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The Battle of Pingjin
Fun history2014-03-19 15:02:57

Brief Introduction to the Battle of Pingjin : The Pingjin Campaign was the third strategic offensive battle against the Kuomintang troops in Peiping, Tianjin, and Zhangjiakou areas during the Liberation War.

At the end of the Liaoning-Shenzhen Campaign and the Huaihai Campaign was progressing victoriously, from the beginning of December 1948 to January 31, 1949, the Northeast Field Army and the Second and Third Corps of the North China Military Region totaled one million people and jointly launched the Pingjin Campaign. At that time, in addition to the North China Kuomintang ’s Fu Zuoyi Group, which had more than 50,000 people stationed in Suihe Datong, it had more than 500,000 troops. It was located in a narrow strip of about 500 kilometers from Shanhaiguan in Beining Road in the east and Zhangjiakou in Pingsui Road in the west. And take Tanggu as the sea passage entrance.

In this part of the army, there are 17 divisions (brigades) belonging to the Fu Zuoyi system and 25 divisions (brigades) belonging to the Chiang Kai-shek system. Prior to this, Chiang Kai-shek had proposed that Fu lead the ministry to withdraw south to strengthen the Yangtze River defense line. Fu Zuoyi was wary of Chiang Kai-shek's rejection and was unwilling to withdraw. At this time, Fu Zuoyi was shocked by the victory of the People's Liberation Army in the Northeast and became a "bird of surprise", but it is estimated that the Northeast Field Army needs a rest period of 3 months to half a year after the Liaoning-Shenzhen campaign, and it can only enter the battle in the next spring. . According to Fu Zuoyi's policy of temporarily staying in Pingjin, maintaining Haikou, expanding strength, and observing time-varying conditions, he has continuously reduced his troop strength. He has abandoned Chengde, Baoding, Shanhaiguan, Qinhuangdao, and other places in preparation for fleeing south from the sea or Suiyuan westward. If the Fu Zuoyi Group is withdrawn, although the People's Liberation Army can be rehabilitated without a fight, the KMT Yangtze River defense line will be strengthened or more combat forces will be saved, which will be detrimental to future operations. Therefore, stabilizing the enemy forces in North China so that it does not make a rapid decision to flee south or westward has become the key to whether the enemy can be wiped out on the spot.

According to the deployment of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the main force of the Northeast Field Army shortly after the end of the Liaoning-Shenzhen Campaign, from November 23, 1948, it ended its rest ahead of schedule and took shortcuts to cover up its troops. The Northeast Field Army and the 2nd and 3rd Corps of the Chinese Military Region entered the customs with rapid action, and first completed the strategic encirclement of the enemies of Peiping, Tianjin, and Zhangjiakou by "siege without hitting" or "separation without encircling". Separated from the battle, they cut off their path of fleeing south and west, and mobilized the 92nd, 94th, and 105th Army of the Kuomintang army originally stationed in Tianjin and Tanggu to enter Peiping area. The attack was then launched in the order of "hitting two heads first, then taking the middle."

In late December, the new security guard at Zhangxikou, Zhangjiakou. In the new security annihilation of Fu Zuoyi, the main force of the 35th Army, 1,600 people, in Zhangjiakou, the enemy's 11th Corps and the 105th Army more than 54,000 people. On January 10, 1949, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China decided to establish the Pingjin Frontline Front Committee consisting of Lin Biao, Luo Ronghuan, and Nie Rongzhen. When the enemy in the east of Tianjin refused to accept the peaceful adaptation, on January 14, the PLA launched a total attack on Tianjin with a strong force. The Northeast Field Army concentrated 5 columns, 22 divisions, and 340,000 people under the command of Liu Yalou. After 29 hours of fierce fighting, This large city with strong fortifications and heavy defenses was captured. All the 130,000 divisions of the Tianjin Kuomintang's garrison were annihilated, and the Tianjin Police Commander Chen Changjie was captured. After the liberation of Tianjin, Tanggu defended the enemy and fled south.

In order to prevent the world-famous ancient capital of Peiping from being destroyed, the PLA sent representatives to contact Fu Zuoyi after the siege. Due to the strength of the People's Liberation Army and the rapid completion of combat deployment, due to the patience of the CCP and the urging of people from all walks of life, Fu Zuoyi finally resolved to follow the people's will and ordered the Ministry to go out of the city to listen to the adaptation. On January 31, 1949, Fu's movement was completed and the PLA entered Beiping. Beiping declared peaceful liberation.

The battle of Pingjin lasted for 64 days, annihilating and reorganizing more than 520,000 KMT troops, which basically liberated the entire territory of North China. In Suiyuan, a portion of the Kuomintang army was deliberately preserved. After a considerable period of time, led by Dong Qiwu, the electrified uprising in September 1949 was accepted for adaptation. In this way, there are three ways to solve the Kuomintang army in the future: Tianjin, Peiping and Suiyuan.

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