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Zhang Juzheng Reform

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During Wanli , the cabinet's chief assistant, Zhang Juzheng , carried out political, economic, national defense, and other reforms to save the Ming Dynasty, alleviate social contradictions, and so on. Proceeding from maintaining the Ming Dynasty's long-term rule, some people in power within the ruling class believed that it was necessary to reform politics and seek a path of self-help. Under such a situation, Zhang Juzheng's reform was promoted. During the six years of the Ming Dynasty (1572), Zhang Juzheng was supported by the eunuch Feng Bao , replacing Gao Gong . During the Wanli period of the Ming Emperor Shenzong , he served as the cabinet minister (primary minister) for 10 consecutive years. To save the crisis of Ming Dynasty rule, he carried out military, political, economic and other rectifications, especially focusing on economic reforms, in an attempt to reverse the situation of political corruption, lax border protection, and depletion of the poor and the poor since Jiajing and Longqing. In June 1582, Zhang Juzheng became ill, and some reformed opposition regrouped, furiously counterattacking. They attacked Zhang Juzheng's reforms to be "troublesome", to clear the land was to "increased taxes and harmed the people", and to implement the "one whip law" was a mess of the "ancestor system." They ordered the rebellion and title of Tejia when Zhang Juzheng died, and the family property be seized.

Zhang Juzheng Reform

Zhang Juzheng's Reform——The Last Attempt to Restore National Power in the Ming Dynasty

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Zhang Juzheng - Emperor Wanli

How long did Zhang Juzheng's reforms prosper in the Ming Dynasty? Why Zhang Juzheng Reforms

During the six years of the Ming Dynasty (1572), Zhang Juzheng was supported by the eunuch Feng Bao, replacing Gao Gong . During the Wanli period of the Ming Emperor Shenzong , he served as the cabinet minister (primary minister) for 10 consecutive years. To save the crisis of Ming Dynasty rule, he carried out military, political, economic and other rectifications, especially focusing on economic reforms, in an attempt to reverse the situation of political corruption, lax border protection, and depletion of the poor and the poor since Jiajing and Longqing. In June 1582, Zhang Juzheng became ill, and some reformed opposition regrouped, furiously counterattacking. They attacked Zhang Juzheng's reforms to be "troublesome", to clear the land was to "increased taxes and harmed the people", and to implement the "one whip law" was a mess of the "ancestor system." They ordered the rebellion and title of Tejia when Zhang Juzheng died, and the family property be seized.

During Wanli, the cabinet's chief assistant, Zhang Juzheng, carried out political, economic, national defense, and other reforms to save the Ming Dynasty, alleviate social contradictions , and so on. Proceeding from maintaining the Ming Dynasty's long-term rule, some people in power within the ruling class believed that it was necessary to reform politics and seek a path of self-help. Under such a situation, Zhang Juzheng's reform was promoted. He successively implemented reforms such as clearing debts, saving provincial post, punishing corrupt officials, eliminating redundant officials, and provincial expenditures. Based on this, he began to reform the system of enlistment and implement a whip method. Although reform is a reform movement within the landlord class, it has certain benefits for removing the evils, clarifying the rule of the government, restraining the mighty, reducing the suffering of the peasants, and stabilizing the people. The clearing of land and the implementation of a whip method have greatly improved the state's fiscal revenue. The reform was stubbornly obstructed by the forces of the landlords. After Zhang Juzheng died, the reform failed except for a whip.

Zhang Juzheng (1525–1582), the uncle of the word, Taiyue, was born in Jiangling, Hubei. Is Xu Jie 's student. When Ming Muzong was in office, Zhang Ju was able to excel and was trusted by Ming Muzong. After Mu Zong's death, Crown Prince Zhu Rongjun came to the throne, and was Emperor Mingzong Wanli. Mu Zong left Zhang Juzheng and three other ministers to assist the government. During the six years of Ming Muzong Longqing (1572), Zhang Juzheng received the support of eunuch Feng Bao, replacing Gao Gong, and served as the cabinet's assistant (prime minister) for 10 consecutive years during the Ming Dynasty Emperor Wanli. To save the crisis of Ming Dynasty rule, he carried out military, political, economic and other rectifications, especially focusing on economic reforms, in an attempt to reverse the situation of political corruption, lax border protection, and depletion of the poor and the poor since Jiajing and Longqing. The reform played a positive role, but after Zhang Juzheng's death, the reform measures were undermined.

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What is the background of Zhang Juzheng's reform in the Ming Dynasty?

Background of Zhang Juzheng's reform

The social contradictions further developed in the middle of the Ming Dynasty. After the mid-Jiajing period, the government's fiscal deficits continued to increase, and the results of the search were intensified. ", In the deep crisis of collapse. If effective measures are not taken to remedy, "the things at the end of the Yuan Dynasty can be regarded as a lesson." The reform of Zhang Juzheng was just the product of the landlord class reformists' efforts to ease the contradictions and change the law to save themselves.

Zhang Juzheng (word uncle, No. Taiyue), a native of Jiangling County, Huguang, Jinshi in the 26th year of Jiajing (1547), Mu Zonglongqing entered the cabinet in the first year (1567). The six reform plans of argumentation, Zhen Jigang, heavy decrees, verification, Gubangben, and Wuwubei were not adopted. In the 6th year of Long Qing, Mu Zong died and the heir to the throne was only 10 years old. The inner court was governed by the Empress Dowager Ci Sheng, and the outer court was headed by Gao Gong .

Soon Zhang Juzheng accepted the eunuch Feng Bao , repelled Gao Gong, and became cabinet minister. Zhang Juzheng, as the first assistant, "arbitrarily dictates the law and controls everything", resolutely launches a nationwide reform and reform movement that can turn the tide. For a time, the reign of the Ming dynasty appeared as a resurgence.

The content of Zhang Juzheng's reform:

1. Rectification of government officials Rectification of government officials is not only an important part of the reform itself, but also a prerequisite for whether the whole reform reform can be started and succeeded.

Zhang Juzheng believes that "dealing for reason should not be anxious to secure people's livelihood; what Anmin wants is only in the administration of nuclear officials", and clearly regards "nuclear administration" as the premise of "security of the people" and "governance". At the beginning, he focused on the aspects of "respect for sovereignty, class duties, letter of reward, punishment, and a decree" in order to refresh and revitalize. "The discipline is not clear, the rules are not good, and the work is to be indulged. "The ambiguity can be described by ambiguity, and the good deeds can be described by the requisition of Qu." Only by strengthening centralization, emphasizing decrees, and reinvigorating Ji Gang, can Zhang Faji "suppose group workers, seize power and win Baidu", can the reform laws and regulations be carried out unhindered.

Zhang Juzheng emphasized that governing the world must "suspend the law among the public", govern the law, adhere to the "penalty rewards, uphold justice," in order to promote the discipline and convince the world. The result of rigorous rectification of "strict its restrictions" made "the people of Jiuwei, Ji Jizhi; the officials of slow wanton, Yi Feng." Improving administrative efficiency and carrying out orders are also important contents in rectifying the administration of officials. In order to establish an effective performance appraisal system.

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Zhang Juzheng created and issued the examination method in the first year of Wanli (1573). The spirit of the examination method is "limiting examinations" and "responsibility to people". That is, each ministry will prepare three copies of the sending and receiving books, leaving the ministry as a copy, sending six subjects for remarks, and submitting to the cabinet for examination. According to the distance and the urgency of the road, "the time limit is set, the book is written, and it is written off at the end of the month. Those who are late for inspection shall be listed by the Ministry; The cabinet minister gave it. There are examinations in the month, and there are ages. " "The wrongdoer pays off" makes every official matter come to fruition.

Customized at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the six departments and six departments bypassed the cabinet and were directly responsible to the emperor . Zhang Juzheng passed the examination to strengthen the power of the cabinet. The cabinet passed the six departments and the Metropolitan Institute to control the six departments. In the end, all levels of institutions from the central to the local level are controlled by the cabinet, thereby strengthening the centralization of power and making the cabinet the hub of reform. From the Cabinet-Six Divisions-Six Departments-Chafan, Fan, and other private officials and two private officials; and then two Chazhou and county officials. Layers of inspections have formed a rigorous assessment and performance system from the cabinet to the local officials. In order to exclude eunuchs from interfering in politics, he also specifically warned Feng Bao "to curb his party without six affairs" and to ensure the smooth flow of the new law from the organizational structure. This practice of the three agencies supervising each other regularly and reviewing bureaucratic performance at all levels to implement rewards and punishments has effectively enhanced the effectiveness of the work.

Zhang Juzheng reorganized the administration of the government, seeking for the law and the effect of the word, and achieved obvious results. Not outrageous. " All officials, Pepsi, have changed the political style. Due to the increase in administrative efficiency, local officials have set their taxes on schedule, alleviating the most difficult financial difficulties. Zhang Juzheng said: "In recent years, there has been no loss to the rightful decree, and the treasury has been enriched.

2. (New Frontier Defense Policy) Rectifying the frontier "exhibiting detentions and maintaining internal defense" is the guiding principle for Zhang Juzheng to implement the new frontier defense policy.

The focus of "internal maintenance" is to strengthen the defense of the northern frontier and improve the military counterbalance. To this end, Tan Lun, Qi Jiguang , Wang Jiugu, Fang Fengshi, Li Chengliang, and other well-known generals have been used in the southeast to resist the great achievements, presided over the border affairs of Jizhen, Xuanfu, Datong, Shanxi and Liaodong. While actively training soldiers and horses to improve the combat effectiveness of the army, they vigorously strengthened the addition of city defenses and built the Ming Great Wall.

The Great Wall of the Ming Dynasty was not only built with masonry in key fortification areas, but also filled with soil and stones, which was very solid; and the shape structure was more complete and reasonable. Qi Jiguang created more than 1,300 hollow enemy units at the edge of Jizhen. "He fired artillery and attacked the enemy thief. The thief couldn't reach it, and the enemy was afraid to ride." In order to improve the overall strength of the Great Wall defense system, the twin cities and even multiple city walls have been repaired in strategic locations, the eastern wall of Liaoning has been repaired, and the defense against flanks, depths and peripheral gaps has been strengthened.

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Zhang Juzheng's Political Reforms: Many New Decrees Proposed

Zhang Juzheng first rectified officials and strengthened a centralized system. Zhang Juzheng created the "Certificate of Success", strictly inspected officials at all levels to implement the imperial court order, required regular reports to the cabinet on local affairs, enhanced cabinet power, and dismissed obstinate officials who were conservative and opposed to change, and selected and promoted new forces supporting the reform. Prepared for the implementation of the new law. He also rectified postal and political affairs. His policies are: "Respect for sovereignty, clerkship, reward and punishment, No. 1 order" and "Strong office, Du private door."

Zhang Juzheng asked Shuxing to propose a well-known examination method in the internal affairs. The policy is "respect for sovereignty, clerkship, reward and punishment, order one". Lay off redundant officials and staff in government agencies, and rectify postal and political affairs. In the end, Ming Shenzong approved the request.

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There are two in the playbook:

The Sixth Department and the Metropolitan Government have set deadlines for their officials to do, and have registered them in three books, one of which is kept by the Sixth Department and the Metropolitan Institute as the bottom book, the other is sent to the six divisions, and the last one is presented to the cabinet.

The Six Departments and the Procuratorate are registered according to the books, and they are inspected monthly. Regarding the affairs undertaken by the affiliated officials, each completed one must be logged out, otherwise they must be truthfully declared, otherwise they will be punished for violation of crimes. Six Divisions can also register according to the account book, requiring six departments to report the implementation of the situation every six months. In the end, the Cabinet also registered in accordance with the books of accounts to verify the audit work of the Six Divisions.

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Zhang Juzheng's Military Reforms: Appointing Qi Jiguang

In order to prevent Mongolia from breaking into the Koubian Pass, Zhang Juzheng sent Qi Jiguang to guard the Jimen Gate, Li Chengliang Town, and Liaodong. He also added more than 3,000 "enemy stations" on the Great Wall from Shanhaiguan Customs in the east and Juyongguan in the west.

He also conducted tea-horse trade with Tiida Khan and adopted a peace policy. Since then, the frontier defense of the north has been further consolidated. In the two or three decades, there was no major war between the Ming Dynasty and the puppets, which temporarily saved the north from the destruction of the war, and agricultural production has developed. In the 7th year of Wanli (1579), Zhang Juzheng again used Kudakhan as an intermediary, and on behalf of the Ming Dynasty, he established a good relationship with the tributary of Tibet, Dalai III, the leader of the Yellow religion in Tibet.

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In Guangdong, Yin Zhengmao and Ling Yunyi successively served as governors of the two Guangxi armaments. They led the army to destroy the rebellions such as Lan Yiqing and Lai Yuanjue of Huizhou Prefecture of Guangdong, Lin Daogan, Lin Feng, Zhu Liangbao of Chaozhou Prefecture, and Li Mao of Qiongzhou Prefecture. The numerator, Ling table is set. This has played a positive role in stabilizing people's lives and ensuring normal production. Zhang Juzheng also set up a partition in the southeast coastal area, repaired warships, and strictly applied for a sea ban. In the early years of Wanli during his administration, he basically cleared the frontiers of the "southern and northern prisoners" that had troubled the Ming court for many years.

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Zhang Juzheng's Economic Measures for Reform: Implementing a Whip Method to Solve Problems

A whip

Rectifying the system of enlistment and reversing the financial crisis is the focus of Zhang Juzheng's reform. He believes that the unevenness of taxes and the arrears are the result of the hidden and unrealistic land. Therefore, to resolve the financial difficulties, the first prerequisite is to survey various types of land. Then in November of August, Wanli ordered an inventory of the country's land. On the basis of the land inventory, Zhang Ju was implementing the "One Whip Law" in the Wanli Nine Years (1581) order. This is another major reform in the history of taxation in China since the implementation of the "two tax laws" in the Tang Dynasty . It has improved the country's financial situation, promoted the development of the Ming Dynasty's commodity economy, and helped promote the emergence of capitalism.

The "one whip law", also known as the "article law", has the following main contents: the uniform service law, and partly "shares the land". The original Lijia, Junyi, Mifan, and other items were merged into one, and there is no longer a distinction between silver difference and force service, and silver will be collected. Ordinary civilians no longer perform military service in person. For military service required by the government, it is not good to pay for employment. The service silver collected from the people is no longer collected according to households and small houses in the past, but according to the number of small houses and acres, that is, part of the small pool is collected into the land, which is the so-called "shared small houses"; Tianfu and other earth-leaf cubes are all levied silver; counted counties are counted as counties; levied silver is directly collected by local officials to reduce various ills.

The implementation of a whip law has epoch-making significance in the historical process of the reform and development of China's enlistment system.

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The implementation of the "one whip law" has significantly increased the revenue of the Ming government, and the financial and economic conditions have also improved a lot. The state treasury has more than 13 million stones, which can be used for five or six years, which is a great improvement compared to the situation where the national grain is not enough for one year during the Jiajing period.

Water

In the six years of Wanli (1578), Zhang Juzheng recommended and started to use the former Prime Minister Yu Shi Pan Jimu to govern the Yellow and Huai Rivers, and also to manage the canals. In the river management, Pan Jixuan persevered the principle of "building dyke and bundling sand, attacking sand with water", and soon achieved the expected results. In February of the seventh year of Wanli, the river engineer was completed and the river and the Huai River diverged. Billing is less than 500,000 yuan, saving 240,000 yuan for the Ministry of Industry. More than 800 miles of long dikes meandering between Xuzhou and Huai'an, and the river flows in peace. Therefore, "Tianlu has been exhausted, and the land has been abandoned for decades and converted to mulberry cultivation." The Yellow River is under control, and barges can also go directly to Beijing.

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The end of Zhang Juzheng's reform: all new laws were abolished after Zhang Juzheng's death

After this reform, the centralized feudal state machine has been strengthened, and the "law must be implemented" and the "word must be effective" have been achieved, which has significantly increased the fiscal revenue of the Ming government, and restored social and economic benefits. During the development, the state treasury accumulated as much as six or seven million yuan, and there were more than 13 million stones in grain reserves, enough for ten years. Compared with the situation where the national grain inventory was not enough for one year during the Jiajing Year, it was a great improvement. Turned the very corrupt Ming Dynasty politics.

But the reforms inevitably touched the interests of a considerable number of bureaucrats, gentry, and vested interests, so they naturally encountered strong opposition from conservatives. Moreover, the historical accumulation is too deep and too stubborn. In the tenth year of Wanli (1582), Zhang Ju was overworked, died quickly, and the opposition immediately rallied and attacked. Furiously counterattack. They attacked Zhang Juzheng's reforms to be "troublesome", to clear the land was to "increased taxes and harmed the people", and to implement the "one whip law" was a mess of the "ancestor system." They ordered the rebellion and title of Tejia when Zhang Juzheng died, and the family property be seized.

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Zhang Juzheng's eldest son Zhang Jingxiu was forced to commit suicide, and other family members were also persecuted. Zhang Juzheng's reform measures were, of course, also undermined, and the Ming Dynasty politics, which had just turned around a bit, have gone downhill again.

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Decryption: How to evaluate the reform of Wan Jushou Zhang Juzheng?

Zhang Juzheng 's comprehensive reform was designed to solve various problems left over from the development of the Ming Dynasty over two hundred years in order to consolidate the Ming Dynasty's power. To save the crisis of Ming Dynasty rule, he carried out military, political, economic and other rectifications, especially focusing on economic reforms, in an attempt to reverse the situation of political corruption, lax border protection, and depletion of the poor and the poor since Jiajing and Longqing.

It played a huge positive role. The state's fiscal revenue increased, and the border was peaceful. At the beginning of the Wanli period, the Ming Dynasty had a "ZTE" scene. Although after Zhang Juzheng's death, some reform measures were destroyed, such as the examination of the law, but other reform measures, such as the "one whip law", were more or less maintained, and even continued to the Qing Dynasty (" Qing Dynasty " booth "Ding Rumu" reform is a continuation of the "one whip law" reform).

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However, in order to ensure the implementation of the reform, Zhang Ju is constantly cracking down on dissidents. Moreover, in order to maintain the dominance of Cheng Zhuxue, even ordered the demolition of academies across the country, and banned the spread of Wang Yangming's " mindology ", which led to the opposition to feudal etiquette and morality in the late Ming dynasty. The time when the feudal system was overthrown in China.

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Conclusion

Zhang Juzheng's comprehensive reform was designed to solve various problems left over from the development of the Ming Dynasty over two hundred years in order to consolidate the Ming Dynasty's power. To save the crisis of Ming Dynasty rule, he carried out military, political, economic and other rectifications, especially focusing on economic reforms, in an attempt to reverse the situation of political corruption, lax border protection, and depletion of the poor and the poor since Jiajing and Longqing. It played a huge positive role. The state's fiscal revenue increased, and the border was peaceful. At the beginning of the Wanli period, the Ming Dynasty had a "ZTE" scene.

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