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Zheng He went to the west

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Zheng He's voyage to the west was the largest voyage in ancient China, with the largest number of ships (more than 240 ships), the largest number of seafarers, and the longest voyage. It was several decades earlier than the European countries, and it was a direct reflection of the prosperity of the Ming Dynasty . Zheng He ’s voyage far surpassed the navigators in Portugal, Spain and other countries nearly a century later, such as Magellan, Columbus , Da Gamma and others. They are the pioneers of the “Great Sailing Era” and the only Oriental. It put forward the theory of sea power five hundred years earlier than Ma Han, and it is said that Zheng He first discovered the Americas, Australia, and Antarctica. Zheng He 's purpose of going to the west is divergent , one is to preach Daming Wade, "Historical History of Ming Dynasty · Zheng He Biography" records: "and want to shine soldiers in another country, showing China's prosperity and strength"; "The ancestor suspected that Emperor Chenghui had died overseas and wanted to find traces"; when it comes to the development of trade to ease fiscal expenditures, there are historical sources that Zheng He went to the west to make the poor "rich" and "adequate for state use"; there is also a copy of Timur The empire, mopping up Zhang Shicheng's former ministry, and solving the problem of military demobilization.

Zheng He went to the west

Zheng He's voyages to the West-historically

Zheng He goes to the Western Ocean

Zheng He Introduction:

Zheng He (1371 in the four years of Ming Hongwu—1433 in the eighth year of Xuande), Hui nationality. Chinese Ming Dynasty navigator, diplomat, martial artist.

Zheng He, whose surname is Ma, with small print and three guarantees, is a native of Zhidai Village, Baoshan Township, Kunyang, Yunnan (now Kunyang Township, Jinning).

The ancestor of Zheng He VI, SayyidAjjalShamsal-DinOmar, was a color aristocrat from Central Asia at the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty. He was a descendant of King Mohammed of Bukhara. The great-grandfather Bayan served as Zhongzhang Pingzhang in the eleventh year of Yuan Dade (1307), great-grandmother Ma, grandfather Mi's Naha, and grandmother Wen's. His father Maha (formerly known as Mirikin) blocked Dianyanghou and his mother was Wen. The tribe call themselves Xianyang family. Mi Lijin gave birth to Ma Sanbao and attacked Dianyanghou. The surname Ma is a Chinese word for Arabic "Mahmud".

Zheng He was born in the four years of Ming Hongwu (1371). In the winter of the 13th year of Hongwu's thirteenth year, the Ming army attacked Yunnan. Ma Sanbao was 10 years old. He was taken into Ming camp, castrated as eunuch , and then entered Zhu Xi 's Yan Wang Mansion. In the difficult changes of Jing Jing, Ma Sanbao made his martial arts for King Yan Yan of Zhu Xi in Zhengzhou (now Ren Qiubei, Hebei, not Zhengzhou, Henan). In the second year of Yongle (1404), Ming Chengzu Zhu Xi believed that the surname Ma could not be listed in the Three Treasure Hall, so he gave Ma Sanbao the Zheng surname in the "Zheng" word in Nanjing Royal Book, and renamed it He was the eunuch, the official to the fourth grade. Second only to Secretary Li Jian. Six years of Xuande (1431) admired Zheng He as the eunuch of Sanbao.

In the eighth year of Xuande (1433), Zheng He died in Guri on the west coast of India in April; he was buried in Nanjing Niushou Mountain.

Zheng He takes the eldest son Ma Wenming as his concubine, with the name Zheng Wenming, the word Enlai, and hereditary Jinyi thousands of households, living in Mafu, Sanshan Street (now Mafu Street) in Nanjing. Zheng He's descendants have been passed down for 21 generations.

Information of eunuch Zheng He went west:

Ming Chengzu won the throne from his nephew by force, and one thing always made him unreliable. After the fire in the palace was extinguished, the body of Emperor Jianwen was not found. At that time, was Emperor Jianwen really dead? There are many legends in the capital. Some say that Emperor Jianwen did not commit suicide. When the palace was in chaos, he took a few eunuchs and escaped from the tunnel; The news from the place was even more bizarre, saying that where did Emperor Jianwen go, and later he became a monk, speaking with nose and eyes, making Ming Chengzu have to doubt. He thought that if Emperor Jianwen really didn't die, wouldn't it be terrible if he re-convened people and horses in another place and crusade him in the name of the court. In order to find out the matter, he sent his henchmen to go to various places to secretly inquire about the whereabouts of Emperor Jianwen, but it was not easy to make a public announcement, so he used an excuse to ask for a god. This search took 20 to 30 years.

Ming Chengzu thought, would Jianwen Emperor go overseas? At that time, China's maritime industry had begun to develop. Ming Chengzu thought that sending someone overseas to promote Guowei, doing business with foreigners, purchasing some jewellery, and inquiring about the whereabouts of Emperor Jianwen, wouldn't it do both things.

In this way, he decided to send a team abroad. Who should bring this team? Of course it must be his own confidant. He thought of Zheng He, an eunuch who had been with him for many years, but was a good candidate.

In June 1405, Ming Chengzu officially sent Zheng He as a messenger and led a fleet to "Western Oceans". At that time, people called the "Western Ocean" not to refer to the European continent, but to the sea west of the South China Sea and the coastal areas. Zheng He's fleet of more than 27,800 people, in addition to soldiers and sailors, there are technicians, translators, doctors and so on. They rode sixty-two large ships. The captain was forty-four feet long and eighteen feet wide, which was rare at the time. The fleet started from Suzhou Liujiahe (now Taicang Liuhe, Jiangsu), passed the coast of Fujian, and was sailing southward.

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Zheng He sailed to the West

The purpose of Zheng He's voyages to the West: Zheng He (1371-1433), Hui, formerly named Ma Minghe, nicknamed Sambo, and Sanbao again. He is a member of Zhidai Village, Baoshan Township, Kunyang, Yunnan (now Kunyang Street, Jining). Chinese Ming Dynasty navigator, diplomat, eunuch. So what is Zheng He's purpose of going to the west?

Someone explained that Cheng Zu sent Zheng He to the West in search of Emperor Jianwen. I personally think this is very funny. Is this method feasible? It is so large overseas. If Jianwen really ran overseas, can Zheng He and the leaders of other countries just exchange it?

And if Chengzu is really worried about Emperor Jianwen, then he should be more worried about whether Jianwen is at home (if he is abroad, it will not be the atmosphere), and he should check from home to home. He should conduct seven national censuses. More importantly, there were a total of seven voyages to the Western Ocean, the seventh of which was initiated by his son. His grandson also prepared the eighth (but stopped because of an official's stubbing).

Therefore, going to the west is just a folk saying.

Ming Chengzu once wrote a scripture for Western nations. This scripture has the following words: " Thou destiny, the world of the monarch, the heart of one God, Shi Enbude . Within the coverage, the sun and the moon shine, frost dew. Wherever they live, their people, young and old, want to make it their business and not be lost. " In this passage, the sky is so big, I do n’t want people under the sky to be lost. Why? I am destined, I am the Son of Heaven, and I let them live a good life without letting them be the first.

"Today he dispatched Zheng Hezhen, Pu'eryi." Today, I specially dispatched Zheng He to the world to tell you my thoughts and my intentions. "He and so on follow the way of the heaven, abide by the words, and follow the courtesy, and don't violate, don't bully, don't bully, and share the good of peace." What do you mean? It is said that you must all abide by the Tao of Heaven. You must not bully others because you have a lot of people. You are not allowed to bully the weak. Everyone must share the blessing of peace. This ideal is very good. This is an idea of Zhu Xi , so now I send Zheng He to you to tell me this intention. This ideal is Ming Chengzu Zhu Xi's vision of world order. That is, his world view, his ideal world order. I renamed it "the ritual system of the heavenly dynasty" and promoted the ideal of world order to the whole world. This order is "the ritual system of the dynasty of the dynasty", that is, the nations in the world cannot be weak and cannot be deceived. Sharing such a harmonious world of peace, this is Zhu Xi's ultimate ideal. Where does this ideal come from? Originating from the traditional Chinese Confucian outlook on the world, China ’s Confucian outlook on the world promotes: Heavenly Son is ruled by Heaven in China. No matter how near or far away, everyone is equal and cannot be bullied or bullied.

Therefore, Zhu Xi hoped that through Zheng He, he would promote his ideal of world order, establish a system of court rituals, and finally realize the sharing of peace. Therefore, Zheng He ’s army did not invade others ’land, did not plunder others’ population, and did not snatch others ’property. On the contrary, China's policy at that time was called "thick exchanges." What is "thick exchanges?" Just when I go to you, I bring a lot of things, a lot of things to you. "Bo Lai", I took less from you, rarely, thick and thin, this idea was proposed by Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang , Ming Chengzu Zhu Xi still insisted on this idea, so Zheng He went to every place There are plenty of rewards to be given to the local area. Since adopting such a policy, what purpose has he achieved? The purpose was first of all to have many countries. Following Zheng He's envoy, they came to visit the Ming Dynasty . At that time, it was called "tribute". We called it "tribute trade", that is, the tribute was established between the Ming Dynasty and many countries. Trade relations, in traditional words, are called: "Weideya quilt, Quartet guest service." There was power and virtue, because China was powerful at that time, and economic power was also strong at that time. For the power and integrity of the country and the Quartet, the Ming Dynasty China enjoyed a very high position in the world. "History of the Ming Dynasty" said: "to its quarter year", referring to Ming Chengzu's later years, "Weideya quilt, the Quartet guest service, the tribute to the tribute to thirty countries", that is, more than 30 countries have come to pay tribute, "The breadth of the country is far from Han and Tang dynasties." That is, its scope is much wider than that of the Han and Tang dynasties . "Successful martial arts, outstanding and prosperous" are really prosperous.

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Significance of Zheng He's Voyages in the Ming Dynasty

Significance of Zheng He's voyages to the West: Zheng He (1371-1433), Hui, formerly named Ma Minghe, nicknamed Sanbao, and Sanbao again. He is a member of Zhidai Village, Baoshan Township, Kunyang, Yunnan (now Kunyang Street, Jining). Chinese Ming Dynasty navigator, diplomat, eunuch. So what is the significance of Zheng He's voyages to the west?

Zheng He's great pioneering work in the west has great historical significance and far-reaching influence. It is not only the glory of the Chinese, but also the pride of all mankind.

Zheng He's voyages to the west pushed China's ancient maritime undertakings to the top and became a pioneer in the world's great maritime era in the 15th and 16th centuries. Zheng He's voyage to the west is an early, large-scale, advanced technology, and wide-ranging intercontinental voyage in the history of ancient world voyages. It was 87 years before Columbus 's voyage to the American continent, and Bida Gamma bypassed the Cape of Good Hope to reach India. It was 92 years earlier, 114 years before Magellan's sailing around the world. Zheng He's technology and navigation knowledge in ship construction, astronomical navigation, terrestrial navigation, monsoon application, and maritime meteorological prediction during the voyages to the west were at the world's leading position. Zheng He's voyage to the west was not only the pinnacle of ancient Chinese navigation, but also a milestone in the development of the world's navigation industry.

Zheng He went to the west to promote the expansion of overseas trade and promoted economic exchanges and development between China and foreign countries. During Zheng He's voyages to the West, he carried out bilateral trade with the local area through various forms, equality, mutual benefit, and mutual exchange. He shipped Chinese silk, porcelain, tea, lacquerware, musk, metal products, and books to foreign countries in exchange for local spices, A variety of goods such as medicinal materials, plants and animals, jewelry and raw materials for the production of porcelain. This trade activity has promoted the economic development of China and these countries.

Zheng He went to the west to spread Chinese civilization and promoted the two-way exchange and common progress of Chinese and foreign cultures. The Chinese nation has a long history and has created a brilliant ancient civilization. Zheng He went to the west to spread Chinese civilization such as science and culture, rules and regulations, cultural and educational etiquette, religion and art to overseas. He brought China's superb technology in the fields of architecture, painting, sculpture, clothing, medicine and other areas to Asian and African countries and taught it to local people. Well-drilling, road-building, fishing techniques, promotion of agricultural technologies and crop cultivation methods, implementation of currency, calendar, weights and measures. At the same time, the civilization achievements of Asian and African countries have also been introduced to China. Zheng He went to the West seven times, and wrote a brilliant chapter in the history of Chinese and foreign cultural exchanges.

Zheng He went to the west, promoted kindness, good neighbors, and consolidated and developed friendly relations between China and Asian and African countries. China in the mid- Ming Dynasty was a powerful country with comprehensive strength at the forefront of the world. However, the Chinese did not bully and bully. Zheng He's voyages to the west were recognized as a peaceful journey in the world. For 28 years, Zheng He's fleet has always pursued the foreign policy of “sharing the peace” and developed friendly relations with other countries. A bridge of friendship has been set up between countries, which has further established China's image of peace and friendship.

Zheng He's voyages to the west demonstrated the heroic spirit of the Chinese nation, who is not afraid of danger, forges forward, and is open-minded and broad-minded, and has left us with precious spiritual wealth. 600 years ago, facing the vast and immense oceans that human beings didn't know much, facing the long-distance voyages and various unimaginable difficulties, Zheng He and his fleet did not shrink back, and they went forward with fearless heroism. Perseverance, following the ever-expanding land exchanges between the Han, Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties and people of other countries around the world, has opened up a new era for the Chinese nation from the sea to the world, and raised Sino-foreign exchanges to a new level.

Zheng He's voyages to the west have carried forward the scientific spirit of the Chinese nation that values the ocean and explores the ocean, and has provided important inspiration for the revitalization of China's ocean cause. China is a country with both land and sea areas. The Chinese nation has made unremitting efforts to explore the mysteries of the sea and develop the marine cause. Zheng He's voyages to the west are a vivid portrayal of the Chinese nation's courage to explore the ocean and manage the ocean for thousands of years, inspiring us to continuously increase our awareness of the ocean and redouble our efforts to rejuvenate China's ocean cause.

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Zheng He's voyages to the West

Significance of Zheng He's voyages to the West: Zheng He (1371-1433), Hui, formerly named Ma Minghe, nicknamed Sanbao, and Sanbao again. He is a member of Zhidai Village, Baoshan Township, Kunyang, Yunnan (now Kunyang Street, Jining). Chinese Ming Dynasty navigator, diplomat, eunuch. So where do Zheng He go to the west?

Zheng He sailed the Western Ocean seven times.

1.Western Region

The western region in the narrow sense refers to the west of Yumen Pass and Yangguan. The green onions are east of the present Pamir Plateau, east and south of Lake Balkhash, and the vast area of Xinjiang. The western region in the broad sense refers to all regions that can be reached through the narrow western region, including the regions of central and western Asia and the peninsula of India.

2.Occupy Kingdom

Also known as Champa, the name of an ancient country, is located in central and southern Vietnam today. It was once called Lin Yi and King of the Rings in Chinese historical records. Locally rich rice, called "Zhancheng rice", is one of the rice varieties, introduced to China in the Song Dynasty; after Zheng He's voyages to the west, Zhancheng rice was introduced and popularized in the Yangtze River, Pearl River, and Minjiang River basins in China. The area of Changle in Fuzhou, Fujian Province, called this rice "Zhangu" or "Huangzhan". Until 30 years ago, it was an excellent variety of local high-stalk late rice.

3. Java

It is also known as the State of Makou Ruobaxie, in JavaIsland, now Indonesia. Historical books since the Tang Dynasty have called their land "Fuling" and "po". The island faces the Java Sea to the north and the Indian Ocean to the south. It covers an area of 126,000 square kilometers and has a population of nearly 100 million. It is the most densely populated and most economically developed area in Indonesia. The main cities are Jakarta (the capital), Bandung, Semarang, and Surabaya (Su La Carta). Surabaya is a settlement of Chinese Changle people.

4.Three Buddha Qi Kingdom

That is, the death of Sri Lanka, the transliteration of Sanskrit Srivijaya, the ancient country on today's Sumatra island in Indonesia, was about today's Palembang (Balenbang), located on the banks of the Musi River in southeast Sumatra.

5.Siam

The old name of Thailand is located in the central part of Southeast Asia. In the middle of the 14th century, it was formed by the merging of Siam and Luoguo, facing the Gulf of Siam to the south. The current capital is Bangkok, and the number of overseas Chinese and ethnic Chinese in Thailand ranks first in South Asia.

6.South Tianzhu

Tianzhu is another name for ancient India, and ancient books are also called Tianzhu as poison. Tianzhu is divided into north, middle and south. South Tianzhu refers to the southern part of the Indian Peninsula.

7.Ceylon Hill Country

Also known as Ceylan, or Lion State, Sri Lanka is now known as the southern island nation of Asia. It faces the southeast of India across the Pauk Strait, covering an area of 65,000 square kilometers. It is one of the ancient Buddhist countries. The main ethnic group is Sinhalese and Tamil. The capital, Colombo, is located southwest of the island.

8, Guri

Also known as "Gurri Buddha", the place is about Koxhikode in Kerala, southwestern part of the current Indian Peninsula. In the 5th year of Ming Yongle (1407), Zheng He visited here and made a monument to mark the second time he went to the west.

Kochi State

It is also translated as "National Ching". It is located in the area of Cochin in southwestern India today, and is a major channel and an important port. At the beginning of the 15th century, China had friendly relations with China.

10.Humulus

That is, Hormuz, also translated as Harmuz, is located near Minab in southeast Iran today, near the Hormuz Strait, and the site is on the northern shore of Hormuz Island. It is the exit of the Persian Gulf. It is the key point of ancient transportation and trade, and is replaced by the port of Abbas on the other side.

11, wooden bones are bundled

Mogadiscio is the capital of the Republic of Somalia known as the Horn of Africa. It is located in southeast Somalia and borders the Indian Ocean. An ancient city was built before the 13th century. Zheng He visited the West twice.

12, Nanjing Longjiang

The "Longjiang Shipyard" was set up here in the early Ming Dynasty. The site is in the area of Zhongbao Village near the Sanyu River in Xiaguan, Nanjing. The waterway was formerly known as the Longjiang River, and the Longjiang River passes through the Yangtze River. The shipbuilding dock is called "boat production", and the site still exists, like a huge pond. A large rudder bar was unearthed here in 1957. It is 1107 meters long and is now in the collection of the Chinese History Museum. The length of this rudder bar is a testament to the scale of the Zheng He treasure ship. According to the "Longjiang Shipyard's Chronicle", in 1411 (nine years of Yongle), the shipyard "rebuilt and built 247 ships to prepare Western countries." The original Tianfei Palace on the shore of Longjiang River has been stricken.

13, Changle Nanshan

It is named because it is located south of the county government of Changle County, Fujian Province. Today, the streets of Changle County surround this mountain. It is only about forty meters above sea level. It is also called ascending the mountain. The mountain has three peaks, namely Lanjing, Xiangjie, and Shilin. Therefore, it is also called Sanfeng Mountain. The small mountain peak is also known as Sanfeng Mountain. There is a tower on the mountain called Sanfeng Pagoda (Shengshou Pagoda); there is a temple called Sanfeng Temple or Sanfeng Pagoda Temple; there is a "Tianfeixing Palace" next to the temple, worshipping Matsu , The monument is set up inside this palace; beside the palace, there is a "San Qing Bao Hall" built by Zheng He. Inside the hall, "the bell and drums are used for ceremonies, and they are incomparable." The bell is "Zheng He Bronze Bell." The original was moved to Nanping during the Anti-Japanese War. . The above temples, palaces, and halls have all been crippled. In 1935, the Zheng He Historical Relics Exhibition Hall was built on the site of the original temple, palace, and temple. The monument of the "Tian Fei Ling Ying Zhi" is the main museum's main cultural relic. Nanshan (Sanfeng Mountain) was designated as "Zhenghe Park" in the same year. .

14, Port

Refers to Changle Taiping Port through Minjiang River. Located in the west and north of the western foothills of the Nanshan Mountain in Changle County, the narrow sense refers to the waters of the Xiadong River near the Wuhangtou of Changle County; in a broad sense, it refers to the entire Xiadong River waters. The original river surface was wide and the water depth could be moored by giant boats. It is said that the jade is thousands of miles away, and there are thousands of waves of broken gold every month "; the northeast and southeast of the port are the first stone and the mountains of Liuping, which can block typhoon attacks and provide a good harbor for the wind. "Changle County Chronicle" and "Changle Liulizhi" are all contained; the three treasure eunuch Zheng Hetong goes to the Western Ocean, the maritime division made the huge ship here, and the name was changed to Taiping Port. Due to the change in Persian, there is only one long and narrow waterway left today, which is connected to a small steam turbine. Most of the original waterway has become a fertile field and part of it has been established as a new residential area. The main road of this residential area is called "Taiping Port" and it is perpendicular to Zhenghe Road. Pick up.

15.Sumatra

Also translated as Samud'ra, Su Wenda, Su Wendana. The place is near the Rocksum Mawei in the north of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. It is the general name of the island. The island faces the Malacca Strait in the north, the Indian Ocean in the south, and the central part of the equator. It is the largest island in western Indonesia with an area of 434,000 square kilometers. Medan.

16, Canada

The old translation is also called Malacca, and the current translation is Malacca. The feudal kingdom on the Malaya Peninsula from the 14th to 16th centuries is located in today's Malaysia and Malacca. It is at the forefront of the Malacca Strait. In 1411 (nine years of Yongle), the king of the country Parmesvara led his wife, minister, and other 540 people to visit China; Zheng He's fleet repeatedly went through it. Currently, half of the residents of Malacca are of Chinese descent, and three-quarters of its residents in Malacca are of Chinese descent. There are ancient monuments such as Sanbao Temple, Sanbaojing, and Sanbao City.

17.Adan

Aden, the name of an ancient country, is now translated as Aden. It is located on the northwestern shore of the current Gulf of Aden. It is the gateway to the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. In ancient times, it was a gem and pearl distribution center. In the early 15th century, it exchanged envoys and trade with China. The city of Aden is located on a prominent small peninsula in the Gulf of Aden. The capital of the Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen). In May 1990, North and South Yemen merged into the Republic of Yemen, and Aden became the country's "economic capital."

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Slander: Zheng He's voyages to the west have not affected Daming's national movement and development

Zheng He , born in 1371 AD in Kunyang, Yunnan (now Jinning County, Kunming, Yunnan), is a Muslim family of the Islamic religion. The original name was Ma He, and the small print Sanbao (later also known as Sanbao). He was captured in the palace at the age of 11, and later became a palace Zhu Yuanzhang's fourth son Yan Wang Zhu Xi 's attendant. When Zhu Xi ascended the throne, remembering that he had the courage and conspiracy , and repeatedly made great achievements, he gave the surname "Zheng", renamed Zheng He, and was promoted to eunuch of the palace. Zheng He led a huge fleet to the Western Ocean for the first time in three years (July 11, 1405 AD). During the long 28 years, Zheng He's fleet has gone through more than 30 countries in Asia and Africa, covering more than 100,000 miles, established political, economic, and cultural ties with other countries, and completed seven great historical feats in the West.

After Ming Chengzu Zhu Xi took office, he strengthened centralization politically, eliminated the powers of the kings, enriched military strength, opened up and consolidated borders, and maintained national stability; economically, restored and developed agriculture, planted industry and commerce, and made preliminary economic prosperity during the Hongwu period. Prospered during Yongle years. Strong political and economic forces laid the foundation for the Ming Dynasty to develop foreign activities.

After Zhu Xi launched the " Battle for Jingjing " and seized the throne from his nephew Zhu Yunzhang , he never found Emperor Jianwen Zhu Yunzhang. This is naturally the most uneasy thing in Zhu Xi's opinion. Zhu Xi suspected that he had fled overseas for asylum, fearing that he would pose a threat to himself in the future, so he sent Zheng He to the west to secretly investigate the trace of Emperor Jianwen to prevent future troubles. Another point is that in the middle and late Hongwu period, many countries in Southeast Asia did not pay tribute to the Ming Dynasty on schedule. This made Zhu Xi feel that the sovereignty of the dynasty was being lost, and some regional leaders even hindered and disrupted the official maritime trade between China and the people. . This is unbearable for Zhu Xi. Therefore, an ambitious plan appeared in Zhu Xi's mind, that is, sending envoys to open sea passages, rebuild the majesty of the dynasty, and restore and expand foreign relations. Zhu Xi's idea was supported by Zheng He and others, so he sent Zheng He and Minister Wang Jinghong to envoy to the West. The so-called "Western Ocean" refers to today's South and Indian Oceans.

The shipbuilding industry has a long history in China, and shipbuilding technology has taken the lead in the world for a long historical period. In the Western Zhou Dynasty, people built ships to reach Japan. During the Qin and Han dynasties, the fleet was more capable of sailing to countries such as Java, Cambodia, India and Sri Lanka. In the Tang Dynasty, large ships built in China could take six or seven hundred people. In the Song and Yuan dynasties, the hulls were enlarged, and they could take nearly a thousand people. Thanks to the use of the compass, people can also sail safely and reliably on the vast sea. If it was said that before the Tang Dynasty, Chinese people often used foreign ships to go to Western countries. Then, in the Tang Dynasty, especially after the Song Dynasty, foreign merchants switched to Chinese ships to travel to other parts of the Western Ocean, such as the Persian Gulf. The long-established shipbuilding industry and advanced shipbuilding and navigation technology, coupled with the strong national strength at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, provided Zheng He with a large-scale ocean-going fleet for the mission to the west, providing a solid technical condition and material foundation.

From the third year of Yongle (AD 1405) to the eighth year of Xuande (AD 1433), Zheng He led a total of seven voyages. Zheng Heyuan sailed from the Yangtze River estuary, first crossed the Taiwan Strait, passed the South China Sea, to the countries around the South China Sea, then crossed the Malacca Strait into the Indian Ocean, passed Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), west to the west coast of India, and then along the coast to the Persian Gulf. Or cross the Indian Ocean to the Arabian Peninsula, then sail to the south coast, and reach the east coast of Africa at the longest. Zheng He's voyages must pass through the Taiwan Strait and the South China Sea. In addition to the countries surrounding the South China Sea, the fleet has penetrated deeper into the Red Sea, reaching Far East (now Saudi Arabia, Mecca) on the east coast of the Red Sea, and "Malin" on the east coast of Africa ( Today in Kenya's Malindi). In short, the scale of these seven ocean voyages is unprecedented. According to the "History of the Ming Dynasty", Zheng He led a total of more than 27,000 people when he sailed to the West for the first time. Among them, there were decision-makers and commanders in charge of major operational agencies such as navigation, diplomacy, military, and trade, as well as responsible observation. Astronomical, forecasting meteorological, marine operations and maintenance technicians, as well as translators, doctors, procurement, logistics, military escorts, etc., as well as a few secret ambassadors who visited Jianwen Emperor. There are 62 ships with a length of 44 feet and a width of 18 feet, which is unprecedented in scale. The next few voyages have roughly maintained this scale.

Different from Zhu Xiuyao ’s and Wu Yangwei ’s purpose, Zheng He linked the ocean to the prosperity and security of the country. He believes that mastering the power to control the sea is of vital importance to maintaining national security. He once said to the rulers of the Ming Dynasty : "For the country to be prosperous and strong, don't ignore the ocean. The ocean of wealth comes from the ocean. The danger also comes from the ocean ... Once the king of another country wins the South Ocean, China will be in danger." This is Zheng He's life at sea The summary of experience is also the earliest discourse on sea power in the world.

Before Zheng He went to the Western Ocean, the countries in Southeast Asia suspicion and scramble for each other. This directly affects the security of southern China and is not conducive to the stability and development of the Ming Dynasty. Under this situation, Ming Chengzu sent Zheng He to lead the convoy to the west, preaching "Inner China Huaxia, Foreign Minister Shiyi, Treating the Sameness and Sharing Peace", alleviating the contradictions among countries, maintaining the safety of maritime traffic, and improving International Prestige of the Ming Dynasty.

At that time, the security of the Ming Dynasty mainly came from two directions: the Japanese pirates in the east, the remnants of Mengyuan in the north, and the Timurid empire in the northwest. During the period of Zhu Xi, the passive defense strategy of the early Ming Dynasty was changed, and active attack was carried out. The land direction was implemented to move the capital and pro-conquest of Mobei; the sea direction formed the Zheng Hezhou Division to deter and crack down on pirates and anti-Ming forces. Strategic restraint in the direction, thereby reducing the pressure on the northern Ming Dynasty.

While carrying out political diplomacy, Zheng He also had the mission of communicating with the foreign countries' economic and trade relations. Zheng He's fleet's trading activities respect local customs and exchange on an equal footing. China has imported a large number of special products from Asia and Africa, and many countries have contributed many precious animals. The introduction of these items, on the one hand, became a luxury for the royal family, and on the other hand, stimulated the development and prosperity of the handicraft industry and urban economy in the Ming Dynasty.

Due to the influence of the feudal system at the time, Zheng He's voyages to the west also inevitably had many disadvantages. Zheng He's voyages to the West were mainly official trade, and were not effectively combined with folk foreign trade. Zheng Heyuan sailed to the top of the foreign relations of tributes and surveys, "thinking thick and thin," and exchanging a large amount of material wealth for the formal patriarchal relations of overseas countries. As a result, the expenditures were huge and the treasury was a falsehood. When Zheng He ’s maritime career was in full swing, opposition from inside and outside the court began one after another. Later, the car driver Lang Daxia secretly destroyed the file “Zheng He's Mission to the Water Course”, which recorded Zheng He ’s seven voyages to the west and his activities and information. When Ming Xianzong traced the whereabouts of Zheng He's Mission to the Water Course, Liu Daxia pointed out: "The three treasures (referred to as the eunuch Zheng He, the three treasures) went to the west, paid hundreds of thousands of silver and grain, and the military and civilian dead were countless. But what is the benefit of the country? This special malpractice is what the minister should cut. Although the old case exists, it should also be destroyed in order to root it out. How can we investigate whether there is any? "In this regard, Liang Qichao It states: "After Columbus , there are countless Columbuses, after Vigo Dagama, there are countless Vigo Dagamas, and after Zheng He, there is no second Zheng He." This comment It is an incisive portrayal of the lack of systematic management of opening to the outside in the early Ming Dynasty.

The success of Zheng He ’s seven voyages to the west has made China ’s maritime trade with western countries increasingly developed. They have followed Zheng He ’s routes, and the sea that has been silent for decades has begun to become busy again. It has been moved from the northwest of the wind and sand to the blue sea of southeast sea.

Zheng He died on the way back from completing his last mission. His body was carried back by the ship and buried at the foot of Niushou Mountain outside Zhonghuamen, Nanjing. Zheng He not only attracted the attention of the international community for sailing before the Westerners but better than the Westerners. He also represented a cultural spirit, a value trend in which the Chinese were not afraid of danger and conquered nature. The determination to open the country to the world for cultural exchange. The spirit of Zheng He's dedication and service to the country is eternal, it is the precious spiritual wealth of the Chinese nation, and it is worth inheriting and carrying forward to future generations.

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Conclusion

Zheng He's voyages to the west, his advanced ship technology, long voyage, huge impact, large tonnage of ships, a large number of maritime personnel, tight organization and advanced navigation technology, were rare in the world at the time. of. As pointed out earlier, their sailing achievements are obviously not inferior to those of the Westerners. Even sailing time, fleet size, and sailing technology are beyond the reach of Columbus and others.

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