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History

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" Historical Records " is the first general biography of China in history written by Sima Qian . It is the first in twenty-four history. The book is divided into 12 chronologies, 10 tables, 8 books, 30 families, 70 series, 130 books, 520 thousand. The remaining words recorded the history of China from the legendary Emperor Huang Emperor to Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty for about four thousand years. "Historical Records" was originally the general name of ancient history books. Starting from the Three Kingdoms Period, "Historical Records" gradually evolved from the general name of historical books to the special title of "Tai Shi Gong Shu". "Historical Records" and "Hanshu" (Ban Gu), "Han Hanshu" (Fan Ye, Sima Biao), " Three Kingdoms " (Chen Shou) collectively referred to as "the first four history." "Historical Records" had a profound impact on the development of later history and literature. His pioneering method of chronicling chronology was inherited by later "historical history". At the same time, "Historical Records" is also considered to be an excellent literary work, which has an important position in the history of Chinese literature.

History

Historical Records-Priceless Treasure Recording the Magnificent History of the Chinese Nation

"Historical Records": Brief Introduction to Historical Records

" Historical Records " is a general history of chronicles in China, known as the history of faith, and was written by Sima Qian of the Western Han Dynasty during the 13th year. The book is a total of 130 volumes, about 52,600 words, and there are ten tables, eight books, twelve books, thirty families, and seventy biographies, which record the Huangdi era in ancient Chinese legends ( It has a history of more than 3,000 years from the first year of Emperor Hanwu to the first year (122 BC). It is all-encompassing, yet integrated, and has a clear context. "The king traces, the original inspection ends, sees prosperity and decline, and discusses the test" ("Tai Shi Gong Autonomous Preface"). "A statement from a family" records in detail the development of politics, economy, military, culture and other aspects in ancient times.

"Historical Records" is the first "biographical style" history book in history. It is different from the chronological chronology used in previous history books, or the country type divided by regions. Instead, it is based on biographies to reflect history. A style of content. From then on, from the Han Book in the Eastern Han Dynasty to the Manuscript of the Qing History in the early Republic of China , the revised history of the past two thousand years, although there have been some additions and changes in individual names, they have inherited the "Historical Records" without exception. "Benji and Biography" became a tradition. At the same time, "Historical Records" is also considered to be an excellent literary work, which has an important position in literary history and has a very high literary value. Lu Xun has been hailed as "the historian's absolute sing, without rhyme" Lisao ".

"Historical Records" is divided into five parts: the chronicle, watch, book, family, biography.

It is based on historical figures such as emperors and other political central figures. The division of labor in various systems is clear.

"Benji" records the rise and fall of major emperors and major historical events (" Xian Yu Benji" is an exception);

"Table" is a memorabilia of historical periods presented in table form;

"Book" is a special history of astronomy, calendar, water conservancy, economy, culture, etc .;

"Family" is the activities and deeds of the nobles of the princes of the previous dynasties (the "Chen She Family" is also an exception);

"Biography" is a biography of influential people from all walks of life, with a few chapters recording the history of ethnic minorities.

Among them, "Benji", "Family", and "Biography" account for most of the entire book, and the history is centered on writing characters. As a result, Sima Qian created a new style of history book, "Chronicle of Chu".

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"Historical Records": the famous idiom stories in historical records

What are the stories in the Historical Records —— A Brief Introduction to the Historical Records

Xuanyuan Tianzi comes from "Historical Records of the Five Emperors"

Capsule blood shoots from "Historical Records Yin Benji" Jiurouchi Lin from "Historical Records Yin Benji"

Zuo Zhi right 绌 from "Historical Records · Zhou Benji" burned book pit Confucian from "Historical Records · Qin Shihuang Benji"

Refers to the deer as a horse from the "Historical Records of the Qin Shihuang Emperor".

Pre-emptive from "Historical Records · Xiang Yu Benji" Breaking the cauldron from "Historical Records-Xiang Yu Benji"

Hongmen Ban from "Historical Records · Xiang Yu Benji" Xiangzhuang Dance Sword, intended for Pei Gong from "Historical Records: Xiang Yu Benji"

Muhou Erguan from "Historical Records · Xiang Yu Benji" Farewell My Concubine from "Historical Records-Xiang Yu Benji"

Chu Ge from All Sides Comes from "Historical Records of Xiang Yu Benji" Unseen to see Elder Jiang Dong from "Historical Records of Xiang Yu Benji"

A complete defeat from the "Historical Records"

The road was repaired in the Ming dynasty, and Chen Cang came from the "Historical Records of the High Ancestors".

Gao Wujian 瓴 from "Historical Records of Gao Zu Benji"

Bird Dou Gong Hidden from "Historical Records · Yue Wang Gou Jian Family" The armpit of a fox from "Historical Records of Zhao Shijia"

Chao Yaoshi from "Historical Confucius Family" Wei Biansan must be from "Historical Confucius Family"

Hongzhi Zhi from "Historical Records · Chen She Family" Destroyed bones from "Historical Records of Zhang Yi "

Mao Sui self-recommended from "Historical Records of the Plains"

The blood is from the "Historical Records of the Plains and the Plains of the Kings".

In one word Jiuding comes from "Historical Records · Plains Princes Biography".

Loss of jealousy please come from "Historical Records of Lian Po Xiang Xiangru Biography"

The surrender of the neck is from the "Historical Records of Lian Po Xiang Xiangru Biography"

Talking on paper from "Historical Records of Lian Po Xiang Xiangru Biography" A word of gold from "Historical Records of Lu Buwei Biography"

Strange goods can be found in "Historical Records of Lu Buwei," Tu Poong see from "Historical Records of Assassin"

Backwaters from the "Historical Records of Huaiyin Hou Biography" Liver-brained from "Historical Records of Huaiyin Hou Biography"

Duoduoyi from "Historical Records of Huaiyin Hou Biography" Ji Minggou steals from "Historical Records of Meng Tajun"

Three Caves of Cunning Rabbit from Biography of Historical Records of Meng Tajun

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Sima Qian, the writer of the historical record

Who is the author of Historical Records ?

Writer of history

Sima Qian (145 BC-about 90 BC), a long character, Xia Yang (now Hancheng, Shaanxi), and a Longmen (now Shanxi Hejin). Historians, writers, and thinkers of the Western Han Dynasty learned Spring and Autumn from Dong Zhongshu in the early years, and Shangshu from Kong An. "Hanshu · Yiwenzhi" has eight volumes of "Sima Qianfu"; "Suishu · Jingjizhi" has a volume of "Sima Qianji".

His father, Sima Tan, was a Tai Shiling, and was very knowledgeable. He used to be "academic officer in Tang Dynasty, easy to accept Yang He, and study Taoism in Huangzi." In the early years, Sima Qian lived in a poor life in his hometown. I worked hard, and when I encountered a difficult problem, I kept thinking over and over until I figured it out. At the age of 20, Sima Qian set out from Changan and traveled around. Later he returned to Chang'an and became Lang Zhong. He traveled with Emperor Han Wu several times and visited many places. At the age of 35, Emperor Hanwu sent him to Yunnan, Sichuan, and Guizhou. He learned about the customs of some of the minorities there. After his father Sima talked to death, three years of Yuanfeng (108 BC), Sima Qian succeeded as Tai Shiling. In the first year of Taichu (104 BC), the "Taichu Calendar" was ordered with astronomer Tang Du and others. In the same year, he began to compile "Historical Records". In the second year of the Han Dynasty (99 BC), Li Ling attacked the Hun, defeated and surrendered, and Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty was furious. Sima Qian defended Li Ling, offended Han Wudi, was arrested and sentenced to court. "A person's inherent death is either heavier than Taishan or lighter than Hongmao, and the use of it is different." ("Reporting Anshu") In order to fulfill his father's will, complete the "Historical Records", leave it to future generations, and endure humiliation and corruption . He was pardoned and released from prison in 96 BC (the first year of Taishi) and made a written order to master the emperor 's paperwork. He was annoyed with the book and devoted all his efforts to writing "Historical Records". At about the age of 55, he finally finished writing and revising the book.

Sima Qian tortured complete history

In the second year of the Han Dynasty (99 BC), while Sima Qian was writing "Historical Records" with all his heart, he encountered a flying disaster. This was the Li Ling incident.

This summer, Emperor Wu sent his brother Li Guangli , the second division general, to lead the army against the Huns, and sent Li Guang's grandson, Li Ling, to escort Li Guangli. Li Guang led 5,000 infants to live in Yan, and the solitary army went deep into Junji Mountain and suffered with Shan Yu. The Huns siege Li Ling with 80,000 cavalry. After eight days and nights of fighting, Li Ling beheaded more than 10,000 Xiongnus, but because he could not get the support of the main force, he ran out of food and was captured.

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Spread of Historical Records during the Han, Tang, Song and Yuan Dynasties

The Spread of Historical Records

The Historical Records created by Sima Qian were widely spread, about after the middle of Eastern Han Dynasty . Becoming the title of Sima Qian's works also began at this time. According to the materials available, the earliest name of the historical work of Sima Qian as "Historical Records" was "Donghai Temple Stele" written by Emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Before that, "Historical Records" were called "Tai Shi Gong Shu", "Tai Shi Gong Ji" or "Tai Shi Gong" for short.

There are two copies of "Historical Records", one at Sima Qian's workplace (court); copies are at home. During Emperor Xuan Han's reign, Sima Qian's grandson Yang Yan began to spread the content of the book to the society, but there was not much space to circulate. He was soon stopped because of Yang Ye's murder.

After the "Historical Records" was written, because it was "fair and bad to the saints, on the road, Huang Lao followed by the Six Classics, the prelude ranger retired from the ranks of the priests and entered the male sex, and the narrative of the goods was advocating snobbery and shameless and poor. "(Han Shu Sima Qian Biography), was accused of heresy representatives against the authentic thought of the Han Dynasty. Therefore, in the Han Dynasty, "Historical Records" was always regarded as a "defamation book" which was apostasy. Not only did it not get the fair evaluation it deserved, but scholars at the time did not dare to comment on it.

In the Western Han Dynasty, even if the princes did not have a full version of "Tai Shi Gong Shu", King Dongping's request to the court to reward the "Tai Shi Gong Shu" was also rejected. Because there are a large number of palace secrets in Historical Records, it is strictly forbidden to divulge the court language in the Western Han Dynasty, so only the court personnel can access the book. Chu Shaosun read the book in the court at the time of the Emperor of the Han Dynasty. Some of it was not open to the court officials. By the time of Bangu's father and son, he claimed that ten articles were missing. The Bangu family was given a copy of the "Tai Shi Gongshu" by the royal family, of which ten were also missing.

The court of the Eastern Han Dynasty also wrote down the excerpts and continued to supplement "Historical Records". In the "Han Han Book of Yang Zhongzhuan", Yang Zhong "received the" Tai Shi Gong Shu "for more than 100,000 words." It shows that the Eastern Han Dynasty was still reluctant to release the "Historical Records" in its entirety, and only let Yang Zhong delete it for more than 100,000 words. After being deleted, the "Historical Records", which only had more than 100,000 words, was lost after the Han Dynasty.

During the Han and Jin Dynasties, there were also some positive comments on the "Historical Records". Liu Xiang and Yang Xiong of the Western Han Dynasty were both called to move from a good history, obey their good order and reason, and discriminate without glory, not quality, but their writing is straight and their affairs. Nuclear, not false beauty, no hidden evil, so it is called the actual record. " (Han Shu Sima Qian Biography) Western Jinhua also said: "Moving the text is straight and the matter is the core." ("Han Han Biao Biao Biography". According to Li Xian's note, this sentence is "Hua Ji's words." ) In the Jin Dynasty, some people praised "Historical Records" from a simple perspective. Zhang Fu said, "Qian Zhi's writings and resignations are all about it. There are only 500,000 words in three thousand years." ("Jin Shu · Zhang Fu Biography") Although these evaluations are good, today's view is far from enough to reflect The special status of "Historical Records", because history books that get similar evaluations are not only "Historical Records" family. For example, the author of the " Three Kingdoms " Chen Shou, "the people call it a good narrative, there is a talent of good history." "Biography" written by Hua Yan was also well received in the Western Jin Dynasty. At that time, people thought that "the quality of the scriptures was verified, there were rules for relocation, and records were recorded." ("Jin Shu · Hua Chuan") As far as simplicity is concerned, that is not unique to "Historical Records", such as "Sun Sheng's" Yang Qiu ", with appointments as its power", (Wen Xin Diao Long Shi Chuan ") Qian Bao's" Jin Ji "," The book is brief, straight and gentle, and salty is called good history. " ("Book of Jin · Qianbao") In short, for a long time, people did not look at the "Historical Records" very special.

During the Tang Dynasty , due to the rise of the ancient prose movement, the writers paid great attention to "Historical Records". At that time, the famous prose writers Han Yu and Liu Zongyuan all highly regarded "Historical Records".

After the Song and Yuan Dynasties, Ouyang Xiu , Zheng Zheng, Hong Mai, and Wang Yinglin, as well as the Gong'an School of the Ming Dynasty and the Tongcheng School of the Qing Dynasty , all highly appreciated the writing of The Record of History. As a result, the prestige of the Historical Records increased day by day, and various factions and commentaries appeared constantly.

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"Historical Records": Introduction to History Records and Catalogues

The entire book of Historical Records has a total of one hundred and thirty volumes, with twelve books, ten tables, eight books, thirty families, and seventy series, about 526,000 words. Among them, the Ji and Biography are the subjects.

"The Book of Chronicles" is the outline of the whole book, describing the performance of the emperor's words according to time;

"Table" uses a table to summarize the lineage, characters and historical events;

"Book" describes the development of the system, involving ritual and music system, astronomical law, socioeconomics, river geography and other aspects;

"Family" records the history of hereditary princes of the offspring and the deeds of particularly important people;

"Biography" is the life stories of the representatives of the emperors and princes and the biographies of ethnic minorities.

Table of Contents

001. Volume One · Five Emperor's Benji First 002. Volume Two · Xia Benji Second

003. Volume III · Yin Benji Third 004. Volume IV · Zhou Benji Fourth

005. Volume Five · Fifth Period of the Qin Dynasty 006. Volume VI · Fifth Period of the Qin Dynasty

007. Volume VII · Xiang Yu's seventh period 008. Volume VIII · Gao Zu's eighth period

009. Volume 9 · Empress Lv of the Ninth Century 010. Volume 10 · Filial Piety of the Ninth Period

011. Volume 11 · Xiao Jing Benji Eleventh 012. Volume 12 · Xiao Wu Benji 12th

013. Volume XIII · Three Generations Chronology No. 1 014. Volume XIV · Twelve Chronicles Chronology No. 2

015. Volume XV · The Chronology of the Six Kingdoms III

017. Volume XVII. Chronology of the Princes since Han Xing.

019. Volume 19 · Huijing Leisure Timeline Chronology No. 7 020. Volume 20 · Jianyuan Timeline Chronology 8th

021. Volume 21 · Chronology of Princes who have come to Jianyuan Ninth 022. Volume 22 · Chronology of Famous Ministers since Hanxing

023. Volume Twenty-Three · Book of Rites First 024. Volume Twenty-four · Book of Rites Second

025. Volume 25 · Law Book No. 026. Volume 26 · Almanac Book No. 4

027. Volume 27 · Tianguanshu Fifth 028. Volume 28 · Feng Chanshu 6

029. Volume 29. River Channel Book No. 030. Volume 30. Level Book No. 8

031. Volume 31. Wu Taibo Family First 032. Volume 32. Qi Tai Gong Family Second

033. Volume thirty-three Lu Zhougong family family 034. Volume thirty-four Yanzong gong family family fourth

035. Vol. 35 · Cai Shijia's Fifth 036. Vol. 36 · Chen Qi's Family No. 6

037. Volume 37. Uncle Wei Kang's Family No. 038. Volume 38. Song Weizi's Family No. 8

039. Volume 39. Jinshi Family No. 9 040. Volume 40. Chu Family No. 10

041. Volume 41. Yue Wang Ju Jian Shi Jia 11th 042. Volume 42. Zheng Shijia Twelfth

043. Volume Forty-Three · Zhao Shijia Thirteenth 044. Volume Forty-four · Wei Shijia Fourteenth

045. Forty-five volumes · Han Shijia fifteenth 046. Forty-six volumes · Tian Jingzhong finished family sixteenth

047. Volume 47. Confucius Family 17th 048. Volume 48. Chen She Family 18th

049. Volume Forty-nine · The Family of Foreign Qi Shi 19th

051. Volume 51. Jing Yan Family Twenty-first. 052. Volume 52. Qi Menghui Family Twenty-two.

053. Volume 53. Xiao Xiangguo Family Twenty-Three 054. Volume 54. Cao Xiangguo Family Twenty-Fourth

055. Volume fifty-five · Liuhou family's twenty-fifth 056. Volume fifty-six · Chen Yixiang's family twenty-sixth

057. Volume 57 · The Hou Zhou Boshi Family 27th 058. Volume 58 · The Liang Xiaowang Family Twenty-eight

059. Volume 59. The Family of Five Kings 29. 060. Volume 60. The Family of Three Kings 30

061.Vol. 61 · Bo Yi Biography First 062.Vol. 62 · Guan Yan Biography Second

063. Volume 63 · Laozi Han Fei Biography Third 064. Volume 64 · Sima Yi Biography Fourth

065. Volume 65. Grandson Wu Qi Biography Fifth 066. Volume 66. Wu Zixi Biography Sixth

067. Volume 67. Biography of Disciples No. 7 068. Volume 68. Biographies of Shangjun No. 8

069. Volume 69. Biography of Su Qin No. 070. Volume 70. Zhang Yi of Biography

071. Volume 71. Biography of Limao Ganmao Chapter 072. Volume 72. Biography of Houhou Series 12

073. Volume 73. The biography of Bai Qi Wang Xi 13th 074. Volume 74. The biography of Mencius Qing Qing 14th

075. Volume Seventy-Five, biography of Meng Tajun, fifteenth 076. Volume 76, biography of Pingyuan Jun Yuqing, sixteenth

077. Volume Seventy-seven, biography of Wei Gongzi, seventeenth 078. Volume seventy-eight, biography of Chunshen Jun, eighteenth

079. Volume Seventy-nine, biography of Fan Ye Cai Ze, 19th 080. Volume eighty, biography of Le Yi, twentieth

081. Volume Eighty-one, Lian Po's Prime Minister Biography twenty-first 082. Volume eighty-two, Tian Dan Biography twenty-second

083. Volume Eighty-three · Lu Zhonglian's Biography of Twenty-three 084. Volume eighty-four · Qu Yuan Jia Sheng's Biography twenty-four

085. Volume 85. Biography of Lubuwei 25th 086. Volume 86. Biography of Assassin 26

087. Volume 87. Biography of Lee Siwen 27. 088 Volume 88. Biography of Montien 28

089. Volume Eighty-nine · Zhang Er Chen Yu Biography Twenty-nine 090. Volume ninety · Wei Bao Peng Yue Biography Thirty

091. Volume 91. Biography of the Thirty-first 092. Volume 92. Biography of the Huaiyin Hou Biography 32

093. Volume ninety-three, Han Xin, Lu Yizhuan, thirty-three 094. Volume ninety-four, Tian, Biography, thirty-fourth

095. Vol. 95 · Fan Ying Teng Guan Biography 35. 096. Volume 96 · Zhang Huan Biography 36

097. Volume 97. Biography of Lu Jia, 37. 098. Volume 98. Fu Jin, Biography 38.

099. Volume Ninety-nine · Biography of Sun King Liu Tong, thirty-nine 100. Volume 100 · Biography of Ji Bu Luan, Fortieth Century

101. Volume 111 · Biography of Yuan Angji Wrong 102. Volume 102 · Biography of Zhang Tang's Feng Tang Biography 42

103. Volume 130: Biography of Uncle Zhang Shishi 43. Volume 104: Biography of Uncle Tian 44th

105. One Hundred and Fifty-Five-century Bien Cang Cang 106. One Hundred and Sixteen-Five-three Biography of Wu Wangxuan

107. One Hundred and Seventeen · Biography of Weiqi Wu'an Hou Lier 47. One Hundred and Eighteen · Han Changxuan Biography 48

109. Volume One Hundred and ninety-nine General Li, forty-ninth 110. Volume one hundred and tenth Hume, 50th Series

111. Volume 111, General Wei's Biography Fifty-first 112. Volume 112, Master Pingjinhou's Biography 52

113. Volume One Hundred and Thirty-Fourth Chapters of South Vietnam 114. Volume One Hundred and Fourteenth Fifty-fourth Books of East Vietnam

115. Volume One Hundred and Fifty-five. Korea Biography Fifty-fifth 116. Volume One Hundred and Sixteen Southwest Yi Biography Fifty-sixth

117. Hundred and Seventeen · Sima Xiangru Biography Fifty-seven 118. Hundred and Eighteen · Huainan Hengshan Biography Fifty-eighth

119. Volume One Hundred and Nineteen Chapters of the Fifty-nine 120. Volume One Hundred and Twenty Sixties

121. One Hundred and Twenty-One · Biography of Rulin Sixty-one 122. One Hundred and Twenty-two · Cool Biography Sixty-second

123. One Hundred Twenty-Three · Dawan Biography Sixty-three 124. One Hundred Twenty-four · Ranger Biography Sixty-fourth

125. One Hundred and Two Twenty-Five Years · Biography Sixty-Five 126. One Hundred and Twenty-Five Sixteen

127. One Hundred and Twenty-seven Days of the Sun, Sixty-seventh 128. One Hundred and Twenty-eight, Turtle, Chapter 68

129. Volume One Twenty-nine · Goods Breeding Series Sixty-nine 130. Volume One Hundred and Thirty

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What is the impact of the literary achievements of "Historical Records" on future generations?

Contribution of history

Historiography

I. Building Outstanding General History Genres

"Historical Records" is the first masterpiece in the history of Chinese historiography that has passed through ancient and modern times. It is precisely because "Historical Records" can write a book from ancient to modern times, set a precedent, set an example, and then follow this genre and build history one after another. The general historical style has always influenced modern history research and writing.

Established an independent position in history

In ancient China, historiography was included in the scope of Confucian classics without its own independent status. Therefore, the books of Shi Bu are appended to the book "Spring and Autumn" in Liu Xie's "Seven Sketches" and Ban Gu's "Yi Wen Zhi". Since Sima Qian completed "Historical Records", the author has continued to develop more and more specialized historical works. As a result, the Jin Dynasty 's uncles adapted to the new requirements and divided the classics of the past into four parts: Part A of the Six Arts Primary School, Part B of the Zhuzi Warrior Art, Part C of the Historian Huanghuang, and Ding Book of Poetry. As a result, history alone has achieved independent status in the Chinese academic field. This achievement should be attributed to Sima Qian and his "Historical Records".

3. Established the tradition of historical literature

Sima Qian's literary culture is profound, and his artistic methods are particularly subtle. Often some extremely complicated facts, he took very appropriate measures, orderly, and with far sight, high knowledge, vivid text, succinct writing skills, full of emotions, letter handwriting, full of vigor, vivid image, so that People "exclaimed the festival, and don't know why." ("Rong Zhai's Essay · The Conciseness of Historical Records"). Among them, " Lian Po Sang Xiang Xiang Bi Biography" was included in the elementary school students' Chinese experiment textbook Lesson 18 " Jian Xianghe ".

culture

"Historical Records" has a broad and far-reaching influence on ancient novels, dramas, biographical literature, and prose.

First of all, as a whole, "Historical Records" as China's first large-scale work centered on descriptive characters has provided an important foundation and multiple possibilities for the development of future generations of literature.

Although "Historical Records" writes about actual characters in history, the characters are actually typed by "mutual seeing", which is a method of highlighting some of the main characteristics of characters, through the comparison of different characters, and the fiction of details. Already.

This phenomenon exists in the early literature of various nationalities, which is a way for human beings to understand themselves through artistic means. Only the first typed characters of Chinese literature appeared in historical works, and the situation was more special.

As a result, "Historical Records" established a number of important character prototypes for Chinese literature. In the novels and dramas of later generations, many characters such as the emperors, heroes, knights, and government officials wrote evolved from the characters in "Historical Records".

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What are the top ten famous articles in the historical records?

What are the famous quotes in Historical Records ?

Masterpieces in History

Liang Qichao's designated "Top Ten Masterpieces" are:

"Da Jiangdong goes to Chu Wang Liufang" —— "Xian Yu Benji"

"Like a corporal wise man in the Kyushu"-"Biography of Gongzi (that is, Xinlingjun)"

"The Great Heroes of Civil and Military Heroes" —— " Lian Po's Legendary Biography"

"Achieving Success Without Injustice" —— "Biography of Lu Zhonglian and Zou Yang"

"The Wizards of the World Ended in Desolation" —— "Biography of Huaiyin Hou"

"The officialdom is vivid and lifelike" —— "Biography of Wei Qi Wu'an Hou"

"Rong Ma's Life Is Difficult to Seal"-"Biography of General Li"

"Han-Hungarian and Pro-Culture Blend" —— The Biography of Xiongnu

"Commodity Cargo Anbang Settles the Country" —— "Cargo Production"

"History of Shi Gongji"-"Self Preface by Tai Shigong"

Famous sentences in history

Xiangzhuang dance sword, intended for Peigong. "Historical Records · Xiang Yu Benji"

Man-made sword, I am fish. "Historical Records · Xiang Yu Benji"

Daxing disregards meticulousness, and the gift is not small. "Historical Records · Xiang Yu Benji"

All mouths smashed gold and destroyed bones. Biography of Historical Records of Zhang Yi

Peaches and plums, the next from Seikei. "Historical Records of General Li Li" Lost, the error is thousands of miles. "Historical Records from Taishigong"

The Xiongnu is not extinct, and there is no home for it? "Historical Records of General Wei Qi Biography"

What kind of prince will Xiangning? "Shi Ji Chen She Family"

Chickadee An Zhihong's aspirations? "Historical Records Chen She Family"

In strategic planning, the victory is thousands of miles away. History Records

Good medicine tastes bitter, unpalatable advice help line. "Records of the Historian Family"

If you do n’t sing, it ’s amazing; if you do n’t, you ’ll be soaring. "Historical Biography"

A wise man cares about everything, and a foolish man cares about everything. Biography of Historical Records of Huaiyin

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"History" is full of myths and rumors that Sima Qian's writing history is not precise?

Opening the old newspaper, I found that there is a reprinted essay in "Everyone's Digest", saying that " Historical Records " is not a rigorous history book, full of myths, ghost words, rumors and novelists' words. And warned readers to "believe in science and rationality" and not "superstitute in ancient authority" when studying history.

Where does this come from? I only understood after reading the article. The author of the original article may have known for a long time that Qin Shihuang was the biological son of Zhuang Xiang Prince Chu. However, "Historical Records" are incompatible with it. In addition, a history professor at a prestigious university told Lu Buwei during a television lecture that he insisted that Qin Shihuang was the son of Lu Buwei, and he also scorned him, which annoyed the author. Therefore, the author aggressively criticized the "historical history" for its poor governance. Criticize professors for "lack of common sense."

Suddenly I remembered that someone had written a few decades ago to prove whether Yang Guifei was a virgin before entering the palace. Everyone was boring at that time, but now someone has painstakingly demonstrated who Qin Shihuang's biological son is, how similar they are!

Who is Qin Shihuang's biological son? I don't think Sima Qian knows the author of the article, neither Zi Chu nor Lu Buwei. Only Qin Shihuang's mother knows best. Unfortunately, she didn't leave a word. As far as the current conditions are concerned, it is impossible to unravel this mystery. It is not just science and rationality to testify other people's suspicions by using mysteries that no one can solve. It is pure nonsense.

Lu Buwei and Zhao Ji are in a good relationship. It has been more than 100 years since the time of Sima Qian. Sima Qian's writing into the "Historical Records" based on popular sayings at that time was optional and need not be taken seriously. No matter who Qin Shihuang's biological son is, it does not affect the historical truth of the Qin Dynasty and his evaluation of historical achievements.

Historical research is not a slapstick. It is the use of scientific perspectives and methods. Through in-depth research on major historical figures and events, it summarizes things of historical value to promote social development, provide benefits for reform and opening up, and build a harmonious society. The lesson is justification. For some historical doubts that cannot be clearly identified, they should be extensive and doubtful, and allow others to use their own opinions to explain and explain, without having to be arduous and demanding, let alone arguing sharply.

The article said that "Historical Records" is not strict, full of myths and rumors. As we all know, no matter it is the ancient history books of China or the ancient history books of foreign countries, there are some mythological stories in the narration of the origin of the world and the nation. Myth is not historical truth, this is the least common sense. It is because of the low productivity in ancient times that people could not explain the changes of many natural phenomena and social contradictions . It is the product of personification of nature with the help of imagination and fantasy. Each nation has its own myth. Myths have cohesived nations and had a huge boost to the occurrence and development of world civilization. ...see more

Conclusion

"Historical Records" is written by Sima Qian, a great ancient historian in ancient China. It is a comprehensive history book with five disciplines, including the chronicle, watch, book (history), family, and biography. Lu Xun called it "the historian's sing song, without rhyme". It records a history of more than 3,000 years from the Huangdi era in Chinese ancient legends, to the first year of Hanwu Emperor Yuanzhuang (122 BC). The author Sima Qian's historical knowledge of "the study of heaven and man, through the changes of ancient and modern, into a family", made "Historical Records" become the first general history of chronicles in Chinese history.

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