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List of Emperors of the Tang Dynasty

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The Tang Dynasty (618-907) was one of the dynasties with the longest period of unification and the strongest national strength in Chinese history. The Tang Dynasty lasted 21 generations, with a total of 289 years before and after. One of the two powerful dynasties in history. In the early period of the Tang Dynasty, from Tang Taizong Li Shimin to Xuanzong Kaiyuan, the country was in a stage of great development, with unprecedented prosperity in economic, political, military, diplomatic, and cultural aspects. The "Governance of Zhenguan" and "The Prosperous Age of Kaiyuan" that appeared during this period constituted the prosperity of the Tang Dynasty that the Chinese nation is proud of. As a result, China's world status has become prominent. Even now, some places in some foreign countries still refer to China as Tangshan and Chinese as Tang. A total of 289 years in the Tang Dynasty, 20 emperors died in the peasant war in 907. The An Shi chaos that occurred in the later period of Tang Xuanzong made the Tang Dynasty gradually decline. In the middle and late Tang Dynasty, the emperor had no real power in economy, politics, and military affairs, which led to the formation of a separatist situation in the town of Fan. In the end, all parties broke away from the Tang Dynasty and became independent regimes. The Datang Empire was destroyed!

List of Emperors of the Tang Dynasty

List of Emperors of the Tang Dynasty: The Tang Dynasty has a total of 289 years and 21 emperors.

Emperor Tang Dynasty

Tang Gaozu Li Yuan -- Tang Taizong Li Shimin -- Tang Gaozong Li Zhi -- Tang Zhongzong Li Xian -- Tang Ruizong Li Dan -- Wu Zetian

Tang Xuanzong Li Longji - Tang Suzong Li Heng - Tang Dynasty Zong Li Yu - Tang Dezong Li Shi - Tang Shunzong Li Shu - Tang Xianzong Li Chun

Tang Muzong Li Heng -- Tang Jingzong Li Zhan -- Tang Wenzong Li Ang -- Tang Wuzong Li Yan -- Tang Xuanzong Li Chen -- Tang Zongzong Li Yan

Emperor Tang Zongzong Li Zhe -- Tang Zhaozong Li Zhe -- Tang Aizi Li Zhe

Brief introduction of Tang Gaozu Li Yuan, founding emperor of Tang Dynasty, founder of Datang Empire

Tang Gaozu Li Yuan , the founding emperor of Tang Dynasty Brief introduction: Tang Gaozu Li Yuan (565-635 June 25) was born in Chang'an, and was the founding emperor of Tang Dynasty in China. In May 618, Li Yuan became emperor, changed his country name to Tang, and set the capital to Chang'an. Soon after, he unified the whole country. On June 25, 635, Li Yuan died. After Li Yuan died, Emperor Taiwu was the emperor, and Gaozu the temple was buried at Xianling. In the first year of the first year (674) of Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty, he changed his name to Emperor Shenyao. Tianbao was in the thirteenth year of February, and the emperor was honored with the title of Emperor God.

Tang Gaozu Li Yuan (June 25, 566-635), the founding emperor of the Tang Dynasty.

He is the 23rd grandson of General Li Guang of the Western Han Dynasty and the sixth grandson of Li Hao (also known as Li Hao), the monarch of the Western Liang Dynasty [Wu Zhaowang] during the Sixteen Kingdoms.

Li Yuan, the character Shude, is from Longxi Chengji (now Qin'an County, Gansu), Han nationality, and born in Zhaojun Longqing (now Xingtai City, Longyao County). Grandfather Li Hu, an official from the Western Wei Dynasty to the lieutenant. Father Li Xun, the Northern Zhou Dynasty calendar officer Yushi doctor, Anzhou general manager, Zhu Guoda general. The mother is Emperor Sui Wendu, so she is very kind. After Emperor Sui Yang took office, Li Yuan served as the eunuch of the two counties, Puyang (now Zhengzhou, Henan) and Loufan (now Shanxi Jingle). Later he was called as the young supervisor in the hall and moved to Wei Wei Shaoqing. In the eleventh year of the great cause (615), he worshiped the Ambassador of Shanxi Hedong. Thirteen years, staying in Taiyuan. At that time, the late Sui peasant uprisings spread across the country, and the political situation was turbulent. Li Yuan and his second son Li Shimin uprised in May of the thirteenth year of the great cause, and recalled the eldest son Li Jiancheng and the third son Li Yuanji from Hedong (now Yongjixi, Shanxi). After Li Yuan started his army, he dispatched Liu Wenjing to the Turks, and asked Shibi Khan to send soldiers and horses to help him. He recruited troops and led his division south in July.

Life of Li Yuan

Li Yuan's father, Li Hu, was a captain of the Western Wei Dynasty and was pursued as Tang Guogong after his death. When Li Yuan was seven years old, his father died and he was hereditary as Tang Guogong. Li Yuan is the aunt and cousin of Emperor Sui Yang. His mother and Emperor Sui Yang's mother are the relatives and sisters of the Dube of the Xianbei aristocracy.

Li Yuan was transferred to Taiyuan in 615, and Taiyuan was also his base camp. In Yuanyuan, Li Yuan successfully resolved the threat of northern Turks. At the same time, he successfully defeated several anti-Sui troops and continuously expanded his strength by accepting defeated troops. In July 617, Li Yuan officially started to fight against the Sui Dynasty. Nominally he did not directly oppose Sui, but only against Sui Yangdi. He attacked Changan from Taiyuan and soon (November 617) captured Changan. He had Yang Yang as the emperor, and proclaimed himself Prime Minister and King Tang. After Emperor Sui Yang was killed by the rebels in 618, Li Yuan ordered Yang Xuan to pass the throne to him and establish the Tang Dynasty.

After the establishment of the Tang Dynasty, after the fall of the Sui Dynasty , Li Yuan began to destroy other anti-Suiyang forces. With the help of his son Li Shimin, he spent ten years successively destroying Xue Ju, Xue Renzhang, Li Rail, Liu Wuzhou , Wang Shichong , Dou Jiande Xiao Xiao, Liang Shi and others all waited for separatist forces. The last Liang division was settled in 628, at which time he had given up the emperor to Li Shimin. At the same time, he used the split between East Turks and West Turks to stabilize the northern border, which was the main condition for his power to seize the Central Plains.

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Tang Taizong Li Shimin's profile was named a model of Ming Jun in Chinese history

The second emperor of the Tang Dynasty , Emperor Taizong Li Shimin (599-649), reigned for 23 years under the title Zhenuan. The name means "Ji Shi An Min" and it is an adult in Longxi. Tang Taizong Li Shimin was not only a famous politician, military strategist, but also a calligrapher and poet. Born in the eighteenth year of the emperor (599), he entered the Tang Dynasty with his father Li Yuan in Changan in 618 and established the Tang Dynasty in 618. He led the army to fight for the Tang Dynasty and contributed to the unification of the Great Tang. He was named King Qin and General Tiance. After the change of the Xuanwu Gate in 626, he established the famous governance of Zhenguan after he took the throne. He was open-minded, practiced frugal covenants, and lightly endowed the people to rest and live in harmony. All nations lived in harmony, Guotai Min'an, opened up territory to the outside world, attacked Eradicating Turkic and Xue Yantuo, smashing Goguryeo, establishing the four towns of Anxi, and being respected by people of all ethnic groups as Tian Kehan, laid an important foundation for the Kaiyuan prosperity of the later Tang Dynasty. “The achievements were too small, so the inheritance did not fall.” For the posterity of the Ming Dynasty emperor, the Emperor Taizong, the Emperor Xiaowu, the Emperor Guangwu, was buried in Zhaoling.

Life of Li Shimin

Li Shimin (599-649) was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty. His name means "to save the people". Taizong was the temple number after his death. He was also a military strategist, statesman, and calligrapher of the Tang Dynasty. He initiated the famous "Governance of Zhenguan" in history and pushed the feudal society of China to its heyday.

Born in the eighteenth year of the emperor's reign (AD 599), Tang Taizong was born in Beijing Zhaogong Wugong (now northwest of Wugong, Shaanxi). In 615 AD, he married his wife Sun, who was named Queen Sun after his ascension. In 617 AD, Li Shimin followed his father and Liu Wenjing to fight against the Sui, invaded Changan, and destroyed the Sui. Li Shimin was named King of Qin.

Since then, Li Shimin often made expeditions and gradually eliminated the separatist forces in various places: breaking the Li track, killing Xue Renzhen (the son of Xue Ju), defeating Song Jingang and Liu Wuzhou . In the battle of Tiger Prison, two major separatist forces in the Central Plains were wiped out in one fell swoop: Wang Shichong and Dou Jiande . Since then, Li Shimin's prestige has increased, especially when he entered Chang'an after the battle of Tiger Prison. Li Yuan was named "Admiral Tian Ce".

Since then, Li Shimin and his elder brother Li Jiancheng have become increasingly jealous of the fourth brother Qi Wang Li Yuanji. Ministers are in conflict with each other, divided into two factions. Prime Minister Pei Zhi, counselor Wang Zheng, Wei Zheng, and Donggong Defender General Xue Wanche followed Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji as a group, and counselors Du Ruhan and Fang Xuanling followed generals Qin Shubao, Wei Chi Jingde, Duan Zhixuan , and Wang Junku as a group. Minister Wu Wuji secretly supported Li Shimin. General Li Jing , Xu Shiji, Minister Yu Wenshi and others remained neutral. In 626 AD, Li Shimin launched a coup at the Xuanwumen Gate in Chang'an City, killing Li Jiancheng, Li Yuanji, and his nephew, forcing Gao Zu to give way, and he became emperor. The next year he changed his name to Zhenguan. During the reign of Li Shimin, the Tang Dynasty had a strong national power and was called the rule of Zhenguan. In his later years, he wrote a book called "Emperor Fan" to teach the Prince, which summarized his political experience throughout his life, and also commented on his achievements and merits.

During his term of office, he promoted the government system, the rent system and the equal-field system, and actively implemented the imperial examination system.

In 630, he defeated East Turkistan and was honored as "Tian Khan". In 641, he married Princess Wencheng to Songtsan Gambo of Tubo.

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Brief Introduction to Emperor Gao Zong and Li Zhi

The third emperor of the Tang Dynasty (reigned from 649-683), Tang Gaozong Lizhi (628-683), the word is good, Tang Taizong Li Shimin's ninth son, his mother is the eldest grandson , and the third son. Five years of Zhenguan (631) was named King of Jin. Later, Emperor Taizong ’s eldest son, Crown Prince Li Chengqian, and second son Wei Wang, Li Tai, were successively abolished. He was listed as the Crown Prince in Zhenguan seventeen years (643). . Twenty-three years of Zhenguan (649) was located in the Tai'an Temple in Chang'an, creating the rule of Yonghui with the legacy of Zhenguan. The territory of the Tang Dynasty was the largest in the period of Gojong, starting from the Korean Peninsula in the east, facing the Aral Sea (to the Caspian Sea) in the west, Lake Baikal in the north, and Hengshan in Vietnam in the south, maintaining it for 32 years. Li Zhi reigned for thirty-four years, died in the first year of Hongdao (683), and was fifty-five years old. He was buried in Qianling, with the temple name Gaozong and the emperor Emperor.

Biography

Li Zhi (628 ~ 683), that is, Gao Zong of the Tang Dynasty, whose word is good, is a Han nationality.

He is the ninth son of Emperor Taizong Li Shimin, and his biological mother is the eldest son of Empress Wen Deshun.

Born on June 13 in the second year of Zhenguan (628), he died in the first year of Hongdao (683) at the age of 56. 谥 said "Emperor Dahong Daxiao Xiao emperor", the temple number "Gao Zong".

Tang Gaozong reigned for a total of 34 years (649-683). At the beginning of his reign, Gao Zong continued to implement the various political and economic systems formulated by Taizong, and assisted with Li Ji (Xu Yigong), Chang Sun Wuji , and Chu Suiliang. All their monarchs and princes kept in mind Taizong's will and practiced it unswervingly. When he was appointed, Gaozong announced to the ministers: "If there is something that is not convenient for the people, please read it if it is not convenient." Thrifty, Gaozong called: "Since Beijing officials and out-of-states have committed hawks and dogs, they have committed crimes." Gaozong monarchs Xiao Ji Cao Sui, executed according to the Taizong decree, so during Yonghui years, the border was stable (beating Xi Turk's attack), the people of Fu'an (the population increased from less than 3 million households during the Zhenguan period to 3.8 million households), has the legacy of Zhenguan, and is known in history as "the rule of Yonghui." In the first year of Hongdao, Gaozong died and was buried in Qianling. 谥 Title: Emperor Emperor (Early Emperor) / Emperor Emperor Great Emperor (plus 谥 in 749) / Emperor Emperor Great Emperor Xiao Hong (plus 谥 in 754).

Evaluation of Tang Gaozong Lizhi

Emperor Gaozong Li Zhi was the third Emperor of the Tang Dynasty to ascend the throne. It should be said that as an emperor of the Tang Dynasty, Li Zhi was lucky because he inherited the brilliant foundation of his father Taizong. But for his personal emperor career, "child inheritance" was also unfortunate. When people observe him, the first thing they often see is the dazzling aura of Taizong and the rule of Zhenguan ; behind him is also the only empress Wu Zetian in history. When they are side by side, they are always preempted by Wu Zetian. Got the head start.

However, history likes to play tricks. Gaozong, almost ignored by history, has been an emperor for 34 years. This is the longest reign in the Tang dynasty except Xuanzong. After Gaozong changed Yuan from the second year of his throne, during his reign, there were a total of 14 changes. In addition to Wu Zetian behind him, he often changed his name several times during the year and had 18 years. Gaozong was a Tang Dynasty. The emperor has the most year.

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Emperor Zhongxian Li Xian briefed on the emperor who was poisoned by three women for his entire life

The fourth emperor of the Tang Dynasty : Emperor Zhongxian Li Xian (656-710), Han nationality, Emperor Xiaozha and Emperor Xiaozhao (Early Emperor Xiaohe), formerly known as Li Zhe, the seventh son of Emperor Gaozong Lizhi and the third son of Wu Zetian (January 23, 684-February 27, 684, 705-710). Tang Zhongzong took power twice before and was in office for a total of five and a half years. He was poisoned by Weihou in 710 and was 55 years old. He was buried in Dingling (now Fenghuang Mountain, 15 miles northwest of Fuping County, Shaanxi Province).

Tang Zhongzong took power two times before and after his reign for a total of five years. On August 3rd, the three years of Shenlong was added to the Emperor of the Dragon God. King Jinglong was poisoned to death on June 2nd and half (July 3, 710). In the Shenlong Temple, 55 years old, the temple is Zhongzong, Emperor Xiaoxiao and the Emperor Xiaozhao, the Emperor Xiaozhao. King Yun was buried in Dingling in November of the first year (now Longquan Mountain, 15 miles northwest of Fuping County, Shaanxi Province). Empress Wu gave birth to four sons, Zhongzong was first named King Zhou, and later he was named King Ying. After his two emperors died and died, Li Xian was made Prince.

Gaozong died of illness in December 683, and he succeeded on the same month. In the second year, it was renamed "Sheng Sheng". Zhongzong was more incompetent than Gaozong. After his throne, Zunwu Zetian was the empress . Pei Yan was assisted by the widow, and his affairs depended on Wu Zetian. He reused Queen Wei's relatives in an attempt to form his own group. In order to use Wei Yuanzhen, the father of Empress Wei, as a servant (principal post), Pei Yan was anxious. Li Xian was furious: "I do n’t forget to give Wei Yuanzhen the world, do you still regret being a servant?" Pei Yan reported Wu Zetian after hearing it, and Wu Zetian was greatly annoyed by Zhong Zong's move. In February 684, following Zhong Zong, who was only 36 days old, was dismissed as the king of Luling by Wu Zetian and deposed from Chang'an.

Zhongzong was placed under house arrest in Junzhou (now Danjiangkou City, Hubei Province) and Fangzhou (now Fangxian County, Hubei Province) for 14 years. Only the concubine Wei's company accompanied them. Whenever he heard that Wu Zetian sent envoys, Zhongzong was scared to commit suicide. Webster always comforted him and said, "Bad luck is not necessarily a gift of death, so why be so frightened." Webster's encouragement, help, and comfort helped him persist in adversity. Therefore, Zhongzong and Webster, as distressed couples, have deep feelings. He once vowed to Webster: "Someday I can return to the throne and I will satisfy any wish you have."

In 699 AD, Zhongzong was recalled to Beijing by Wu Zetian and re-established as Prince. Zhongzong paid great attention to the relationship with his mother Wu's family. For this reason, he decided to marry Wu. In this way, one of his daughters, the later Princess Yongtai, married Wu Zetian's nephew Wu Yanji, and became the daughter-in-law of Wei Wang Wu Chengyi; the young girl, Princess Anle, married Wu Zetian's other nephew, Sun Wu Chongxun, and became Liang Wangwu. Think twice about daughter-in-law. Zhongzong's marriage with the Wu family undoubtedly wanted to firmly establish his position through nepotism. In September of the first year of Chang'an (701), his son Li Chongrun and Princess Yongtai were very adolescent. They expressed their dissatisfaction with their grandmother's beloved Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong brothers. They were jealously reported to Wu Zetian by Zhang Yizhi. , Princess Yongtai and her husband Wu Yanji committed suicide. However, Wu Zetian didn't delve into it because the involvement was small. Obviously, Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong have threatened the Zhongzong family. In 705 AD, 82-year-old Wu Zetian was seriously ill. On the Bing noon of the first month, Prime Minister Zhang Cangzhi, General You Duo Lin Li Duo, and others suddenly led Yu Lin's army to more than 500 people, rushed into the Xuanwu Gate, and killed Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong. Forced the emperor to be located in Zhongzong. Change the name to "Shenlong". In February, the reunification was Tang. After Zhongzong's reset, he immediately established Wei as the queen, and despite the persecution of the minister, he queried the queen's father as the king, and allowed the queen to participate in the administration of the DPRK, but he did not give credit to Zhang Cangzhi and other heroes. Marry Emperor Wei's daughter Princess Anle to Wu Chongxun, the son of Wu Sansi. Sealed Guan Waner as Zhaoyi. Taught her to command and control, responsible for drafting the emperor's edict.

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Tang Ruizong Li Dan's brief introduction of the emperor who succeeded Datong twice in history

Fifth Emperor of the Tang Dynasty : Brief Introduction of Tang Ruizong Li Dan (June 22, 662-July 13, 716), Tang Ruizong, Ming Dan, also known as Xulun, Han, Eighth Son of Tang Gaozong , Wu Zetian Young Son, Tang Zhongzong For his brother. He ascended the throne twice in his lifetime, giving the world two reigns. He reigned from the first year of civilization to the second year of the first year (684-690) and the first year of Jingyun to the first year of Yanhe (710-712). year. In 712 AD, Zen was located in the son of Li Longji (Tang Xuanzong) and was called the emperor. He lived for five years, collapsed, and died at the age of 55. He was buried in Qiaoling. Emperor Xuanzhen the Great Saint Daxing Emperor.

Father: Gaozong Lizhi

Mother: Wu Zetian

Queen: Liu's

Children: 6 children, 11 women

Successor: Son Xuanzong Li Longji

Most proud: After all political changes, life is safe

Most frustrated: twice ascended the throne, less than 8 years in power

Most unfortunate: Queen Liu and Dou Fei died without a trace

The most distressed: after more than a dozen court coups

Best at: Cursive, Lishu

Title: Emperor Xuanzhen

Temple number: Ruizong

Mausoleum: Bridge Tomb

Year: Civilization, Jingyun, Taiji, Yanhe

Biography

Li Dan (662-716 AD): Tang Ruizong, also known as Xulun, Tang Gaozong Lizhi's eighth son, then Tianshun Saint Queen's son. The first year of civilization and the first year of Jingyun were named emperors twice, for a total of 8 years. Zen is located in Xuanzong, called the emperor, lived for five years, collapsed, and was fifty-five years old, buried in Qiaoling (now northwest of Pucheng County, Shaanxi Province Ten miles away)

Born on the 22nd of the 2nd year of Longshuo (662) in the Liangliang Temple of Penglai Palace, Chang'an, the history contains "Humble filial piety, good learning, craftsmanship, and love of the book of textual instruction". Initially named King Yin, and changed the name of King Yu and Ji, and then changed the title of King Xiang. In the end of Gaozong, he was still named King of Yu. In February of the first year of Lu Sheng (AD 684), Emperor Emperor Zhongzong was dismissed as King Luling. In the same month, Hitachi Ruizong became emperor, and the year was changed to "Civilization".

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Empress Wu Zetian introduces the only Emperor in Chinese history

The only orthodox female emperor in Chinese history : The Secret History of Wu Zetian (624-705), and the Wenshui man of the state, is a female politician and poet. The only orthodox female emperor in Chinese history is also the oldest. 67-year-old), one of the longest living emperors (82 years old). The second daughter of the samurai warrior, mother Yang. At the age of 14, he entered the harem as a talent of Emperor Tang Taizong. Tang Taizong bestowed a charming girl, Tang Gaozong was Zhaoyi at the beginning, and Empress Emperor (655-683), and his queen was Tianhou. December 27th-October 16th, 690. As Emperor Tang Zhongzong and Emperor Tang Ruizong of the dynasty, he later established himself as emperor and established the Wu Zhou Dynasty (October 16, 690-February 22, 705). In the first month of the first year of Shenlong (705), Wu Zetian became ill, and the prime minister Zhang Zhanzhi launched a mutiny, forcing Wu to abdicate, known as the Shenlong revolution in history. The restoration of Tang Zhongzong and restoration of the Tang dynasty, the title of the emperor was “The Emperor of the Heavenly Emperor”, and then he was renamed “The Emperor of the Emperor of the Emperor”, and was buried in the Emperor Qianling as the emperor. The name was changed to Emperor Emperor, Tianbao for eight years (749), and Jia Emperor was Emperor Tianshun.

Wu Zetian was the only Emperor of the Chinese Empire. Outstanding woman, with extraordinary talent and superhuman wisdom, is ruthless. During her reassignment, a cool official was used to rule her dynasty with a hard line. Take Li Tangjiangshan instead, her dynasty (week).

Wu Zetian, whose real name is Wu Zhao, was changed to Wu Yan after he was named emperor. His ancestral hometown was in the early Tang Dynasty and merged with Wenshui (now Wenshui County, Shanxi Province), a native of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province. An important basis for being born in Guangyuan.). She was born in the first month of Tang Gaozu Wude seven years (624 years), and died in November of the first year of Zhongzong Shenlong (705 years). The biological mother is the second wife of the samurai, the daughter of the Longyou princes, the prime minister of Sui Dynasty , and Yang Da of Suining.

Wu Zetian, born in [early Tang dynasty] Xingui's home, has a prominent power and a luxurious life that nourished her unlimited desire for power. However, in the early Tang Dynasty, the style of the gatekeepers of the great clan was prevailing, and the low-ranked origin of the Wu family's Qiang nationality made her scorned by the vulgar, rather than buried. This special circumstance and circumstance strongly stimulated Wu Zetian in his youth and cultivated her arrogant pursuit and supremacy of supreme power, in order to achieve the desire of self-conformity, and relentless retaliation for all. This was particularly prominent in a series of political struggles in which she went from politics to the "solitary south." Morality, character and psychological roots.

From a young age, Tian Cong is smart, expressive, and courageous. My father felt that she was a talent for creation, and she taught her to read and write, which made her wise. Shi Zai, when Tian was thirteen or four years old, was already a group of expansive books, well-known stories, poems, songs and fu, all laid a certain foundation, and was longer than calligraphy, and the characters were outstanding.

In the eleventh year of Zhenguan (637), the 14-year-old Tian Tianyi was handsome and was elected to the palace. After entering the palace, he was able to act in a capable and understanding manner, coupled with his beautiful and charming appearance, he was very happy with Taizong, and he was given the name "Mei Niang". After a long time, Taizong also found that Tiantian was good at learning and etiquette, so she sent her from the ranks of servants to dress and transferred to Wenshu in the royal study. This change caused Wu Zetian to come into contact with royal documents, understand some important events in the court, and read many hard-to-see books and regulations. He was broad-sighted and gradually became familiar with official politics and power.

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Tang Xuanzong Li Longji's introduction

Brief introduction of Li Longji, the seventh emperor of the Tang Dynasty -Tang Xuanzong Li Longji (September 8, 685-May 3, 762), also known as Emperor Tang Ming. Reigned from 712 to 756. Tang Ruizong Li Dan's third son, mother Dou Defei . In the first year of Tang Long (710), when Gengzi applied in June, Li Longji and Princess Taiping jointly launched the "Tang Long Coup" to kill Wei. In 712, Li Danchan was located in Li Longji, and he later gave the princess Taiping death, and obtained the highest sovereignty of the country. Pay attention to chaos anyway in the early stage, use Yao Chong, Song Yan and other virtuous men, and strive to govern. His prosperous era was the prosperous era of the Tang Dynasty. In his late reign, he favored Yang Guifei, neglected court politics, and trusted the traitors Li Linfu and Yang Guozhong . The re-use of officials such as An Lushan led to the Anshi Rebellion that lasted for eight years and laid the foundation for the decline of the Tang Dynasty. In 756, Li Heng was enthroned and respected as the emperor. He died in 762.

Biography

Li Longji (September 8, 685-May 3, 762): Tang Xuanzong, also known as Emperor Tang Ming, was the third son of Li Dan of Tang Ruizong, and was the emperor of the Tang Dynasty from 712 to 756 AD.

In the first year of Tang Long (710), when Gengzi applied in June, Li Longji and Princess Taiping jointly launched a "Tang Long coup" and killed Wei.

In 712 AD, Li Danchan was located in Li Longji, and after the death of Princess Taiping, Li Longji obtained the highest sovereignty of the country.

In the early period of his reign, he paid attention to chaos anyway. He used Yao Chong and Song Yan to work hard. His prosperous era was the prosperous era of the Tang Dynasty. In his later period, he favored Yang Guifei, neglected the government, and trusted the traitors Li Linfu and Yang Guozhong. Mistakes in policies and the reuse of ministers such as An Lushan led to the Anshi Rebellion, which lasted for eight years, and laid the foundation for the decline of the Tang Dynasty.

In 756 AD, Li Heng was enthroned and honored Li Longji as the emperor.

In 762 AD, Li Longji died of illness.

How did Li Longji die?

The ZTE monarch of the Tang Dynasty and the third son of Ruizong. Because the 谥 number is the emperor Taoist Emperor Daming Xiaoming, it is also called Ming Emperor. Yingwu has talents, and the civilized martial arts in the Kaiyuan period was prosperous, known in the world as "the rule of Kaiyuan." After Tianbao, he loved Yang Yangyuhuan and was named a concubine. Contrary to An Lushan, Xuanzong ran away, and to Ma Yipo, the six armies refused to move forward, saying that Yang Guozhong was connected to the Hu people, and when An Lushan was against him, Xuanzong ordered to kill Guozhong. The Six Army refused to go forward, saying that Yang Guozhong was a cousin of the concubine. The cousin was guilty, the cousin was unavoidable, and the concubine was also strangled to death at the road temple. Xuanzong took refuge and rushed to Shu, and later Su Zong was located in Lingwu, respected as the emperor. Forty-three years in office. Xuanzong loved singing and dancing music, and once taught singing and dancing in Liyuan, so he was honored as the ancestor and master of later generations. Xuanzong Temple after death.

In October of the 28th year of Tang Kaiyuan (740), Emperor Li Longji, 56, was led by a large accompanying courtier, set off a magnificent and magnificent ceremonial ceremony, left Changan, Kyoto, and headed northwest of Lintong City to the south. The hot spring palace at the foot of the mountain starts.

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Tang Suzong Li Heng's brief introduction to the tragic death of the court coup

The eighth emperor of the Tang Dynasty: Li Heng (711-762), namely Tang Suzong , Emperor of the Tang Dynasty, and Tang Xuanzong Li Longji . Reigned from 756-761 AD. In the 14th year of Tianbao (AD 755), the Anshi chaos broke out. The following year, Xuanzong fled to Sichuan, where he was located in Lingwu. In the first year of Baoying (AD 762), eunuch Li Fuguo and Cheng Yuanzhen killed Zhang Hou, etc., and supported Prince Li Yu (that is, the Emperor Tang Zong ), who died in horror.

Biography

Tang Suzong Li Heng (711-762 AD): Han nationality, Tang Xuanzong Li Longji's third son, mother Yuan Xian Yang. Formerly known as Li Yan, he was once named the loyal king. In 738 AD he was made Prince, renamed Li Heng.

After the death of Ma Guiyi's soldiers Gui Yangfei, Tang Xuanzong fled to the west, and Li Heng succeeded. Li Heng reigned for six years and died in horror in a palace coup. He was 51 years old and buried in Jianling (now Wujiang Mountain, 18 kilometers northeast of Qiquan County, Shaanxi Province).

Character evaluation

Su Zong's life was full of twists and turns: on the day of his first birth, he was in danger; in his youth and childhood, he heard and witnessed the strife and upheaval of the inner court of the palace; and when he was an adult, he saw the Datang Empire turn from prosperity to decline. In his personal political journey, the peaceful prince's life and the turbulent prince's career have formed a stark contrast; the identity of the prince of the peace and the emperor of the chaos also formed a strong contrast. The chaotic political situation of the Anshi chaos provided him with a stage for his fists. During his seven-year emperor's career, there were two distinct themes: one was "Northern Rongshi", that is, organizing counter-insurgency, regaining the two capitals, and destroying the rebels; the second was "the emperor of Nanfeng," that is, Handle the relationship of Tai Xuanzong, who first returned in Chengdu. In the end, his ambition was unrewardable, and his rebellion did not win.

Generally speaking, Su Zong is a troubled emperor. He has inherited the fruits of Tianbao's prosperity. He is committed to rebelling while trying to solve various shortcomings in the operation of Tianbao's political and economic systems, and has laid a foundation for the empire behind him. . Of course, because his main energy was to counterinsurgency, he could not limit the expansion of the harem and eunuch forces, but left an unsolvable hidden danger for the reconstruction after the Anshi Rebellion. This was the misfortune of Su Zong and the sorrow of the Datang Empire. .

Tang Suzong Li Heng, formerly known as Li Yan, was once named the loyal king. In 738 AD he was made Prince, renamed Li Heng. After Ma Yiyi's mutiny, he was appointed Marshal Xuanzong, commander of Shuofang, Hedong, and Pinglu Jieduo, responsible for counterinsurgency. Xuanzong continued to flee to the west. He was left by the people and separated from Xuanzong, heading north to Lingwu.

On July 12, 756 AD, Li Heng ascended the throne in Lingwu, known historically as Su Zong. Emperor Xuanzong of Yaozun was the emperor, and his year number was changed to "Zhide". After Su Zong succeeded, he sought to recover the two capitals (Chang'an, Xijing, Luoyang, Tokyo), and the prime minister, Fang Yan, requested to take troops to regain Changan. Su Zong usually reused Fang, and agreed to his request. As a result, Fang Jun encountered rebels in Chen Tao, and the entire army was annihilated. Until the first month of the second year of Germany (757 years), Anshi rebels struck inside, and An Lushan was killed by his son An Qingxu. Su Zong appointed celebrities Guo Ziyi and Li Guangzhang, borrowed Hui soldiers, and took the opportunity to counterattack. In the second year of Zhide (AD 757), they regained Xi'an Chang'an and Tokyo's Luoyang in June and October. Su Zong once agreed with the Uighur soldiers: "On the day of Kecheng, the land, the princes returned to Tang, and the Jinyu and their children returned to Uighurs." Luoyang suffered great damage.

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Emperor Zong of the Tang Dynasty introduced the first emperor in the Tang Dynasty

The ninth emperor of the Tang Dynasty, Li Yu (727-779) of the Tang Dynasty , Han, the eldest son of Tang Suzong . The original name was King Guangping, and then King Chu and Cheng were renamed. After the change of Ma Xi, he went north with Su Zong as the "Bing Marshal". The commander-in-chief regained the two capitals and was established in 758 AD. For the Crown Prince, the Anshi Rebellion was settled in 763. The Anshi Rebellion ended, and Tang began to decline. At that time, there were many vassal towns in the east, neighbors in the north continued to extort, and neighbors in the west invaded. In 763, Tubo occupied the capital Changan for fifteen days. For the sake of temporary stability, the Emperor Zong of the Tang dynasty imposed a large seal, which led to the separatism of the Fanzhen. The political economy of the court deteriorated further. He died in 779, the temple was Daizong, the emperor Ruiwen Xiaowu was buried in the Yuanling Tomb (now Tanshan, thirty miles northwest of Fuping County, Shaanxi Province).

Biography

Emperor Li Yu of the Tang Dynasty (727--779): Born on the 13th day of the 14th year of Kaiyuan in the Shangdu Temple of the East Capital, that is, January 9, 727 AD. The first name was 俶, originally named the king of Guangping. Late into the king of Chu. After the Ma Yipo Incident, he went north with Su Zong as "Marshal of the Bing Ma", the commander-in-chief recaptured the two capitals, and was made Crown Prince in 758 AD. At first, Emperor Su Zongzhang Zhang Liangzhang and eunuch Li Fuguo used each other, but later there was a gap. Queen Zhang wanted to kill Li Fuguo and abolish Prince Li Yuli's own son. In April 762, Li Fuguo and Cheng Yuanzhen killed Queen Zhang. Su Zong was shocked to death, and Li Fuguo embraced Li Yu as emperor in the same month, and changed his name to "Baoying."

After the succession of the Emperor Tang Dynasty, Li Fuguo was arrogant and established his emperor. He said to the Emperor: "Your Majesty only needs to stay in the palace, and the old affairs are handled by old slaves. Although Dezong was dissatisfied, he was deterred to hold military power He had no choice but to go all out, calling him his father (honorable father), no matter how big or small, he had to discuss with him before he could decide. Soon after, Dai Zong was not prepared by Li Fuguo and sent someone to pretend to be a thief to assassinate Li Fuguo, then pretended to order Hunt down the thieves and send messengers in the palace to condolences to their families.

In October of the first year of Baoying (AD 762), Emperor Daizong appointed King Yong Li as marshal of the army, Shuo Fangjiedu made servant Gu Huaien as vice marshal, and borrowed 100,000 troops from Uighur to attack Luoyang, Tokyo, which was once again occupied by the rebels. Shi Chaoyi After defeating Mozhou (today's Renqiubei, Hebei), the Ministry of History and Chaoyi surrendered Li Baochen, Li Huaixian, and Tian Chengxi to Tang Jun. In the first month of the first year of Guangde (AD 763), Shi Chaoyi hanged himself and committed suicide under the circumstances of betrayal and separation. Since then, the Tang Dynasty has completely calmed down the Anshi rebellion that lasted seven years and three months. However, after this war, the vitality of the Tang Dynasty was greatly injured, and it turned from prosperity to decline. In the east, there was a separatist division of Fan Town, in the west, there was Tubo invasion, and in the north, Uighurs exchanged horses for high prices.

In a difficult situation, Daizong was also superstitious in Buddhism, and encouraged the temple to occupy many good houses in Liangtian, and the state's finances and economy were deteriorating.

Due to the needs of the Anshi rebels, most of the army in the west was withdrawn, and Tubo took advantage of the inland to attack the Tang empire, occupying more than ten states to the west of Shaanxi Fengxiang and north of the sub-states, the first year of Guangde (AD 763) In October, Fengtian (now Qianxian County, Shaanxi Province) was occupied, and the soldiers approached Chang'an City, scaring Daizong to flee to Shanzhou for refuge. As a result, the Tubo soldiers occupied Chang'an. They established Tang Chengshi's Guangwu King Li Chenghong as the emperor and used it as his own rule. He ransacked his troops and ransacked Changan.

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Tang Dezong Li Shi's brief introduction to the baptism and trial of the emperor

The tenth emperor of the Tang Dynasty : Tang Dezong (reigned 779-805) Li Shi (742-805) (pronounced Kuò), was born on April 19th in the first year of Tianbao (742) in the Great Palace of Chang'an in. He was the eldest son of Su Zong and the eldest son of Dai Zong. His entire youth was the glorious and prosperous years of the Datang Empire. But the good times didn't last long. In November of the age of 14 (Tianbao 14 years, 755), the Anshi rebellion broke out. In the second year, Chang'an fell, and Xuanzong fled to Sichuan. From then on, the Great Tang Empire was trapped in a rare and turbulent period in. In the ups and downs of the Great Tang Empire, Dezong and other members of the royal family experienced the pain of the war and the country, and also experienced the baptism and test of the war. He reigned for 26 years and was 64 years old. The emperor was Emperor Xiaowen of Xiaowu. In the early period of his reign, he insisted on credit for civilians and military officials, and strictly prohibited eunuchs from interfering in politics. However, there was quite a bit of ZTE; . In the later period of his administration, Dezong appointed eunuchs as commanders of the embargoed army, and increased miscellaneous taxes such as tax racks and tea throughout the country, which led to deepening public complaints. He died in the 21st year (805) of Zhenyuan.

At the beginning of Daizong's throne, Li Shi was appointed Marshal of the World, shouldering the mission of final battle with the rebels of Anshi. After calming down the rebels, Li Shi was worshipped as a shangshuling, and peaceful rebels Guo Ziyi and Li Guangzheng were given iron coupons and graphics Lingyan Pavilion together.

Four contradictions in a lifetime

In the first month of the second year of Guangde (764), Li Shi was made the crown prince as the eldest son, and a book ceremony was held in February. In May of the fourteenth year of the Dali calendar (779), Daizong died of illness in Chang'an Palace. As the Crown Prince, Li Shizun followed the emperor's widow's widow to ascend the throne, which is the history of Tang Dezong.

Dezong reigned for 26 years, and he would use what his widow said, "20 years and 7 years", which is a false reference. Among the Emperors of the Tang Dynasty , only Gaozong and Xuanzong were longer than him, and Taizong was only reigned for 23 years. After him, no Emperor of the Tang Dynasty was longer than him.

Dezong changed his yuan the following year after he ascended the throne. During his reign, he used three years: Jianzhong (4 years), Xingyuan (1 year), and Zhenyuan (21 years).

The turbulent life of adolescents made Dezong aware of the value of stability. After he ascended the throne, he had great ambitions for a strong revival. At the beginning of his throne, in order to realize his political ideals, he implemented innovations and was decisive. However, many of the measures taken by Dezong have had little effect because of the hardship of the Tang Empire after the Anshi Rebellion, and some have paid a heavy price for this despite their crude effect. When Dezong's reforms suffered setbacks, his ambitions disappeared. In Dezong's life, both in character and action, he was full of contradictions and tragedies.

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Brief introduction of Tang Shunzong Li Shu was forced to abdicate as the emperor

The eleventh emperor of the Tang Dynasty : Shun Zong, named Li Shu (761-806 AD), the eldest son of Tang Dezong . Dezong died suddenly due to a stroke, and he succeeded. During his reign in August, he died of illness after being forced to abdicate by an eunuch. He was 46 years old and buried in Fengling (33 miles northeast of Fuping County, Shaanxi Province).

Tang Shunzong Li Shu was once named King Xuan, and he was made Prince in 779. In the nearly 20 years since the East Palace was crown prince, Li Shu has always been concerned about the politics of the DPRK, and has a deep understanding of the darkness of the Tang politics from the perspective of bystanders. He was dissatisfied with the eunuch's dictatorship and Miyagi's harassment measures, and he had already intentionally changed the political situation of eunuch's dictatorship. Often with companion Wang Shuwen, he plans future reforms and pay attention to identifying talents. In the first month of 805 AD, Li Shu's stroke was dumb, and Dezong died suddenly in the first month of 805 AD. Li Shu succeeded to the throne. For Tang Shunzong.

Biography

Among the emperors of the Tang Dynasty , Tang Shunzong Li Shu (706.1.8--806) was a very distinctive one.

First, he has been the longest in Chu. Shunzong was made the crown prince by his eldest son. Due to the long reign of his father Dezong, he has been a prince for 26 years.

Second, the shortest reign time. During Shunzong's reign, he did not spend a new year as emperor. In the new year of his throne, he was already too great. In total, Shunzong's reign was less than 200 days. He was the one with the shortest reign in the Tang Dynasty's royal system.

Thirdly, in such a short emperor's career, Shunzong also became the emperor. This is not only the Emperor of the Tang Dynasty, but also the emperor who has entered the role of the Supreme Emperor the fastest among all emperors in history.

Fourth, the title of "Yongzhen" was changed after he abdicated. Shunzong abdicated as Emperor Taichung on August 4th, 21st year of Emperor Zhenyuan (805). Although the successor of the Emperor Xianzong did not hold a ceremony on August 9, the Emperor Shunzong changed the first year of Zhenzhen When the identity was Yongzheng, he was already the emperor. Only he left the complete "Shunzong Record". The book consists of 5 volumes. The author is Han Yu, a great writer who is known as a writer with eight generations of decline. Some people think that the author Han Yu and eunuch Ju Wenzhen are closely related. Therefore, the texts of the eunuch involved in this record are backed up, but after all, they are the first-hand records about the situation of Shunzong and his related periods, which are precious. Tenth, the largest number of 谥 is added for the first time: to the emperor Xiao An, Emperor Xiao An. Taizong's first nickname was "Emperor Wen", which was a word 谥, and Gaozu's first nickname was "Dawu Emperor", which was a two-word 谥. Later Emperors of the Tang Dynasty often added four-character cymbals when they first added cymbals, followed by five-character cymbals. At the end of the Tang dynasty, there was also the slogan of the Emperor Ruizong, "Ruiwen Zhaosheng Gonghui Emperor", which was seven characters. Seven characters were added for the first time, and Shunzong was the first. "The number one, the table of merit" is used to express merit and virtue, but what does this long 谥 谥 sign mean to Shun Zong who has been in office for a short time? In every aspect of Shun Zong's life, whether he accepted the talents of his grandfather's emperor as his concubine, or gave his biological son to his father as a son; whether he was hidden as a crown prince, It is also the eradication of the disadvantages after the ascension; whether it is facing the emperor's eccentricity to Shu Wang Li Yi, or the son's aggressiveness towards himself; whether the eunuch forces him to choose Chu, or forces him to abdicate; whether it is in the Ninth Five-Year Plan or becoming the emperor He is always at ease, hardly seeing what kind of competition he has had. Therefore, being able to face reality and being brave enough to face political reality is really the most obvious and best aspect of Shun Zong's life.

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Brief introduction of Tang Xianzong Li Chun to create the last prosperous emperor of the Tang Dynasty

Twelfth Emperor of the Tang Dynasty : Li Chun (778-820) Emperor of the Tang Dynasty in China, namely Tang Xianzong . Reigned from 805 to 820. The eldest son of Tang Shunzong . First name Chun. In the fourth year of Zhenyuan (788), he became king of Guangling County. At the beginning of the twenty-first year, he was established as Prince Edward and renamed Chun. Ascended the throne in August. After Emperor Xianzong took office, he tried his best to govern, reused virtues, and reformed bad government. During the fifteen years of the reign of Emperor Xianzong, he worked diligently and energetically to strive for prosperity, thus achieving the great achievements of Yuan He's defeat of the vassal and reviving the prestige of the central government. It is historically referred to as "Yuanhe Zhongxing". Xianzong's political achievements mainly have two aspects: first, there have been political reforms, and second, some Fanzhen towns have been calmed down temporarily. After cutting the clan, the clan power temporarily weakened. Later murdered eunuch Chen Hongzhi (one for Hongqing) and others. At the age of 43, he reigned for 15 years. After his death, his nickname was Zhao Wenwen Wu Dasheng to Emperor Xiaoxiao.

Biography

Tang Xianzong Li Chun (778--820): Formerly known as Li Chun, the eldest son of Shunzong, was born in Chang'an Palace on February 14, 13th of the 13th year of the 13th calendar. After the reign of Emperor Xianzong, he often read the historical records of the Tang Dynasty. Every time he read the stories of Tang Taizong and Tang Gaozong , he admired it. Xianzong took the emperor Shengming Ming as an example, carefully summarized the historical experience, paid more attention to the role of ministers, dared to appoint and rely on the prime minister. He discussed the matter with the prime minister in the Yanying Palace, but he retired late. During the fifteen years of the reign of Emperor Xianzong, he worked diligently in politics and united his morals with the monarchs and ministers, thus achieving the great results of Yuan He's sacrifice, reviving the prestige of the central government, and achieving the resurgence of the Tang Dynasty. For a long time, three emperors of the Tang Dynasty have been highly evaluated: Tang Taizong, Tang Xuanzong, and Tang Xianzong. Xianzong was not able to create a glorious prosperity like Taizong and Xuanzong, but was able to compete with them on a par with them, which also illustrates his unusualness. On the 27th day of the first month of the 15th year of the fifteenth year (February 14, 820), the superstitious Xianzong was killed by the eunuch.

When Li Chun was born, it was the old age of the Emperor Great Emperor. In the second year of his birth, his grandfather Dezong ascended the throne and his father Shunzong was made Prince. When Li Chun was ignorant at an early age, there was a "change of the division" in Chang'an. The fugitive Dezong did not guarantee the safety of the children of the clan, and 77 of those who did not evacuate in time died in the hands of the rebels. Dezong has been guilty. When Li Chun was six or seven years old, Dezong had just returned to Changan. One day, Li Chun was amused by his grandfather, Emperor Dezong, and asked him, "Whose child are you in, and why is it in my arms?" Li Chun said: "I am the third son." This answer made Dezong was very surprised. As the eldest grandson of the current emperor, in accordance with the order of ancestors, fathers, and sons, he answered "the third day son." favorite. In June of the fourth year of Zhengyuan (788), at the age of 11, he was booked King of Guangling County.

Tang Xianzong suffered war from an early age, and his own family relations were also a little chaotic. His mother, Wang, was a talent of Daizong, and another brother was adopted by his grandfather, Dezong. Xianzong's own marriage relationship is also strange. In the ninth year of Zhenyuan (793), the Emperor Xianzong of Guangling King married Guo's wife. Guo is the granddaughter of his grandfather, Guo Ziyi , her father is Ma Yiwei, a magistrate, and her mother is the eldest daughter of Daizong, Princess Shengping . The story between Princess Shengping and Guo Yan was later compiled into a drama called "Golden Branch", which spread widely. Since Guo's mother was the eldest daughter of the Zong Emperor of the Tang Dynasty , in this way, Guo and Shun Zong were cousins, and Guo had a generation of Xianzong. In other words, when it comes to seniority, Xianzong is one generation lower than the concubine Guo he married. After they got married, Shun Zong showed great favor to his daughter-in-law because his father and ancestor had big honors in the royal family because of Guo's mother and noble. Xianzong himself didn't seem to be too cold-hearted towards this concubine, because in the eleventh year of Zhenyuan (795), that is, two years after their marriage, Guo had a son, Li Zhi, who was later Tang Muzong .

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Tang Muzong Li Heng introduced that three of the five sons became emperors

The thirteenth emperor of the Tang Dynasty: Tang Muzong was the third son of Xianzong. He was born on July 6th in the 11th year of the reign of Emperor Zhenyuan (795) in the palace of Daming Palace in Chang'an, Beijing. Originally named Li Zhi, it was first named the county king, and in the first year of the Emperor Xianzong and the first year (806), it became the king of Sui. Li Heng was later renamed the Crown Prince, which is the same as his father Huang Xianzong.

The former Emperors of the Tang Dynasty in Mu Zong were able to pass the throne to their sons. Gaozong ( Wu Zetian ) and two sons (Zhongzong and Ruizong) ascended the throne. Mu Zong ’s father, Xian Zong, also had another son, Mu Zongguang Lingdong. The Shimen Stone Lion (Thirteenth Son) became emperor, Xuanzong. After Mu Zong, the fifth son was the emperor, and the seventh son was the emperor Zhao. Earlier, among the sons of Ruizong, one was ordered to ascend to the throne (Xuanzong), one believed to be the emperor (let the emperor Li Xian), and three were given princes. They have been praised by the old history as "the report of heaven and endless flow." But Mu Zong had five sons, and three of them became emperors, namely King Zong, Wen Zong, and Wu Zong, which are unique in the history of the Tang Dynasty. Since each son honored his own biological mother as the empress after his throne, Mu Zong had three queens and he shared the temple, which is also rare in the history of the Tang Dynasty. Mu Zong was only 30 years old when he died in the first month of the four years of Changqing (824). Compared to the Tang Emperor before him, he was the one with the shortest life. These circumstances revealed that when Mu Zongjun came to the world, the Tang Dynasty's succession to the throne had undergone great changes, and the personal safety of the emperor had become insecure. All this seems to remind us once again that the situation in the court of the Muzong period is difficult to look at conventionally.

Palace change takes the throne

Before Mu Zong was born, his father, Xian Zong, had his eldest son Li Ning and second son Li Zhe. The third-ranked Mu Zong, however, has a powerful mother, that is, the granddaughter of the grandfather Guo Ziyi , who was married to Emperor Guangling when he was married in the ninth year of the Yuan Dynasty (793). The eldest son Li Ning's mother is Ji Gongren, and the second son Li Xun's mother didn't leave a name. In this case, Xianzong never decided on which queen to choose. The matter continued until four years after he became king, and in Yuanhe four years (809) March, Xianzong's heart gradually leaned towards the eldest son. At this time, Li Ning was 17 years old. He usually liked to read books and behaved in accordance with etiquette and law. He was deeply loved by Xianzong. So when Minister Li Xun suggested that Li Chu be established early to prevent treacherous people from spying on him, he announced the decision to establish the eldest son as Xun Jun. This time it took a lot of twists and turns. The ceremony that should have been held in the spring, due to continuous heavy rain, changed the time again and again, until Meng Dong October. How much resistance from Mu Zong's mother Guo's during this period is unknown.

What happened next made everyone feel helpless. In December of Yuan He's six years (811), Li Ning, who had been a prince for two years, died of illness at the age of 19. Xianzong was so distressed that he dismissed the dynasty on the 13th unexpectedly, and specially formulated a set of funerals, which were added as "Hui Zhao". Li Ning's death forced Xianzong to once again make a choice for the election of heirs.

At this time, almost all inside and outside the court suggested the election of the third son of the emperor, Li Zhi, and the eunuch who was most favored by the emperor, Tu Tu Cheng Cui, suggested that the second son should be established in order. Xianzong also intends to establish a second son, but because of his mother's humble status, Li Zhe can't get support from the court, and the Guo family's influence on the court is really too strong. The call of Li Sanzi won the upper hand, and Xianzong was helpless, so he had to ask Hanlin Scholar Cui Qun to draft the instrument of generosity on behalf of his second son, and in Yuan Heqi year (812) in July, Li Li was established as the prince. Renamed Li Heng. In October, a ceremony was held.

In fact, Xianzong was dissatisfied with the prince, and he gave up to the emperor's intentions, and he never gave up his business for Li Zhi. The event of Xianzong's establishment of the reserve laid the root of Mu Zong's future ascension, and also left himself in trouble.

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Brief Introduction to Tang Zongzong Li Zhan

Fourteen emperors in the Tang Dynasty : Tang Zongzong Li Zhan (809-826), the eldest son of Tang Muzong , was first named King E, and later was named King King. He was first supervised as a prince because his father Mu Zong's health deteriorated. After Mu Zong died of illness in the first month of 824 AD, he succeeded on the same month. The second year changed its name to "Bao Li". Reigned for 2 years, murdered eunuch, aged 18. Buried in Zhuangling (now 30 miles northeast of Sanyuan County, Shaanxi Province).

Biography

Tang Jingzong Li Zhan (809-826), Emperor of the Tang Dynasty . The eldest son of Tang Muzong. He was the thirteenth emperor of the Tang Dynasty (except Wu Zetian , reigned 824-826), reigned for 3 years, and was 18 years old.

After Tang Jingzong's ascension, he was extravagant and profane. Addicted to puppets (polo) and like to catch foxes (playing night foxes) in the palace at midnight. Eunuch Wang Shoucheng took control of the imperial court, colluding with Li Fengji, a power minister, to reject dissidents and corrupt Gang Ji. An incident that led to the riots of government artisans and the palace. Later, eunuch Liu Keming and others were killed. After death, his nickname was Emperor Ruiwu Zhao's filial piety.

Life of Tang Zongzong Li Zhan

Tang Zongzong Li Zhan was born on the 7th of the fourth year (809) of Yuanhe in the inner palace of Daming Palace in the East. He was listed as the Crown Prince in December of the second year of Changqing (822). This was a decision made by Mu Zong due to a sudden stroke and had to be strongly requested by Minister Pei Du and others. In the first month of the four years of Changqing (824), Jingzong first supervised the country as his prince due to the deterioration of his father Mu Zong's health, and soon ascended the throne due to the collapse of his father.

After Jingzong ascended the throne, he didn't take the state's politics at all. His amusement was inferior to that of his father Mu Zong. The second month after King Jong ’s ascension, he hit the ball at Zhonghe Temple one day, and then transferred to the Flying Dragon Court one day, and banqueted at the Zhonghe Temple the third day. Jingzong blindly pursued pleasure, not even the emperor's routine early dynasty. One day in March, the ministers came to the court to prepare to enter the court, but Jingzong was not up to the top of the sun. The minister had to get up in order to participate in the morning meeting. The emperor was late, and after a long time, the bureaucrats could not hold on to the collapse.

With regard to Xinjun's behavior that was contrary to the ancestral system, the doctor Li Bo proposed a persuasion. At the urging of the minister, Jingzong took a long time to arrive late. After retreating from the DPRK, left-hand relic Liu Qichu strongly persuaded the emperor to do so, and his head was long and bloody. Jingzong showed a very moved look at the time, but he still did not change. Later, even if he developed into a month, it was rare to face two or three times. In order to enable Jingzong to govern the country, Li Deyu, who served in the local area, offered six "Danxun Proverbs" and offered persuasion. Jingzong ordered Han Lin ’s bachelor Wei Chuhou to draft a commendation in praise of Li Deyu, but he had questions about himself. Still indifferent.

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Emperor Tang Wenzong Li Ang introduces the emperor

The fifteenth emperor of the Tang Dynasty : Tang Wenzong Li Ang (809-840), Tang Muzong Li Heng's second son, and mother Zhen Xian to the Empress Xiao. He reigned from 827 to 840 AD. During the ruling period, politics was dark, and officials and arrogant battles continued. This was a transitional period for the Tang Dynasty's society to decline. Tang Wenzong himself was similar and died of depression. He ascended the throne as Mu Zong's second son and Jing Zong's second brother, and was not an established successor. And why can he inherit Datong? Simply put, it is the result of the intricate court struggle.

Biographies

Tang Wenzong Li Ang was once named King of the River. Eunuch Liu Keming was equal to Bao Jing, who killed Tang Jingzong on the eighth day of the second year of the calendar (826), and forged his legacy, welcoming Emperor Li Wu, the son of Tang Xianzong , into the palace. Two days later, eunuchs Wang Shoucheng and Liang Shouqian instructed the army to kill Liu Keming and the eunuch Li Wu, and established Li Ang as emperor, changing the year's name to "Dahe".

During Wen Zong's reign, the courtiers were divided into two groups, cattle and Li, each with their own parties, and attacked each other. Officials moved frequently, and the regime and the emperor's life and death stood in the hands of eunuchs.

Dedicated to eradicating the eunuch forces and regaining power, Wen Zong promoted Zheng Zhu and Li Xun as doctors and prime ministers from the lower ranks. Wen Zong accepted the suggestions of Zheng Zhu et al. First, he used the contradiction between eunuchs to appoint Wang Shoucheng's subordinate Qiu Shiliang as a lieutenant to the left and to control some of the guards to weaken Wang Shoucheng's military power. Then, he removed Wang Shoucheng's military power and ordered Wang Shoucheng to drink Poisoned wine commits suicide. At this time, Zheng Zhu had been appointed as the envoy of Fengxiang Jiedong. Wen Zong decided to select hundreds of relative soldiers from Zheng Zhu, and killed all the eunuchs when Wang Shoucheng was buried. In order to grab power, when Li Xun took the Zheng Zhu to Feng Xiang and moved, he agreed with Wen Zong to change the original plan, first kill the eunuchs, and then remove Zheng Zhu.

One day in AD 835, when Wen Zong went up, Li Xun instructed his officials to claim that there was manna on the pomegranate tree behind Zuo Jinwu Hall. Li Xun said that this was an auspicious sign, and led the civil and military officials to congratulate Wen Zong. Wen Zong ordered Li Xun to lead a hundred officials to inspect it. Li Xun came back and said that it was not like nectar. Wen Zong intentionally expressed surprise and ordered Qiu Shiliang and Yu Zhihong to lead the eunuchs to review. Li Xun had ambushed hundreds of soldiers in Zuo Jinwu's gate in advance. When Qiushi Liang and other eunuchs accompanied Li Jun's party apprentice general General Han Yue to the gate of Zuo Jinwu, Han Yue looked very nervous and his face was full. For nothing, this made Qiu Shiliang doubtful. At this moment, a gust of wind blew the curtain near the door. Qiu Shiliang and others saw that there were many soldiers lying in the ambush. They knew it was not good, and retreated to escape. He pushed Wenzong into the soft car and left. Li Xun chased and seized the sedan chair, and was knocked to the ground by an eunuch as a chest punch, and Qiu Shiliang and other men gathered around the sedan and fled into the palace. When Li Xun saw the plan revealed, he disguised himself and fled from the capital. Qiu Shiliang commanded the God ’s forbidden army to conduct large-scale hunting, slaughtered more than 1,000 officials, and pursued Li Xun in Zhongnanshan. Zheng Zhu heard the change, led his troops back to Fengxiang, and was also killed by the prisoner Zhang Zhongqing. This is the history of the change of manna.

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Emperor Tang Wuzong Li Yan's introduction

The 16th Emperor of the Tang Dynasty : Tang Wuzong is Li Yan. His real name was Yan, and his name was changed to Yan before he died. Tang Muzong's fifth son, Wen Zong's younger brother. During the reign of Emperor Wu Zong, Li Deyu was employed as a phase, and some reforms of the malpractices in the late Tang Dynasty were made. Wu Zong Chong Taoism ordered the dismantling of Buddhist temples in Huichang in five years and confiscated a large amount of temple land. The success of the destruction of the Buddha increased the tax source of the Tang Dynasty government and consolidated the centralization of power. He reigned for 6 years and was 33 years old. Wu Zong was born on June 11th, Yuanhe Nine Years (814), his real name was chán, and he was renamed Li Yan more than ten days before his death. The process of Emperor Wuzong's ascension is exactly the reenactment of Wenzong's ascension.

After Wen Zong's throne, Jin Wangpu, the son of the emperor Jingzong, wanted to be a concubine. Unfortunately, Jin Wangpu died at the age of 5 in the second year of the Taihe (828) year, and Wenzong conferred his title on his prince. Until October of the six years of Taihe, he established his son Lu Wangyong as the prince, and held a book ceremony in August of the following year. Wen Zong's Yang Fei was dissatisfied with Prince Ziyong and always sought to abolish him, because the impediment on the court was not successful, but Prince Ziyong violently died in Kaicheng for three years (838), bringing the matter to an end. The prince's death made Wen Zong very sad. He thought that he was a son of heaven but could not save his son's life. In addition to chasing his son as "Prince Zhuang Ke", he also sent anger to the palace man next to the prince. From then on, Wen Zong was also depressed. Chengji. In October of the first four years, Wen Zong did not agree with Yang Feili's younger brother An Wangrong's proposal. Instead, he set up Jing Zong's sixth son, Chen Wang Chengmei, as the prince. Before he had time to register, Wen Zong could not afford to be ill.

On the second day of the first month of the fifth year of the establishment, Wen Zong secretly ordered eunuchs to confide Liu Hongyi and prime minister Li Yi and other princes to supervise the country. However, the lieutenant Lieutenant Qiu Shiliang and Yu Hongzhi helped the princes to build up the princes, and on the grounds that the prince was too young and sick to take the heavy responsibility, he proposed to re-establish the prince.宰相李珏据理力争,也奈何不了手握神策军的仇士良、鱼弘志,他们假传圣旨,将文宗的五弟颍王瀍立为皇太弟,从十六宅迎入宫中。太子成美仍然以陈王的爵位退居藩王府邸。文宗驾崩之后,颍王柩前即位,这就是唐武宗。武宗即位后,将已过世的生母韦氏追册为皇太后

武宗身材高大,性情豪爽,他即位这年,已是27岁。多年来他迷信道教,周围经常有一批道士相往来,比起纯粹生长在深宫中的王子来说,他多了一些观察社会的机会。与文宗不喜欢声色歌舞不同,武宗经常骑马游乐,还常常带着他宠爱的那位邯郸舞伎出身的王才人到教坊饮酒作乐,与乐人谐戏,就好像老百姓家的宴席一般。但又和敬宗无节制地游乐不同,武宗并没有沉湎其中,声色自娱过程中他时刻保持清醒的头脑,没有因此耽误了国家大事。他读书虽然不如文宗,但是他更能知人善任,而且也似乎少了一些书生意气和迂腐,能够面对现实,很多时候他敢于向宰相当面认错,尤其是他信任和重用李德裕,使得他们君臣在会昌年间内忧外患交织的时刻,能够沉着应付,度过难关。

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唐宣宗李忱简介评价很高晚唐人称其“小太宗”

唐朝第十七位皇帝唐宣宗李忱(810年冬月十二-859年),汉族(847年—859年在位,未算武周政权),初名李怡,初封光王。武宗死后,以皇太叔为宦官马元贽等所立。在位13年。综观宣宗50年的人生,他曾经为祖宗基业做过不懈的努力,这无疑延缓了唐帝国走向衰败的大势,但是他又无法彻底扭转这一趋势。宣宗性明察沉断,用法无私,从谏如流,重惜官赏,恭谨节俭,惠爱民物,故大中之政,讫于唐亡,人思咏之,谓之小太宗。

Biographies

生母原为镇海节度使李锜侍妾郑氏,李锜谋反失败,郑氏入宫后当郭太后的侍儿,后来被唐宪宗临幸,生下李忱,即后来的唐宣宗。他是穆宗的弟弟。敬,文,武宗的叔叔。他是晚唐最后一位值得一提的皇帝。

武宗一直也没有立太子,所以在他病危的时候。宦官马元贽拥立李忱为帝。宣宗一即位,就把武宗朝的宰相,晚唐重臣李德裕贬出朝廷。一直到死,李德裕也未能还朝。又重用牛党的白敏中为相。延续几十年的牛李党争最后以李党的彻底失败告终。

宣宗勤于政事,孜孜求治。他非常喜欢读贞观政要。他重新整顿吏治,并且限制皇亲和宦官。他把死于甘露之变中的除郑李之外的百官全部昭雪,也曾经想根除宦官,但鉴于甘露之变的前车之鉴,未能有所行动。

对外关系上,他击败吐蕃,收复河湟。这是安史之变后,唐对吐蕃的唯一一次军事上的胜利。

大中十三年(859)五月起,宣宗因为食用仙丹中毒,身体状况已经很糟了,一连一个多月都不能上朝。到了八月,病入膏肓的宣宗一病归西了。嗣后宫中又是变故频频,而宣宗已是无知无觉了。他一直信任的宰相令狐绹摄冢宰负责治丧,为他做了最后一件事。群臣上谥号曰圣武献文孝皇帝,庙号宣宗。第二年二月,葬于贞陵。

历史上评价说,宣宗在位期间曾经烧过三把火,一把火使“权豪敛迹”,二把火使“奸臣畏法”,三把火使“阍寺詟气”,并称誉他为“明君”、“英主”。综观宣宗50年的人生,他曾经为祖宗基业做过不懈的努力,这无疑延缓了唐帝国走向衰败的大势,但是他又无法彻底扭转这一趋势。当大厦之将倾,谁又有雄才大略能施展回天之力呢? !!

宣宗性明察沉断,用法无私,从谏如流,重惜官赏,恭谨节俭,惠爱民物,故大中之政,讫于唐亡,人思咏之,谓之小太宗。

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唐懿宗李漼简介唐懿宗实为唐朝间接的亡国之君

唐朝第十八位皇帝唐懿宗李漼(“漼”,拼音:cuǐ),母元昭皇太后晁氏。始封郓王。宣宗爱夔王滋,欲立为皇太子,而郓王长,故久不决。大中十三年八月,宣宗疾大渐,以夔王属内枢密使王归长、马公儒、宣徽南院使王居方等。而左神策护军中尉王宗实、副使丌元实矫诏立郓王为皇太子。癸巳,宣宗病死后,被宦官迎立为帝,是为唐懿宗,改元“咸通”。在位14年,终年41岁。曾用年号:大中、咸通;死后葬简陵,谥号昭圣恭惠孝皇帝。

唐懿宗李漼,是唐朝最后一个以长子即位而且是最后一个在长安平安度过帝王生涯的皇帝。然而,懿宗在位15年,骄奢淫逸侏儒俑,不思进取,宠信宦官,迎奉佛骨,面对内忧不知其危,遭遇外患不觉其难,把宣宗在位期间重新点燃起来的一点希望之光彻底熄灭了。

大中十四年(860),即懿宗即位的第二年,二月安葬了宣宗,十一月改元为咸通。使用这一年号,据说是因为宣宗所作的一首曲子中有“海岳晏咸通”的句子。懿宗改元时记得他的父皇,但君临天下以来的言行举止却几乎看不到宣宗的影子。咸通之政与大中之政相比也是相距遥遥,不可以道里计。《新唐书》的作者说懿宗是“以昏庸相继”,正是对他的综合评价。

沉湎游乐——懿宗在位期间,对宴会、乐舞和游玩的兴致远远高出国家政事,对上朝的热情明显不如饮酒作乐。懿宗在宫中,每日一小宴,三日一大宴,每个月在宫里总要大摆宴席十几次,奇珍异宝,花样繁多。除了饮酒,就是观看乐工优伶演出,他一天也不能不听音乐,就是外出到四周游幸,也会带上这些人。懿宗宫中供养的乐工有500人之多,只要他高兴,就会对这些人大加赏赐,动不动就是上千贯钱。他在宫中腻烦了,就随时到长安郊外的行宫别馆。由于他来去不定,行宫负责接待的官员随时都要备好食宿,音乐自然也不能缺少。那些需要陪同出行的亲王,也常常要备好坐骑,以备懿宗随时可能招呼他们外出,搞得大家苦不堪言。《 资治通鉴 》中说,懿宗每次出行,宫廷内外的扈从多达十余万人,费用开支之大难以计算,这成为国家财政的一项沉重负担。对于懿宗的“游宴无节”,担任谏官的左拾遗刘蜕提出劝谏,希望皇上能够以国是为重,向天下展示出体恤边将、关怀臣民的姿态,减少娱乐。对此,他根本听不进去。咸通四年(863)二月,懿宗竟将高祖献陵以下到宣宗贞陵十六座帝陵统统拜了一遍。司马光说:“拜十六陵,非一日可了。” 唐朝皇帝陵墓坐落在关中渭北高原上,1986年春天,笔者因隋唐考古学课业随师门高谊乘坐专车考察关中唐帝十八陵(个别陵还没有到),还足足用了近两周,古时没有现代化的交通工具,还要带上众多的随从、祭祀物品,必定不是三两天可以来回的。游乐和歌舞,成为懿宗日常生活中不可或缺的内容。在他的表率作用下,整个官场也都弥漫着穷奢极欲、醉生梦死的风气,晚唐著名诗人韦庄诗中有“咸通时代物情奢”的说法,他所咏“瑶池宴罢归来醉,笑说君王在月宫”,正是对这一世态最好的描绘。

任相不明——懿宗即位之初罢免了令狐绹,改任了白敏中。白敏中是前朝老臣,但在入朝时不慎摔伤,一直卧病在床无法办公。他三次上表请求辞职,懿宗都不批准。白敏中有病,正中下怀,懿宗可以借故不理朝政,和其他的宰相朝会讨论政事也是敷衍了事,他心思根本不在这里。所以有位担任右补阙的谏官王谱说:“白敏中自正月卧病,已有四个月了。陛下虽然也和其他的宰相坐语,但未尝有到三刻(古代一昼夜为一百刻)的。这样,陛下那有闲暇和宰相讨论天下大事呢?”这番话使懿宗很不舒服,竟把王谱贬出朝廷去任了个县令。负责行使封驳权力的给事中认为王谱是谏官,论事不应当贬斥,就按照唐朝的制度退回了这一命令,没有下发。懿宗就将此事交给宰相复议,那些宰相不顾国家体制,认为王谱不仅是对皇上劝谏,也涉及到宰相白敏中,竟然同意把王谱贬职。

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唐僖宗李儇简介玩物丧志宦官手中的傀儡皇帝

唐朝第十九位皇帝唐僖宗李儇(862-888),儇Xuān, 唐懿宗第五子,初名俨。873-888年在位,在位13年,享年27岁,死后谥号为惠圣恭定孝皇帝。僖宗是懿宗的第五子,本名李俨,生於咸通三年(862)五月八日。懿宗病重弥留之际,他在宦官的支持下被立为皇太子,改名李儇,并於懿宗死后柩前即位。时在咸通十四年(873)七月二十日,僖宗11岁;888年三月六日死于长安。

Biographies

僖宗即位时还是个幼弱的孩子,自然缺乏必要的理政能力,政事处置全部听由宦官之口——他们废长立幼,没有选择懿宗的长子而拥立12岁的皇子大概就有这样的考虑。僖宗在位期间最信任的宦官是田令孜。僖宗自幼就由田令孜照顾起居,感情上很是有些倚赖,并称呼田令孜为“阿父”,即位后便任命他做了神策军中尉。这样,僖宗朝的重大决策都掌控在田令孜手中了。

僖宗生于深宫之中,长在宦官之手,宫中生活场景能够带给他的就是可以肆无忌惮地游乐。事实上,他也的确是一个热衷游乐的皇帝。他喜欢斗鸡(《唐语林》说是“斗鸭”)、赌鹅,喜欢骑射、剑槊、法算、音乐、围棋、赌博,游玩的营生他几乎无不精妙。他对打马球不仅十分迷恋,而且技艺高超,他曾经很自负地对身边的优伶石野猪说:“朕若参加击球进士科考试,应该中个状元。”石野猪回答说:“若是遇到尧舜这样的贤君做礼部侍郎主考的话,恐怕陛下会被责难而落选呢!”僖宗听到如此巧妙的回答,也只是笑笑而已。

如果是太平之世的君主,搞一些喜欢的运动也无可厚非,但是僖宗在位时,政局已经非常混乱。懿宗时期担任翰林学士的刘允章在《直谏书》中已用“国有九破”描绘过当时紧迫的局势:“终年聚兵,一破也。蛮夷炽兴,二破也。权豪奢僭,三破也。大将不朝,四破也。广造佛寺,五破也。赂贿公行,六破也。长吏残暴,七破也。赋役不等,八破也。食禄人多,输税人少,九破也。”对天下苍生的生存状态,他总结了“八苦”、“五去”。八苦是:

官吏苛刻,一苦也。私债征夺,二苦也。赋税繁多,三苦也。所由乞敛,四苦也。替逃人差科,五苦也。冤不得理,屈不得伸,六苦也。冻无衣,饥无食,七苦也。病不得医,死不得葬,八苦也。

五去是:

势力侵夺,一去也。奸吏隐欺,二去也。破丁作兵,三去也。降人为客,四去也。避役出家,五去也。

刘允章还说:“人有五去而无一归,有八苦而无一乐,国有九破而无一成,再加上官吏贪污枉法,使天下百姓,哀号于道路,逃窜于山泽。夫妻不相活,父子不相救。百姓有冤无处诉,有苦无处申。他们的出路何在呢?”

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唐昭宗李晔简介在位16年皇权衰微的悲剧性皇帝

唐朝第二十位皇帝唐昭宗李晔(867年-904年),姓李讳杰,即位后改名为敏,然后又改名为晔,888年-904年在位,在位16年,享年38岁。他是唐懿宗第七子、 唐僖宗的弟弟。葬于和陵,死后谥号为圣穆景文孝皇帝。

昭宗在位期间,宦官、朝臣、藩镇为争夺对中央政府的控制权,斗争激烈,藩镇跋扈,战乱不断,皇权衰微。

历史上的唐昭宗李晔可以说是一个悲剧性皇帝,昭宗嗣位时二十一岁,是一个聪明而又有才能的年轻人,他充分了解阻碍恢复唐朝力量和权威的形势,并发誓自己要复兴王朝。但是唐朝已经积弱难返,回天无力。这种境况恰恰是昭宗的哥哥唐僖宗(公元873-888年在位)造成的。

唐昭宗李晔同唐僖宗李儇皆是唐懿宗的儿子,僖宗行五,昭宗行七。根据史书上记载:僖宗的天份还是很高的,骑射,剑槊,算术,音乐等,无不精通。但是十二岁即位,正是贪玩的年纪,于是把政事和官吏的任免都委托给宦官田令孜处理,着他自行处之,不必汇报。宦官弄权,政令不明,又加上天灾人祸,终于在乾符二年(公元875年)爆发了王仙芝, 黄巢大起义。

在王仙芝死后,黄巢率领起义军在全国流动作战。最后攻进了长安,唐僖宗步玄宗的后尘避蜀。僖宗逃到成都后,在成都向各路节度使封官许愿,又借助沙陀兵来平叛。加上农民军朱温等人的叛变,黄巢兵败,退出长安,后在山东自杀。起义被平定后,以往在形式上听命于中央的节度使们,现在也无视朝廷了。

经过近四年的四川流亡生活以后,僖宗在中和五年(公元885年)阴历三月回到京师。经历了战争和洗劫的岁月的长安已经完全荒废了:“荆棘满城,狐兔纵横。”而僖宗在长安也没安心的住多久,就又开始了逃亡避难,这一次是因为邠宁节度使朱玫拥立肃宗的曾孙襄王李煴为帝,僖宗四处辗转,最后于光三年(公元887)由当时的神策军将领宋文通护卫着逃到了凤翔,凤翔节度使李昌符领兵拦截,和护驾的先头部队发生激烈冲突,宋文通带兵猛攻,歼灭了李昌符全部。宋文通因为立了首功,被唐僖宗封为节度使,而且赐名李茂贞,僖宗还亲自为他定字为正臣。从此,李茂贞便凭借这些常人所没有的荣誉和雄厚的实力割据一方。这一年的其余时间僖宗仍在凤翔,光启四年正月回到长安。然而,他在凤翔已经得了重病,阴历三月便死去,只活了二十七岁。僖宗在位十五年,这十五年中很难说他曾进行过统治。他在位的岁月是军事、政治、社会和制度各方面的重重危机压得人们喘不过气来的时代,有人把王朝的迅速崩溃归罪于僖宗的孩子气的任性,或归罪于他对施政的漫不经心。

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Conclusion

唐高祖李渊:创世之雄,能识时务。唐太宗李世民:少年英才、文治武功、知人善任。唐高宗李治,有文人气质。武则天,唯一的女皇帝。唐睿宗李旦,无权之人。唐中宗李显,三次让出帝位很会忍。唐玄宗李隆基,从开元盛世到安史之乱。唐肃宗李亨,平叛安史之乱功不可没。唐代宗李豫,窝囊。唐宪宗李纯,奋发有为,乱世中创造“元和中兴”。……唐昭宗李晔有志向,但无力回天了。唐哀帝李拀,末代皇帝,结局凄凉。

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