanjing on the sixth day of July eighth (July 22, 1433). The seventh Westerner figure contained 27,550 people. This is also the last time to go to the west.

During the reign of Emperor Xuanzong, Ming court managed to improve relations with Japan. Ming Xuanzong resumed formal relations with Japan. Due to the hostility hosted by Japanese general Ashikaga, this relationship was already at the freezing point at the time of Zhu Xi. In the first year of Xuande (1426) and the second year (1427), the Ming Xuanzong unilaterally cancelled the agreement on the Nagong mission in the second year of Yongle (1404) to improve relations. He added ships and personnel allowed to trade in China. But Ashikaga continued to hinder the conclusion of any agreement.

However, his successor Ashikaga Religion (1429--1432) showed great interest in restoring relations; in February of the Seventh Year of Xuande (1432), Zhu Zhanji sent an eunuch Chai Shan to bring a copy to Ashikaga Protestant scriptures went to Ryukyu, suggesting that relations be restored and increased trade volume approved. The seal script was transferred to Japan through the mediation of the King of Ryukyu. The Ashikaga Religion was pleased with the content mentioned, and in September sent a monk with Chinese ancestry, Longshi Daoyuan, to lead a mission to Beijing in June of the eighth year of Xuande (1433), accompanied by horses, armor, Swords and other local products. In July, the Chinese emperor returned to send a mission to escort the Japanese mission back to China, and the Ming Dynasty mission received a warm reception in Japan.

When Ming Xuanzong continued his father's contraction policy, he only maintained regular contacts with the South and Southeast Asian countries that came to Nagong during the period of Zhu Xi, and ranked according to the number of coming dynasties. They include: Zhancheng (8 times), Claw Wa (6 times), Siam (6 times), Sumatra (4 times); once in North Korea, there are 浡 Ni, Bangge 榜, South Boli, Kochi, Ceylon, Guri, Adan and Arabia And other countries. While maintaining these relationships, the emperor also continued to enforce an earlier ban prohibiting the Chinese from going abroad to settle or do business. Its purpose is to strengthen the security of the coast from pirates and to maintain all official monopolies of foreign trade. These unrealistic bans have failed because of insurmountable difficulties in their implementation.

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Decryption: How to evaluate the "rule of benevolence" of Ming Renzong and Ming Xuanzong?

After more than half a century of painstaking management by Zhu Yuanzhang and Zhu Xi , the Ming Dynasty created conditions and laid the foundation for the " rule of benevolence ." Based on this foundation, Emperor Ren Xuan was able to resolutely manage, eliminate ills, and stabilize the situation, so that "the world will benefit from one's heart", promoted the socio-economic development, created a peaceful world, and is a rare monarch in Chinese history. Therefore, Gu Yingtai commented in "The End of Ming History ": "It is difficult to start a business, and it is easy to be successful. The rule of Ren Xuan is not high, but the rule of success is not open.

Ming Renzong ascended the throne in 1424. Following the practice of the French King , he began a series of reforms, abolished ancient torture, stopped the treasure ship from going to the west, and stopped the royal procurement of jewellery; ordered tax relief, and paid free of charge to the affected areas. In order to provide relief, some mountain zees were opened for farmers to hunt and hunt, and to treat refugees. Productive forces have achieved unprecedented development, and the Ming Dynasty has entered a period of stability and prosperity, which is also the beginning of what is known as the "rule of benevolence" in history. Although Ming Renzong died only 10 months after his reign, he still deserves the title of a generation of benevolent.

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After the reign of Emperor Ming Xuanzong, he continued to implement the Ming Renzong policy of rest and rest with the people. Renxianzhang, harmonious relations between monarchs and officials, improved and established the cabinet system and the governor system, improved and strengthened the Ming Dynasty 's supervision and judicial system, and vigorously developed Palace culture, [78] the economy also developed steadily, the politics was clear, and the famous "rule of benevolence" flourished. Ming Xuanzong reigned for only 10 years and died of unknown illness, but he can be regarded as a competent emperor , and his contribution to the Ming Dynasty is indelible. He was called by the historian the Taiping Heavenly Son and the Shoucheng Prince, which brought the "Ben Xuan Sheng Shi" of the Ming Dynasty to its peak.

The reign of Ming Xuanzong and his father Ming Renzong was a flourishing period in Chinese history. This eleven years is the golden age of the Ming Dynasty. For this period of reign, there are countless beautiful words in historical materials. The Emperor Renxuan not only inherited the cause initiated by Zhu Yuanzhang, but also eliminated the malpractices left over from the Hong Yong period. It has made achievements in the development of socio-economic, light punishment, thin taxation, acceptance, and employment. The Ming empire is unprecedentedly prosperous and powerful, and everything seems to be moving in a better direction.

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Conclusion

After more than half a century of painstaking management by Zhu Yuanzhang and Zhu Xi, the Ming Dynasty created conditions and laid the foundation for the "rule of benevolence." Based on this foundation, Emperor Ren Xuan was able to resolutely manage, eliminate ills, and stabilize the situation, so that "the world will benefit from one's heart", promoted the socio-economic development, created a peaceful world, and is a rare wise monarch in Chinese history.

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