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How many stages did the Pingjin Campaign go through? How the Battle of Pingjin was carried out
Fun history2014-03-19 14:55:41

How many stages did the Pingjin Campaign go through? The battle of Pingjin was during the liberation war from November 29, 1948 to January 31, 1949. The Northeast Field Army of the Chinese People's Liberation Army and the 2nd and 3rd Corps of the North China Military Region and the First Armed Forces in Beiping (now Beijing), Tianjin, and Zhangjiakou , A strategic decisive battle against the Kuomintang army. It is one of the three decisive battles in the Chinese People's Liberation War.

The first stage

The People's Liberation Army completed the division and siege of the Fu Zuoyi Group, cutting off its path of fleeing from the south to the west. On November 23, 1948, the main forces of the Northeast Field Army began to be dispatched from Jinzhou, Yingkou, Shenyang and other places to advance to the Ping, Jin, Tang, and Tang regions. On the 25th, the 3rd Corps of the North China Military Region moved eastward from Jining area. On the 29th, they attacked the defenders in Zhangjiakou, occupying Chaigoubao, Wanquan, and Shalingzi successively, forming a siege of Zhangjiakou. Fu Zuoyi urgently ordered the 35th Army (because of 1 division) in Peiping and the 258th Division of the 104th Army in Huailai (now Huailai Town) to ride Zhangjiakou overnight by car; it also moved the main force of the 104th Army in Changping to Huailai. The 16th Army of Shexian moved to Nankou and Changpingjian to ensure the connection between Peiping and Zhangjiakou.

In view of the fact that the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China has attracted Fu troops to the west, the 2nd Corps of the North China Military Region was rushed from Yixian, Zijingguan to Zhuolu and Xiahuayuan on December 2 to cut off the relationship between Huailai and Xuanhua; The advance troops of the Northeast Field Army made rapid advance from Jixian to the south exit and Huailai, cut off the connection between Beiping and Huailai, and seized Fu Zuoyi's reinforcements so that they could neither escape west nor withdraw to the east. On the 5th, the main force of the advance corps captured Miyun during the march, annihilating a division of the 13th Army, and the main force made rapid advances to Yanqing and Huailai; the North China Second Corps arrived south of Zhuolu. Feeling that Peiping was threatened, Fu Zuoyi ordered the 35th Army to retreat eastward from Zhangjiakou, ordered the 104th and 16th Army from Huailai, and the southwest to take on the 35th Army; and ordered the 92nd, 62nd, and 94th Army to be the main force The Tianjin and Tang areas headed for Peiping to strengthen their defense.

On December 6, the 35th Army returned by car from Zhangjiakou. On the 7th, west of the new security was blocked by a member of the 4th column of the North China Military Region. On the 9th, the 2nd Corps of the North China Military Region surrounded the 35th Army with new security forces, and repelled the 104th Army that responded westward. On the 10th, the advance troops of the Northeast Field Army annihilated the 16th Army Command Post and 2 divisions at Kangzhuang. On the 11th, the 104th Army Headquarters and 2 divisions were annihilated in Hengling and Baiyangcheng areas. During this period, the 2 Xuanhua garrisons fled north of the city, and the 3rd Corps of the North China Military Region chased down one of its divisions, and surrounded Zhangjiakou on the 8th.

At this time, the six main columns of the Northeast Field Army have been divided from Xifengkou and Lengkou to cross the Great Wall. The strikers reached Jixian, Yutian and Fengrun areas, but there are still a few days away from Ping, Jin, and Tang, and the other 5 columns have not yet entered the customs. On the Huaihai battlefield, the People's Liberation Army is siege the 12th Corps of the Kuomintang Army and surrounds the Du Queming Group fleeing from Xuzhou to the west. Under this circumstance, in order to prevent Chiang Kai-shek from quickly making the decision to let Fu Zuoyi Group abandon peace and Tianjin ’s withdrawal, Mao Zedong reported on December 11 that leaders of Pingjin ’s front line: the basic principle within the current two weeks is to surround and not fight, such as to Zhangjiakou And new security; some are separated but not enclosed, that is, they are only strategically surrounded, separated from the enemy, and not surrounded by combat, such as Peiping, Tianjin, etc., after deployment is completed, each is destroyed; especially Zhangjiakou, Xin The security guards and the enemies of the south exit were eliminated to prevent the enemies of the east of the south exit from making quick decisions. At the same time, after the Huaihai Battlefield People ’s Liberation Army annihilated the 12th Corps of the Kuomintang Army, the remaining Du Duming Group was left behind, and no final annihilation was deployed within two weeks; the Shandong Military Region was concentrated on a number of troops to control the Yellow River near Jinan and on the Jiaoji Line Make advance preparations to prevent Fu Zuoyi Group from escaping from Qingdao to the south of the Jinpu Railway economy.

According to the above instructions, the 2nd and 3rd Corps of the North China Military Region focused on preventing Zhangjiakou and the new security guard from breaking out west or east, respectively, and established multiple blocking positions; each of the North China Military Region and the Inner Mongolia Military Region on December 15 Japan conquered Zhangbei; the 4th column of the Northeast Field Army went to the Zhangjiakou area on the 17th and was under the command of the 3rd Corps of the North China Military Region to strengthen the western front. On December 12, the main force of the Northeast Field Army advanced from Pingjin to Jixian, Yutian, and Baodi. Fu Zuoyi then ordered the defenders in Nankou, Changping, Tongxian, Tangshan, Lutai, etc. to contract to Beiping, Tianjin, and Tanggu, and made the 62nd Army who had just arrived in Peiping return to Tianjin, dividing Beiping, Tianjin, and Tanggu into two Zones are zoned. As of December 20, the 5th, 11th, 3rd, and 4th columns of the Northeast Field Army and the 7th column of the North China Military Region had captured Fengtai, Haidian, Tongxian, Huangcun, and Nanyuan Airfield and completed the siege of Peiping. The 6th, 10th, and 1st columns captured Caiyu Town, Langfang, Matou Town, and other places, which cut off the connection between Ping and Tianjin; the 9th, 8th, and 7th columns occupied Tangshan, Junliangcheng, and Xian respectively Shuigu, Yangcun, Yangliuqing and other places cut off the ties between Tianjin and Tang and formed a siege of Tianjin. The 2nd, 12th and Artillery Columns are making rapid advances from Shanhaiguan and Hangu to Tianjin and Tang areas.

At this point, the People's Liberation Army has divided the Fu Zuoyi Group and surrounded it in Zhangjiakou, Xinbaoan, Peiping, Tianjin, Tanggu and other areas, and annihilated 6 divisions of its 2 military headquarters, closing the road to the west's main escape and southward withdrawal.

second stage

The People's Liberation Army successively annihilated the new security forces, Zhangjiakou, and the Tianjin Kuomintang Army. After the People ’s Liberation Army completed the strategic siege and battle division of the Fu Zuoyi Group, in accordance with Mao Zedong ’s instructions, it adopted two strikes first, followed by the middle battle method, and successively destroyed the surrounded Fu Zuoyi Group.

On the morning of December 22, 1948, the 2nd Corps of the North China Military Region launched a general attack on the new security. After 10 hours of fierce fighting, the 35th Army Headquarters and 2 divisions of the elite army of Fu Zuoyi were wiped out. A total of 7 divisions (brigades) of the 11th Corps of Zhangjiakou broke out northward on the 23rd in an attempt to withdraw from Suiyuan. The 3rd Corps of the North China Military Region and the 4th Column of the Northeast Field Army, were severely blocked by snow and snow, started blocking and chasing, regained Zhangjiakou that night, and annihilated more than 54,000 people in the 11th Corps in the northeast of Zhangjiakou until 16:00 on the 24th.

In view of the new security and the Nationalist Army of Zhangjiakou, the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China has been annihilated. In order to further isolate Beiping, it has shaken Fu Zuoyi's confidence , and has made the Northeast Field Army and North China Military Region 2nd and 3rd Corps tightly surround Peiping and actively prepare for the Northeast Field Army. Capture Tianjin. Tianjin is the largest industrial and commercial city in North China, with a population of 2 million. Its strategic position is very important. The urban area is long and narrow, and the Haihe flows from the northwest to the southeast, surrounded by moats. After long-term fortifications by the Japanese and Kuomintang troops, the fortifications are solid. The KMT Army Tianjin Police Commander Chen Changjie, commanding a total of 130,000 people in 10 divisions of the 62nd and 86th Army and other local forces, claimed to be "Great Tianjin Fortification" in an attempt to resist stubborn resistance.

The Northeast Field Army mobilized the 1st, 2nd, 7th, 8th, 9th and 6th Columns 17th Division, 12th Column 34th Division, 22 infantry divisions and artillery columns, including 340,000 people, to reach Around Tianjin, immediately carried out operations to clear out the peripheral bases and intensive siege preparations. Liu Yalou, chief of staff of the Northeast Field Army, led a lightweight command post near Tianjin unified command. On January 14, 1949, the troops surrounded by the Northeast Field Army in Tianjin launched a total attack on the city wall when the defensive forces refused to surrender, adopting the east-west approach, cutting back, and dividing and then siege. After 29 hours of fierce fighting, By 15:00 on the 15th, more than 130,000 garrison troops were annihilated, Chen Changjie was captured, and Tianjin was liberated.

According to the Kuomintang Army's 17th Corps and 87th Army, which guarded Tanggu, a total of 5 divisions and more than 50,000 people fled south on a boat on January 17. The People's Liberation Army chased more than 3,000 people behind them and liberated Tanggu.

The third stage

Fu Zuoyi led the Ministry to accept the adaptation, and peaceful liberation of Peiping. After the liberation of Tianjin, the Beiping Kuomintang's garrison of 250,000 people was caught in the heavy siege of the People's Liberation Army. In order to protect this ancient city of culture, the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China has decided to continue negotiations and strive for peaceful takeover. At the same time, it also instructed the troops to prepare for a storm.

Since mid-December 1948, the Pingjin Frontline Command of the People's Liberation Army has held many negotiations with the representative sent by Fu Zuoyi on the peaceful settlement of the Pingjin issue. On January 14, 1949, Mao Zedong issued the "Statement on the Current Situation," proposing "eight conditions" for peaceful negotiations with the Nanjing Kuomintang government and any of its local governments and military blocs. On the 16th day of the liberation of Tianjin, on January 16, the Pingjin Frontline Command sent a letter to Fu Zuoyi, urging him to take the initiative and stand by the people. At the same time, the underground organizations of the Communist Party of China, patriotic democrats, and enlightened people of the Fu Department also did powerful work. Fu Zuoyi accepted the conditions proposed by the People's Liberation Army and sent Deputy Chief Commander Deng Baoshan to the People's Liberation Army Pingjin Frontline Command to negotiate on the 21st. An agreement was reached on the peaceful settlement of Peking. On the 22nd, the Beiping garrison began to withdraw from the city and waited to be adapted to the People's Liberation Army. On the 31st, the ancient capital Peiping declared liberation. The peaceful liberation of Peiping was one of the most important military and political developments in the Chinese People's Revolutionary Movement, and it became the first example of implementing the "eight conditions" proposed by Mao Zedong to solve the KMT army.

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