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Yongle prosperity

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Yongle Prosperous Age is the prosperous era that emerged during the reign of Ming Cheng Zu Zhu Xi, and is one of the three great prosperous times of the early Ming Dynasty. Ming Cheng Zuxiong had a rough idea. After he took office, he worked hard to develop the economy, promoted culture and education, and took many measures to vigorously develop the economy, making the world a big rule. During the Ming Chengzu period, the civil service system was improved. During the Ming dynasty ancestor , the emperor directly led the six departments because of the abolition of the prime minister system. Therefore, the emperor had to deal with everything in detail, so the emperor was very tired. When Ming became an ancestor, a rudiment of the cabinet system was gradually formed in the court, which influenced the Ming and Qing dynasties. Ming Chengzu officially moved the capital of the Ming Dynasty to Beijing in 1421. In terms of foreign affairs, Ming Chengzu repeatedly visited the Mobei region and the south to Annan , and set up jurisdictional structures in the localities, such as the provinces or management departments in the northeast, northwest, and southwest. Established Hami Wei, Guizhou Chief Secretary, etc. He also preached Guowei, vigorously developed overseas exchanges, sent Zheng He to the west, and sent Chen Cheng to the Western Regions, creating a situation in which all nations came to the DPRK. Economically vigorously develop agriculture, build water conservancy, dredge the Grand Canal, and reduce tax burdens.

Yongle prosperity

The Prosperous Age of Yongle——The Prosperous Age of Ming Dynasty Appeared During the Reign of Ming Chengzu

Yongle Prosperity Brief Introduction: Ming Dynasty prosperous period

Yongle Prosperous Age is the prosperous era that emerged during the reign of Ming Cheng Zu Zhu Xi, and is one of the three great prosperous times of the early Ming Dynasty.

Ming Cheng Zuxiong had a rough idea. After he took office, he worked hard to develop the economy, promoted culture and education, and took many measures to vigorously develop the economy, making the world a big rule.

During the Ming Chengzu period, the civil service system was improved. During the Ming dynasty ancestor , the emperor directly led the six departments because of the abolition of the prime minister system. Therefore, the emperor had to deal with everything in detail, so the emperor was very tired. When Ming became an ancestor, a rudiment of the cabinet system was gradually formed in the court, which influenced the Ming and Qing dynasties. Ming Chengzu officially moved the capital of the Ming Dynasty to Beijing in 1421.

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In terms of foreign affairs, Ming Chengzu repeatedly visited the Mobei region and the south to Annan, and set up jurisdictional structures in the localities, such as the provinces or management departments in the northeast, northwest, and southwest. Established Hami Wei, Guizhou Chief Secretary, etc. He also preached Guowei, vigorously developed overseas exchanges, sent Zheng He to the west, and sent Chen Cheng to the Western Regions, creating a situation in which all nations came to the DPRK.

Economically vigorously develop agriculture, build water conservancy, dredge the Grand Canal, and reduce tax burdens.

In addition, Ming Chengzu ordered people to compile the " Yongle Ceremony ". It's an encyclopedia. It contains all the classic books since the pre-Qin dynasties, and can be said to be an encyclopedia. Such classic books also objectively back up those ancient books, so that many books will not be lost.

Ming Chengzu ruled social stability, the country was prosperous, and the territory was vast. As the ancestral name of Mingcheng was "Yongle", and even praised the "distant Han and Tang Dynasties" in this period, later historians call this period "Yongle Prosperous Age".

Some scholars believe that the prosperity of Yongle far surpassed the so-called " Kang Qiang Prosperous Age ". The Yongle Prosperous Age created by Ming Chengzu and the rule of Ren Xuan created by Ming Renzong and Ming Xuanzong were called Yongxuan Prosperous Age.

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Background of the prosperity of Yongle: How big was the Ming Dynasty in Yongle?

In 1398, Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang of Ming Dynasty died because of the early death of his prince Zhu Biao , and he was crowned by Emperor Sun Zhu Yunzhang . In order to consolidate the imperial power, Ming Huizong conspired with relative ministers Qi Tai and Huang Zicheng to slay the clan. King Zhou, King Dai, King Qi, King Xiang, etc. were either deposed as puppets or forced to commit suicide. At the same time, in the name of frontier defense, he transferred away from the elite soldiers of the Yan King Zhu Xi, preparing to eliminate Zhu Xi. As a result, Zhu Xi , under the suggestion of Yao Guangxiao , set off in the name of "Qing Jun side, Jing Nei difficult", and finally led the army south, occupying the Beijing division, was a battle for Jing Di. Later Zhu Xi ascended the throne, namely Ming Chengzu , Yongle. Ming Huizong's whereabouts in the Miyagi fire were unknown.

According to "The History of Ming Dynasty · Geography 16th": "Jifeng was inscribed at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, North Korea in the east, Tubo in the west, Annan in the south, Dabao in the north, 11,750 miles from east to west, and 10,000 from north to south. Zero nine hundred and fourteen miles. "

The territory of the Ming dynasty includes the scope of 18 provinces in the mainland today. In the early years, the Northeast arrived in the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Udi River Basin, and later changed to the Liao River Basin. From the northwest to Hami, Xinjiang, it was later changed to Jiayuguan; and there were detention institutions in Manchuria, eastern Xinjiang, and Tibet. During the Ming Chengzu period, he even briefly conquered and ruled Annan (now northern Vietnam). During the Yongle period, the extremely prosperous land area of the Ming Dynasty reached about 10 million square kilometers.

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Saibei area

After the 1530s, due to the cold weather and poor farming, the Frontier Army was transferred by the King of Yan during the battle of Jingnan. As a result, the border moved slightly south during the period. During Ming Chengzu's Yongle years, the Ming army made several northern expeditions, and the border situation once changed. But after the middle of Ming Dynasty, with the rise of Mongolia again, the border moved south again. And built the Great Wall (then called the side wall at the time, see "Ming Great Wall") to defend Mongolia, and set up nine sides (Liaodong, Jizhou, Xuanfu, Datong, Yansui, Ningxia, Gansu, Taiyuan, Guyuan) along the Great Wall to strengthen defense. The Great Wall also became the northern side of the middle and late Ming Dynasty, and also the boundary between agricultural and nomadic areas.

North-east area

In the seventh year of Ming Chengzu Yongle (1409), he set up a slave department in northeast China, which had more than 130 health centers. It was abandoned in the nine years (1434) of the Xuande period of the Ming Dynasty , for a total of 25 years. However, the original health centers and the Liaodong Douji still existed in order to exercise local imprisonment. After Ming Yingzong's orthodox years, Wuwu Liangha and Jianzhou Jurchen Ministry moved south, and continued to violate the Liaodong Dusi.

North-west region

After the 1530s, Turpan in the northwest and Mongolia in Qinghai became stronger.

Southwest Region

Ming Chengzu Yongle four years (1406) Ming army attacked Annan, the southern line reached the area of Ninan Prefecture. The following year, Annan Chief Minister was set up, with fifteen prefectures, twenty-six states, and more than two hundred counties. Later, due to the fierce resistance of the local people, the Ming court gave up in the second year (1427) of Xuanzong of the Emperor Xuanzong and Annan restored the Li dynasty.

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Declassification: What military achievements did Emperor Zhu Xi of Yongle, the Ming Dynasty have?

Reform

During the reign of Zhu Xi, military organizations experienced four major changes in the structure of the armed forces. The first change was the removal of guards. The second change was to relocate most of the Jingwei stationed in Nanjing to the north, and to refer some of the northern troops to the status of pro-military forces. This made Jingjing stationed in Beijing the largest force in the empire. The third is to set up a battalion in the Beijing Division, through which soldiers regularly rotate from the local troops to the border defense line to serve or conduct warfare, and drill and train in the battalion. The fourth major change includes towns that organize border defenses along the Great Wall; this measure is part of Yongle 's new strategy to deal with nomadic invaders north of this border.

Zhu Xi's desire to cancel the vassal of the princes is easy to understand; under the separation system established during Zhu Yuanzhang's rule, the princes had extensive powers. Zhu Xi used this power to build his own army; this experience prompted him to disband the guards and send his own sons out of the military town. During the civil war, both his eldest son and second son participated in the battle. But after he ascended the throne, when he went abroad to fight, he made the eldest son regent; the second son was arrested in 1417 for plotting against his brother.

At the same time, as Emperor Jianwen had done, Zhu Xi felt compelled to weaken the power of other princes, all of whom were his brothers; many princes were charged with guilt and cleaned, and their guards were disbanded.

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Therefore, by the end of Zhu Xi's rule, only 4 of the 30 vassal escorts originally established by Zhu Yuanzhang remained intact. When Zhu Xi was the King of Yan, the three guards that belonged to him, namely Yanshan Wei, were incorporated into the pro-arms of the private emperor's army of Beijing. Of the remaining 23 escorts, some were relocated to different locations. Others were disbanded, and their troops were reorganized into the new guards of the Beijing Division. Since then, the fiefdoms granted to the new king have rarely been escorted. By the end of the Ming dynasty, fewer than 12 royal guards belonged to the military establishment.

The move of the military guard to Beizhili was the most profound military reorganization carried out during Yongle years. Under Zhu Yuanzhang's rule, the 41 guards in Nanjing were collectively referred to as the Jingwei; these forces included the emperor's private 12 pro-arms and 29 guards affiliated to the five capitals. When Zhu Xi used Beijing as his capital division, he transferred many of these guards from Nanjing to the north. By 1420 or 1421, the guards of Beijing consisted of the following three parts: the guards that originally belonged to the Beijing Dudufu; the former Nanjing Jingwei; the guards that originally belonged to the kings. A few other troops that have been disbanded have also been transferred to Beijing from other provinces. The core of Jingwei is composed of 22 escorts that make up the emperor's army. They include 3 Yanshan Guards, 7 of the 16 Guards formerly under the Beijing Capital Command Division, and 12 troops that were once affiliated with the Nanjing Emperor's Army. These 22 guard units include 159 units; these units claim to have a total of 190,800 (one unit includes 1,200), but the actual number is likely to be much lower than this number, because by the end of the Zhu Yuanzhang period, the guards in each area were roughly only sufficient for them. 5/8 of the force. The other six troops that were merged into the emperor's army were still directly dispatched by him; three of them belonged to the former Beijing Dudu government, and three were composed of soldiers from each disbanded army. These troops provided most of the soldiers carrying out construction work.

Nanjing's military establishment includes 29 other escort units, each of which is under the command of one of the governor's offices of the former Beijing Division. By 1420, about 19 of these forces had been relocated to Beijing, and the rest were specialized in water operations. After 1420, Nanjing's military establishment consisted of 17 escort units under the emperor's private army and 32 units under the joint command of five capitals in Nanjing. At the same time, Nanzhili ’s peripheral cities were originally under the jurisdiction of the Nanjing Zhongdu Dudufu, and Beijing ’s Zhongdu Dudufu were in charge; this further weakened the administrative power of Nanjing. In 1421, as the area around Beijing became Beizhili, Beijing ’s post-Dudu government began to command the area. Since then, Beijing's posterior army Dudufu has governed 16 escort units, of which 11 were later responsible for guarding the tomb.

During the reorganization, a large number of people relocated to Beijing and its surrounding areas. At least 435 establishments, or 25-30% of the entire Ming army, were stationed in the Beijing area, of which 335 were originally relocated from other places in the Ming Dynasty. If the previous calculation is used, the actual total strength of these units is about 251,000, but the real figure may be slightly higher. In addition, many soldiers have family members. Demographic statistics for 1393 show that there are 1,926,595 people in Beijing. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that the population of Beijing Province (known as after 1403) in the early 15th century was likely to greatly exceed 2 million. In short, after 1422, the troops stationed in Beijing formed a considerable part of the residents of the capital, which greatly exacerbated the problem of dependency on the population.

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Demystification: What kind of economic achievements did the Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Xi have?

agriculture

Zhu Xi has strict requirements on local officials, requiring local officials to have a thorough understanding of the people's situation and to reflect the civil suffering to the court at any time. In the tenth year of Yongle (1412), Zhu Xi ordered more than 500 local officials who met in the dynasty to state their local conditions. They also stipulated that "the one who does not speak is guilty, and those who do not speak properly should not ask." Ministry, Fan Junxian has a division and dynasty witnesses to the people who did not speak, and arrested. That is, the local officials or the public sentiment observers sent by the central government must arrest the law enforcement agencies if they see misfortunes reported by the people. In the event of disasters in the people, local governments must provide relief in a timely manner, so that the floods and droughts will come to an end. Nothing Yongsai. "

In 1405, the country's tax and grain revenue was 31,133,993 shi, which was the third consecutive year of taxation of more than 31 million shi. According to the statistics of private households with less than 10 million households at the time, each household paid an average of more than three shi. In addition, from the first year of Yongle, the income of the military and military fields also reached a peak of 23.45 million shi. In addition to the taxes and grains paid by the households, the average population at the time was more than one shi.

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handicraft

In Yongle, cloth, silk, cotton velvet and fruit notes have become an important part of the taxation of the Ming Dynasty , which also reflects the development of cash crops at that time.

Yongle period was the heyday of the Ming Dynasty porcelain industry. Jingdezhen, Jiangxi is still the center of the national porcelain industry. The population here is about 100,000. There were 20 official kilns during the Hongwu period, and the number grew to 58 during Xuande. Jingdezhen porcelain is not only high-yield, but also of good quality, and has made many new achievements in porcelain making. For example, the cone arches and births of Yongle are technical new creations. The achievements in glaze are particularly outstanding. Sweet white, green, and red in glaze are precious porcelains in Yongle Period. The blue and white porcelain of the Xuande period was even better. There is also a kind of porcelain made from Nanyang ruby in the glaze, called "sacrifice red", which has the luster of the gem.

manufacturing

During Hongwu years, there were 13 official iron ore mines nationwide. These iron smelters, in addition to pig iron, also make wrought iron and steel. But government-owned mining and smelting is generally stagnant. Its production is entirely based on the demand for pig iron raw materials in other government-owned handicraft industries. It is sometimes mined, sometimes closed, and its output is extremely unstable. However, private mining and smelting is developing steadily, which can be seen from the tribute courses paid by the private mines to the government over the years. In 1403 (the first year of Yongle), the civil traffic iron course was more than 79,800 kg; in 1434 (the nineth year of Xuande), it increased to 555,267 kg. The Ming Dynasty stipulated that the iron class should be divided into two from thirty. Based on this calculation, in 30 years, the output should increase from nearly 1.2 million catties to more than 8.3 million catties, a sevenfold increase. The decline of official mines and the development of civilian mines in the iron and steel industry was a phenomenon common to the mining and metallurgy industry in the Ming Dynasty and other handicraft industries.

The shipbuilding industry in the early Ming Dynasty once ranked among the top in the world. Longjiang (also known as Longwan) in the north of Nanjing and Liujiagang in Taicang were shipbuilding bases at the time. Most of Zheng He's voyages were made by Longjiang. The shipbuilding industry elsewhere is also well developed. There are many types of shipbuilding in various places, including covering the ocean, preparing ships, warships, shallow ships, wind speed ships, yellow ships, and so on. Among them, the taxation of shipping by sea is the largest, covering four to five hundred stones.

Dredge the Grand Canal

By the early 15th century, the Grand Canal in the Yuan Dynasty had been damaged, silted and inaccessible for a long time. Zhu Xi decided to repair the Grand Canal and reopen the canal transportation, making it another southern grain transportation route to Beijing, because the demand for food increased greatly after the capital moved to Beijing. The Grand Canal was repaired in two stages. Dredging and restoration of the northern section began under the supervision of Song Li in July 1411; the work included the dredging of 130 miles of river channels and the construction of 38 ship locks. The project used 300,000 workers who served for 100 days. The southern section from the Yellow River to the Yangtze River opened in July 1415. Chen Huan built four ship locks in the west of Huai'an to provide access to the Huai River. The canal system can now reach Beijing from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River; it has become the main artery of commerce between North and South.

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Demystification: What kind of cultural achievements did Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty have?

In July of the first year of Yongle (1403), Zhu Xi ordered Jiefang, Yao Guangxiao , Wang Jing, Zou Ji and others to compile large-scale books, and by November of the second year of Yongle (1404), he compiled the "Documentation", namely " Yongle " Ceremony . This "Yongle Ceremony" and the "Siku Quanshu" compiled by the Qing Dynasty people not only have different forms but also different purposes. The compilation of "Yongle Dadian" was not for the purpose of cultural autocracy, but only to retain more historical books, which can be used by future generations. [3] "Yongle Dadian" is a large-scale book compiled in ancient China. The books included in "Yongle Dadian" have not been deleted. They are the precious cultural heritage of the Chinese nation. Encyclopedia is more than 300 years earlier than the British Encyclopedia and French Encyclopedia published in the mid-eighteenth century.

"Yongle Ceremony" was first named "Documentation". In the first year of Mingyue Ming Dynasty (1403), in July, Ming Chengzu Zhu Xi ordered Jie Xie, Zou Ji, Yao Guangxiao, Wang Jing, and others to compile. In November of the second year of Yongle (1404), the "Documentation" was compiled.

The "Yongle Grand Canon" contains as many as seven or eight thousand important ancient books, from the pre-Qin Dynasty to the early Ming Dynasty. At the time, it could be said that "including the vastness of the universe, the differences between the ancient and the modern". Before the Song and Yuan dynasties, the secret scriptures had to be kept alive. The contents included: Jing, Shi, Zi, Ji, Shi Zhuang, Tao Jing, drama, plain speaking, engineering, agronomy, medical treatment, literature and so on. The edited books are not easy to read. They are compiled according to the original, the entire article, or the entire paragraph, which further enhances the documentary value of the preserved materials. The whole book style is "using rhyme to unify words and using words to unify things", and retrieval is very convenient.

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"Yongle Grand Ceremony" is a precious cultural heritage of the Chinese nation. The text of the whole book is 22877 volumes, the catalogue is 60 volumes, and it is packed into 11095 volumes with a total word count of about 370 million words. In the book, there are more than 8,000 kinds of ancient classics from the pre-Qin and Song and Yuan dynasties, and the largest encyclopedia in ancient China.

This integration is useful for academic research, for orthodox concepts on ethical and authoritative issues, for imperial examinations, and for official methods for determining public behavior. Except for the "Yongle Ceremony", several other small compilations have been distributed among officials, imperial schools, and imperial examinations; some have even been sent to vassal countries such as Japan and North Korea, which has also promoted them abroad. Orthodox Confucian ideology. In short, they formed the intellectual and cultural views of the scholar class, and at the same time laid the ideological principles for the imperial government.

While compiling the "Yongle Grand Ceremony", Zhu Xi also ordered a group of Hanlin bachelors to compile notes on the "Four Books" and "Five Classics" written by Zhu Xi and other masters of the Zhuzi school, and edited their philosophical discussions on human nature. These compilations were completed and reported to the court in October 1415, and they were issued in April 1417 under the titles of the "Five Books of the Four Books" and "The Book of Sexual Principles". This practice officially recognizes them as a legal shortcut to familiarity with Confucianism.

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Demystification: What kind of diplomatic achievements did Emperor Yongle of Ming Dynasty Yongle have?

In terms of foreign policy, the Ming dynasty embraced people with lenience and enthusiasm, and was enthusiastic about the solitary respect of the nations.

route

Sea route: For three years in Yongle (1405), Zhu Xi sent eunuch Zheng He as the envoy and Wang Jinghong as the deputy. He led sailors and more than 27,800 sailors and soldiers. He took sixty-two "treasure ships" and sailed the west. The Ming Fleet set off from Liujiagang in Suzhou to Champa (today's southern Vietnam), Malacca in Malaysia, Java in Indonesia, Sumatra and Ceylon, and returned to the country via the west coast of India. Later, in the more than 20 years from 1407 to 1433, he sailed to the sea seven times and passed through more than 30 countries, reaching as far as the east coast of Africa, the Red Sea and the Islamic shrine Mecca. This is the great Zheng He went to the west .

Overland: Zhu Xi also dispatched officials such as Foreign Minister Chen Cheng and Zhongda Li Da to the Western Regions. The Western Regions such as the Timurid Empire, Turpan, Loss, Sindu, and Huozhou also He exchanged messengers with the Ming dynasty several times, calling him Chennagong. The Ming Dynasty and the Western Regions strengthened their political, garrison, and trade contacts, which further developed and consolidated the unified situation across the country.

In the official history of the Ming Dynasty, the history of Ming Dynasty described the period of Emperor Yongle's reign, "Weideya quilt, Quartet guest service, the tribute of the imperial order to the thirty countries, the breadth of the country, far from Han and Tang dynasties."

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range

Korea

The Korean state of the Lee dynasty was established in 1392. The Ming Dynasty's policy toward North Korea served several purposes. The court sought to undermine North Korea's influence among Jurchens and ensure the security of China's borders in response to Mongolia's invasion. The rulers of North Korea not only valued the defense of the tribes in the north, but also cherished their political and cultural ties with the Ming Dynasty, because they believed that such ties would bring authority and legitimacy to the ruling royal family. In September 1402, Zhu Xi sent Yu Shiji to inform North Korean King Li Fangyuan of his ascension. In November, the king sent a messenger to request a new seal and seal. In 1403, he sent another mission to obtain medicines to cure his father's illness. Both requirements were approved, and they marked the beginning of regular exchanges of envoys, and exchanges of envoys were sometimes two or three times a year. Koreans pay tribute to local products, such as ginseng, lacquerware, leopard skin, and seal skin; but before 1429, the heaviest burden was 150 gold and 700 silver. In return, the emperor gave generous gifts to the King of Korea and his envoys-silk, fine clothes, medicinal materials, books, and musical instruments; he also awarded the King of Korea and his prince the honorary title.

However, the court of the Ming Dynasty often made excessive demands on the Koreans; these requirements were merely a pass in Chinese historical data, but they were discussed in detail in the Korean records. For example, Yongle Emperor often asked for horses and cattle for military use, and the King of Korea was ordered to send more than 1,000 horses in 1403, 10,000 cattle in 1404, 3,000 horses in 1407, and 1410. Another large group of horses to support the first quest for Mongolia. There are special requirements. In 1403, 1406, 1407, and 1411, Emperor Yongle sent his senior eunuch Huang Huang to North Korea to ask for papers of bronze Buddha statues, Buddha bones (sari), and Buddhist scriptures.

Japan

Diplomatic relations with Japan were interrupted in 1380 because Zhu Yuanzhang suspected that the Japanese were colluding with his out-of- favor Minister Hu Weiyong in an attempt to usurp the throne. The relationship was first restored by General Ashikaga III Yoshiman (1358-1408) in 1399, and he had just established his authority in Western Japan. This profligate general's admiration for Chinese culture was cultivated by Zen monks around him. He was anxious to restore diplomatic relations with China, partly to benefit from the lucrative trade with China. In 1399, he sent an ambassador to the court of Jianwen Emperor with an eulogizing letter and tributes; the ambassador was well received. Yoshiman's second mission arrived in Nanjing in late 1403. In the accompanying letter, the general claimed to be "King of Japan", an event that is unusual and controversial in Japanese history. This is the first foreign mission to come to the new emperor.

Zhu Xi keenly saw a rare opportunity and made a positive response. He is pleased that the Japanese generals have shown recognition of his sovereignty and have agreed to control mutual trade and cooperate in ending Japanese piracy off the coast of China. In September 1403, the court reopened the shipping divisions of Ningbo, Quanzhou, and Guangzhou to Japanese businessmen, and sent Minister Zhao Ju to Japan to conclude a business agreement. The agreement stipulated that, after establishing a recognized and modest form of trade known as the collaboration system, the general's representatives were allowed to trade in Ningbo, and at the same time submit specific collaborations that coincided with the collaborations held by the Chinese officials of the City Shipping Department. The trade mission shall not exceed two ships and 200 people, shall not carry weapons, and shall be dispatched every ten years, but the last provision was ignored in the later busy and regular trade.

From 1404 to 1410, China and Japan were regular trade and diplomatic missions. This sincere relationship was facilitated by Yoshitomo's goodwill; he fulfilled his promise to arrest Japanese pirates and send them to the court of the Ming Dynasty. When Yiman died in 1408, Zhu Xi warned his heir Yiyi to continue suppressing pirates. However, in 1411, Yizhi refused to receive Chinese missions and interrupted relations with the Ming court for the next six years. The new general got rid of the Zen monks around his father and adopted an isolationist policy. In November 1417, after some Japanese pirates were captured off the coast of China, Zhu Xi tried to establish diplomatic relations with Yiji. However, the general claimed that the Japanese gods banned foreign relations and that his father had been led astray by his advisers. In this way, the official gate was closed to China again, but private trade continued through ports in southern Japan.

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Decryption: How should we evaluate Ming Chengzu's "Eternal Joy"?

positive

"The Prosperous Age of Yongle " is one of the most glorious periods in China's feudal era. The emperor Zhu Xi, who ruled China, has always embraced the "very talented strategy" of Enwei everywhere, and the strong national strength of the prosperous period laid the foundation for the realization of this "great unification" belief.

The emergence of the Yongle Prosperous Age developed China's material civilization and spiritual civilization with thousands of years of history to a new height, and formed a focus of world civilization at that time.

Zhu Xi left a complicated legacy to the later monarchs of the Ming Dynasty . They have inherited an empire with obligations to distant nations, a long line of defense along the northern border, a complex civilian bureaucracy and military organization with many unconventional forms, and a large-scale transport system for it The magnificent Beijing that survives. This can only be maintained under the leadership of a dynamic leader driven by the ideal of an empire, who can at all costs and be willing to hand over power to civilian officials to maintain the day-to-day functions of government. None of Yongle ’s immediate successors possessed this heroic quality, but they still insisted on his vision of the empire and the political foundations he laid.

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The subsequent generations of the emperor did not have the understanding of the empire, but also realized the cost of maintaining his policies, and began to shrink and re-consolidate the administration of the empire. However, they cannot resolve the inherent contradictions between the national policies they adopt and the institutions on which they must govern. Although the civilian government has been strengthened and government spending has been reduced, the costly military organizations, capitals of the north and the transport system must still be maintained. The military contraction inadvertently weakened the border defense, which caused many problems for future rulers. In all these respects, Zhu Xi had a greater influence on the course of Ming Dynasty's history than the founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty.

Negative

Zhu Xi was so happy that he made great achievements in civil engineering . During the 22 years of his reign, he moved to Beijing, built the palace, went to the West, and Wuzheng Mobei, all of which required a lot of civil and financial resources. The servitude and taxes imposed imposed a heavy burden on the general population.

In the eighteen years of Yongle, the Tang Saier uprising broke out in Shandong, at this time less than fifty years before the founding of Taizu. But before and after this, the Daming Dynasty has had more than ten uprisings, large and small. [73] Frequent natural disasters and corruption of officials are of course the inducement, but it is even more important that the supreme ruler builds civil engineering at the expense of the people. Most of the military service levied by Chengzu for building the Forbidden City came from the Central Plains such as Henan and Shandong. In the 19th year of Yongle, Han Lin's assistant lecturer Li Shimian, Zou Ji, and others joined the team. Shu Zhong revealed the plight of the people at that time.

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Conclusion

Yongle Shengshi "is one of the most glorious periods in the feudal era of China. Yongle Emperor Zhu Xi, who ruled China, has always embraced the" magnificent strategy "of Enwei throughout Shihai, and Shengshi's strong national strength laid the foundation for the realization of this" great unification " .

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