Straight war


The forces of the immediate line were slumped. The Beiyang government fell into the hands of the Feng warlords. After the failure of the first direct war in 1922, he attempted to resurrect in Northeast China. On September 3, 1924, a war broke out in Zhejiang warlord. On the 4th, Zhang Zuolin sent a response to Zhejiang warlord Lu Yongxiang, blaming Cao Yu and Wu Peifu for energizing, and sent troops to Shanhaiguan and Rehe. Feng Jun was organized into 6 troops. Zhang Zi was commander in chief, and on the 15th he called Cao Yong to send out a challenge. On the 17th, Cao Yong issued a decree against Zhang Zuolin, appointing Wu Peifu as commander of the rebel army. In this battle, there were 250,000 troops in the direct line and 170,000 troops in the Feng line. Both sides had navy and air forces participating in the battle. After the war, Fengjun successively captured Chaoyang, Jianping, Chifeng, Longhua and other places. On October 7, Fengjun launched a total attack, occupying Jimen Gate, and fought fiercely at Jiumenkou, Shimenzhai, and Sandaoguan, with more than 10,000 casualties on each side. After Fengjun occupied Shanhaiguan, they entered the Great Wall on the 17th and drove straight to Zhangzongchang , Luzhou. On November 3, Feng Jun marched into Tianjin, and Wu Peifu led the remnants out of Tanggu to Hainan. The war ended with immediate failure.

Straight war

Battling the war directly and battling for the leadership of the Beiyang government

The First Bong War: Why the Strong Bong Sect Army Failed

After the Zhi-Wan war in 1920, Zhi-Feng warlords jointly controlled the Beijing regime. Feng-Shu Zhang Zuolin strongly recommended the pro-Japanese leader of the transportation department, Liang Shizhen, as the cabinet's prime minister. Liang Shizheng's relationship with the direct line was not good. Fengxian controlled the financial traffic of the central government by using Liang Shixuan. He used Japanese money to redeem the Jiaozhou-Jinan Railway and used Japanese money to support Fengxi's expansion plan. The direct line could not tolerate it. Revealing Liang Meiri's scandalous act of betraying his country, Liang Shizhen organized a cabinet for nearly a month, that is, he took a leave of absence and left Beijing on January 25, 1922.

Zhang Zuolin was determined to use force to deal with the direct line. From April 10, Fengjun continued to attack, and was renamed "Zhenwei Army". On April 29, Zhang Zuolin arrived at Junliangcheng, and issued a general offensive order to the troops on the same day. He directly fought the two armies in the area of Changxindian, Gu'an, and Machang. After the army's side, a sudden attack was launched, and Fengjun suffered an enemy on the back.

The 16th Division was defeated on May 4th, Fengjun temporarily edited a division and withdrew from Fengtai, causing Fengjun's western front to collapse. Wu Peifu took the enemy's in-depth tactics to command the direct army and fight and retreat. After Fengjun entered the ambush circle, secretly led his troops to the side of Fengjun, launched an onslaught, and Fengjun on the western front also collapsed across the entire line.

At that time, the combat effectiveness of the second echelon was relatively strong and was the main force of Fengjun. The commander was Zhang Zuolin's eldest son, Zhang Xueliang . Two years ago, Zhang Xueliang graduated from the Eastern Wujiang Tangwutang. This was also the first time that he participated in such a large-scale battle. At that time, Wu Peifu transferred the 3rd and 26th divisions of the sect to the Eastern Front after commanding victory, and personally commanded the troops that attacked Zhang Xueliang. Although Zhang Xueliang led the department to bravely retreat from the offensive, but because the overall defeat of Fengjun had been settled, he had to command the troops to retreat in an orderly manner.

In this war, all the ministries of Fengjun retreated almost across the board. The only troops that could win and retreat in an orderly manner were the second echelon led by Zhang Xueliang and Guo Songling . In the end, Fengjun failed on both the east and west fronts. The soldiers sacrificed 20,000, defeated more than 10,000 fugitives, and captured more than 40,000 people from the direct army. President Xu Shichang ordered the expulsion of Zhang Zuolin to patrol in the three eastern provinces.


On June 18, representatives of the two parties directly on the British warship Kerriu on the sea off Qinhuangdao signed the armistice treaty. Yuguan is the Imayama Customs as the dividing line between the two armies. Feng army withdrew from the customs, and most of the direct troops also withdrew. Defense, the first straight war ended. [3]


1. The direct line is divided into Cao Jun and Wu Jun. Cao Jun has remained neutral in Beijing.

2. Wu Jun learned that Fengjun ’s grand strategic intention was to subdue Baoding South from Jinpu Road. As soon as the war began, it damaged a large section of the railway and stubbornly blocked the southward Fengjun in Texas. At the same time, Cao Jun 26, a newly attached East Road, proactively attacked and provoked southward. Fengjun, then swindled, tempted Fengjun to abandon the original grand strategic intention, changed the large-scale contract to a small one, and attacked the eastern part of Baoding. As a result, he stepped into the pre-set minefield of Wu Jun and did not follow the military code, like a bandit. Blindly attacking Wu Jun's modern position composed of landmines, wire grids, heavy machine guns, and artillery support formed during the First World War, failed to jump out of Wu Jun's wishful thinking, causing Rui Yong to lose, and the Middle Road and West Road were equally hit. Wu Jun's provocative defeat and fierce attack on the minefield had the same ending. This is the fault of Chief of Staff Yang Yuting

3. Fengjun did not think of a good way to break the minefield in advance, and did not follow the military code to waste the shells to clear the minefield, but there was no rifle coordination. Often, clearing the mines cleared the way for the counterattack of the direct army. Infantry is not good at attacking toughness, attacking but not defeating, relying on cavalry to defeat enemies, and is not good at quickly setting up fire positions. However, they cannot defend, and the position is lost . This is a mistake made by old school generals such as Zhang Jinghui

4. Although the Zhang Xueliang Corps carried out beautiful tactics such as enclosing, it was sandwiched between the Li Jinglin Corps and Zhang Zuoxiang Corps. It had limited space to display and could not influence the big strategy. It was mainly used to help the two legions to fight fire. It was only displayed when they retreated. Strong defense ability familiar with military operations

5. Fengjun received Japan ’s weapon funding assistance and was not short of money. Therefore, Fengjun officers and soldiers fought very stubbornly, but the offensive continued to be severe, and the losses were heavy. Several reserves of the reserve team came too slowly, and lacked combat effectiveness and strategic new ideas. Filling the pits eventually led to a collapse. Behind the Fengjun only the threat of Mengsu, which is much more advantageous than Wu Jun, but did not dare to mobilize the Jilin army that defended Japan earlier to enter the customs, and thus failed to form a military advantage. It was the fault of Zhang Zuolin himself. However, Wu Jun successfully united Feng Yuxiang , stabilized the rear, and devoted himself to the front.

6. After Wu Jun turned to defend, he still could n’t break through Zhang Xueliang ’s modern position under Shanhaiguan. This shows that when Wu Jun and Feng Jun lacked heavy artillery units and paratroopers, the world ’s war mode still favored the defensive side. of

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In the military sense, direct warfare is the first civil war in the history of China in which the navy and air force have participated and achieved significant effects. New weapons, such as tanks, have appeared on the scene. The use of heavy artillery, heavy machine guns, and landmines was rare in the previous war. Especially tragic. In the political sense, the direct war ended with the victory of the line. From then on, the line of warlords withdrew from the political stage in Beijing, and the Beiyang government began the Zhang Zuolin era.

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