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Significance of the Lugou Bridge Incident
Fun history2013-03-26 09:50:23

Guide: On July 7, 1937, the Japanese military conducted night military exercises near Lugou Bridge. During the exercise, a Japanese soldier "disappeared" and the Japanese army used this excuse to request to enter Wanping City to search and was rejected. Twenty minutes later, the soldier had returned to the team on his own, but the captain of the Japanese army still ordered to attack Wanping City. At this time it was 4:50 in the morning ...

This was the beginning of the " Lugou Bridge Incident ", which later evolved into the eight years of hard struggle of the Chinese people.

After 76 years, we look back at this history. What is the value?

For quite a long time, the focus of general historical theory was to study why this "incidental incident" evolved into a comprehensive and prolonged state of war between China and Japan. Using the cause of "events" to explore the fruits of war, such a short logical structure-a microscope-like investigation, the clearer the "facts" of an event, the more obscure its meaning in the course of history. The "Lugou Bridge Incident" is not the result of a series of antecedents. As a turning factor, it also leads to a series of consequences. This is the legitimate view of history. Therefore, to this day, when we are conditionally based on relatively rich historical facts, we can open up a long enough time and a sufficient space to re-examine this incident in the interaction between China's own modernization process and the global pattern The value of our conclusions is certainly different.

Chiang Kai-shek, who led the National Revolution marked by the Northern Expedition, and his national government need to resolve two major structural contradictions : seeking national unity internally and national equality externally. This is indeed a national problem facing China after the 1911 Revolution . After the success of the Northern Expedition, Chiang Kai-shek's choice was to continue to eliminate the opposite side internally and to temporarily stand by the outside world. That is "first inside, then outside". Historian Guo Tingyi commented on this path: "The steps are self-evident, and they are unwilling."

The so-called "do not allow" is observed in the relationship between China and Japan. After the " September 18th Incident ", the non-resistance, the three eastern provinces were lost, and the historical review of researchers based on "sight behind": There was a difference between the civil service group and the military group. Although the National Government was incapable of fully opposing Japan at that time, it completely resisted and reacted to the Japanese authorities, which made the military group flourish. As a result, the military group was soaring all the way and evolved to the "Lugou Bridge Incident", which completely controlled Japan's political situation. His expansion and aggression made no domestic checks and balances. Between the inside and the outside, there is a slight mistake and a slight imbalance, and the consequences are difficult to clean up.

The "September 18 Incident" and the loss of the three eastern provinces once again show the difficulty of China's modernization transformation. If it is said that China in the late Qing dynasty has not changed for three thousand years, that is, how traditional China moved to a modern country, what is special about it, according to historian Jin Chongji: the most important of all social contradictions in modern China is imperialist And the Chinese nation.

At the time of the modernization transition, the contradiction between China and the modernization-starting country-"China / Powers (Imperialism)"-is one of our core and structural contradictions in understanding the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China , and even contemporary China. Since the beginning of the Opium War, the second Opium War , and the Sino-Japanese War of the Sino-Japanese War of the Sino-Japanese War, were all passive and hastily confronted by the traditional Chinese "tolerance." There are almost no exceptions. Every time confrontation with foreign insults is accompanied by the turmoil of the domestic political structure. The second Opium War, and even two wars (against the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom ) and the outside, resulted in the domestic political structure, and the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, the result showed: "Li Hefei one person against one country." ( Liang Qichao ) The erosion in China is no longer capable of responding to external insults with the power of one country. This is of course sad, but it is a fact and the necessity of the structural contradictions of traditional China.

It is no longer possible to mobilize and organize a country against foreign insults. In 1911, after the 1911 Revolution, how to establish a unified and independent country under the oppression of the major powers was a historic challenge for those in power.

With the success of the Northern Expedition, Chiang Kai-shek and his National Government formally completed the unification of the country. Ten years of the Republic of China, in Shanghai, Nanjing, Beiping and other big cities, there is a little modern weather. This is the so-called "Republic of China" that has recently received widespread attention. However, let's take a closer look at the overall situation of China at that time, and the mood will be completely opposite. In 1928, the Ma Jiajun of Islam in Gansu rebelled against Feng Yuxiang , the two sides carried out massacres, and 200,000 people were killed and injured by the Han and Muslims. In 1930, Feng Yuxiang failed to defeat Chiang. Withdrawing from the northwest, Gansu, Ningxia, and Qinghai became the world of Muslim soldiers. In 1934, Sun Dianying, who had 30,000 troops and was capricious, inspected Ningxia via Suiyuan, and the Hui army resisted it ... Northwest China, and Ningxia day. On the southeast coast, in 1932, there was a battle between Chen Jitang and the Guangdong Sea Fleet in Guangdong, and Han Fuzhen , chairman of the Shandong Provincial Government, and Liu Zhennian, a teacher based in Jiaodong. In the southwest, the warlords separated Sichuan, Liu Wenhui, Liu Xiang , Deng Xihou, and Tian Songyao. Since the Republic of China, there have been more than 480 wars.

China's unification is nothing short of remarkable. Fan Er, the Republic of China, is actually poor. In 1931, Chiang Kai-shek, who was busy making a siege of the Red Army in Jiangxi and responding to the military of Guangdong and Guangxi, encountered the "September 18 Incident". External troubles did not come due to internal disturbances. "If you want to conquer the world, you must first conquer China, if you want to conquer China, you must first conquer Manchuria." —— The historian Xu Zhongyue expounded. However, this concept is getting stronger and stronger. "

In 1931, the Yangtze River, Zhunhe River and the Grand Canal flooded, causing 140,000 people in 10 central provinces to be drowned and 250,000 people displaced. At the same time, China is deeply mired in internal unrest and local conflicts. The Japanese Kwantung Army carefully chose this moment to complete the occupation of Shenyang, and then within a hundred days, completed the occupation of the three eastern provinces. Unlike previous insults, this incident revealed that Japanese militarism is the source of the most serious threat to the survival of the Chinese nation.

As a turning point, the "September 18 Incident" has transformed China's structural internal and external contradictions, and external insults—the challenge to the survival of the Chinese nation have risen to the most important contradiction. "You must first settle in outside", of course, no longer justified. However, although the three eastern provinces are supported by the Japanese, this policy is still in operation and has no further meaning. Therefore, many re-examinations and deductions of the "September 18 Incident", which completely gave up resistance and led to the overall leadership of the Japanese military group, is one of the results.

As far as the logic of Japan's aggression is concerned, six years later, the "Lugou Bridge Incident" broke out, and North China will likely repeat the old path of the three eastern provinces. According to North China, Japan can advance south to East and Central China and occupy Southeast Asia and the Pacific; northward can capture Mongolia and Siberia up to Lake Baikal, which is the majority of the Soviet Union. And this set of strategic logic lies in China. Of course, Chiang Kai-shek is aware of the profound national crisis. At the second talk in Lushan on July 17th of that year, he said: "Our four eastern provinces (then the administrative division was divided into four provinces) have fallen for six years, followed by the Tanggu Agreement , and now conflicts The location has reached the Lugou Bridge at the entrance of Peiping. If Lugou Bridge can be oppressed and occupied by people, then our century-old capital, the center of northern politics and culture, and Peiping, a military center, will become the second in Shenyang! Today's Beiping, if it becomes the former Shenyang, Nanjing must not become Peking! "The Chinese nation has reached the most critical moment!

But can China, which is so rotten inside, mobilize the whole country to resist Japanese invaders? In 1937, the country came to a critical moment when it must respond to this challenge. The Lushan Conference in response to this crisis issued a clear and loud voice: "If the war begins, there is no division between the North and the South, and the age and the young. No matter who has the responsibility of defending the soil and fighting against Japan, all should hold on to their sacrifice. Determination of everything. "One month later, Chiang Kai-shek agreed to the Red Army's reorganization as the Eighth Route Army of the National Revolutionary Army .

We have opened up the distance, dating back to 1840. Since the Opium War, nearly 100 years later, China ’s history has opened up a new face-after the "Lugou Bridge Incident", the overall passive situation of this country has changed. . "We want peace without seeking peace; we are prepared to fight, but we will never fight ... in the event that the inevitable final point is reached, of course we only have to sacrifice and only fight against Japan!" Of course, this cannot be calculated by the comparison of strength. As a result, this is a necessary choice for a nation at the last minute. History has its own logic. The establishment of a unified and independent China, that is, the success of the Chinese nationalist revolution, needs to defeat Japanese imperialism, and it is necessary to experience the complex pattern of a new world war and eventually defeat Japan before China can start a The road to the creation of a powerful nation state.

The "Lugou Bridge Incident" and the eight years of the Anti-Japanese War that began in this way are the only way for traditional China to turn into a modern nation-state. But when viewed in a wider space, its value does not stop there.

Changing the tolerance and retreat of the past, and stubbornly fighting against Japanese imperialism, so it is not China itself that is affected. In early 1938, Stalin confessed to the visiting Sun Ke : "I know that China is fighting not only for itself but also for the Soviet Union; the ultimate purpose of the Japanese is to occupy the entire Siberia up to Lake Baikal." Later, the Japanese Kanto Army unauthorized Tens of thousands of troops were sent to fight against the Soviets at Nomenkan on the China-Mongolia border, and two successive offensives were unsuccessful. This means that when the Japanese army's troop strength was trapped in the Chinese battlefield, it could not cooperate with the East and West of Germany to attack the Soviet Union, resulting in the East and West and the Sith countries doing their own things without strategic cooperation. In May 1938, the British ambassador to China Carl said in a message: "We cannot avoid the fact that, to a certain extent, China is fighting for themselves and for us, because only the failure of the Japanese can take us away from "We are rescued from the disaster that endangered our status in the Far East." At the same time, British Foreign Minister Halifax said in a memo: "China is fighting for all law-abiding countries."

China's choice, the struggle of a weak country, and the braveness of its own historical destiny have changed the global pattern. Of course, China has a clear understanding of the role of Japanese imperialism at the "final challenge": "(China's Anti-Japanese War) does not solely seek the liberation of nations, nor the integrity of territorial sovereignty. It is safe to fight. "Against China ’s resistance to the war, US Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau asserted:" Joint the Soviet Union and form the China-Soviet, US-British-Japanese United Front. "At this time, Yanel, commander of the US Asian Fleet The report sent back by the Admiral said: "It's just because ... the Chinese Anti-Japanese War blocked the Japanese Legion."

Three years after the start of China's comprehensive anti-Japanese war, Britain conducted a British defense war; four years later, the Soviet Union began the Patriotic War; four and a half years later, the United States joined the anti-fascist war. The aggressive ambitions of Japan, Germany, and Italy's Axis Powers began with Japan's occupation of the three eastern provinces and North China, and eventually formed World War II. This world war has profoundly changed the world structure. The world structure so far is still the "heritage" of World War II. At the same time, China was profoundly changed by this war. Xu Zhongyue commented: "China has jumped from the semi-colonial state before the war to become one of the top five nations and the founding nation of the United Nations through its long-term anti-aggression struggle. In its modern history, China's international prestige has never been as lofty as it is now. "

The new face of China's modernization and its global pattern interaction began in 1937— "determined to sacrifice everything." US President Roosevelt said: "We have not forgotten that the Chinese people are the first in this war. Stand up and fight the invaders. "

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