Significance of the Pingjin Campaign: After the end of the Liaoning-Shenzhen Campaign, the entire northeast was liberated. The powerful Northeast Field Army has become a strategic mobile force and can participate in any other battlefield operations at any time. Fu Zuoyi Group of North China is always facing the joint strike of the two Northeast and North China field forces. Therefore, Fu Zuoyi Group is like a bird of shock, and it is impossible to stay or retreat all day long.
On November 4, 1948, Chiang Kai-shek Electric called Fu Zuoyi to Nanjing to discuss North China's combat policy. Chiang Kai-shek wanted Fu to lead the ministry to withdraw south to strengthen the Yangtze River defense line, so he appointed Fu as the 'Southeast Military and Political Officer' to lure him. However, Fu Zuoyi was very worried, worried that after the South withdrawal, his own unit was taken up by Chiang Kai-shek and became the commander of the bare pole, so he put forward the idea of upholding Pingjin.
At the same time, Jiang and Fu both estimated that the Northeast Field Army would need to rest for three months to six months after entering the Liaoning-Shenzhen Campaign before entering the customs. Therefore, Jiang and Fu agreed to adopt the policy of “holding Pingjin temporarily to ensure that the Haikou of Tanggu is in order to observe changes in the current situation” in North China. According to this policy, Fu Zuoyi deployed its 42 divisions (including 17 divisions in the Fu department, 25 divisions in the Jiang department, and a total strength of about 500,000 people) as follows: 8 divisions (Fu department) in the 11th division The Corps Commander Sun Lanfeng was deployed in Zhangjiakou defense zone to maintain the western withdrawal of Suiyuan; 18 divisions (9 divisions of Jiang and Fu divisions) were deployed under the direct command of Fu Zuoyi and deployed in Beiping defense zone; 16 divisions (All Jiang Departments) Under the command of the 17th Corps Commander Hou Jingru, it was deployed in the Tanggu defense zone of Tianjin.
In this way, all the soldiers of Fu Zuoyi formed a long snake array along the 500-kilometer-long railway from Tangshan in the east to Zhangjiakou in the west. The characteristics of this long snake array are controlled by the Jiang troops to the east of Peiping and the Fu troops. To the west of Peiping, you can withdraw if necessary.
The Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China headed by Mao Zedong estimated that according to the post-war situation of Liaoning-Shenzhen, there were three possibilities for Fu Zuoyi's next move: one was to stick to Pingjin; the other was to abandon Pingjin; It was to abandon Pingjin, and all troops were withdrawn to Nanjing.
In mid-November 1948, the Huaihai Campaign had been launched, and Huang Baitao's Corps would be quickly annihilated. Under the threat of the People ’s Liberation Army victory, the Central Military Commission also judged that Fu Zuoyi ’s Ministry might ship all or a portion of it to the south of the river. If so, it would increase. Combat was difficult thereafter. Therefore, the Military Commission decided that the Fu Zuoyi Group should be kept in place to annihilate in North China; the Northeast Field Army entered the Customs in advance and launched the Pingjin Campaign with a total of one million people in the North China Military Region.
The basic policy of the battle was: to keep the Fu Zuoyi Group in Pingjin and Zhang areas, first complete the strategic siege and division, and then hit two heads (Zhangjiakou, Xinbaoan, and Tanggu), then take the middle (Peiping, Tianjin), and use military strikes and The combination of political struggles will wipe out Fu Zuoyi Group on the spot. The key to achieving this policy is to keep Fu Zuoyi Group in North China.
To this end, the Central Military Commission adopted a series of major measures: first, the front line Xu Qianqian Corps was slow to attack Taiyuan, so that Fu Zuoyi did not feel isolated; second, the North China Military Region Yang Chengwu Corps was withdrawn from Sui, surrounded Zhangjiakou; third, North China Yang Dezhi Corps From Fuping to Yixian, ready to attack the Pingsui line; the fourth is to make the Northeast Field Army regardless of fatigue, end rest, and immediately enter the battle.
On November 23, 1948, more than 800,000 people in the Northeast Field Army began to enter the gate with a shadow movement. The troops divided into three lanes and traveled by night to stay at night. They mobilized while driving in. They crossed the Great Wall in early December from Xifengkou and Lengkou. Entered the customs with Shanhaiguan. In order to confuse the Kuomintang army, Xinhua News Agency and Northeast Broadcasting Station continued to broadcast the news that Shiye Zhu Jie, Qing Gong, training and Lin Biao were still in Shenyang after the decisive battle in Liaoning and Shenyang within two weeks.
On November 29, three columns of Yang Chengwu's Corps surrounded Zhangjiakou, thus opening the battle of Pingjin. Immediately thereafter, according to the guidelines of the Central Military Commission and Mao Zedong's "separate but not surround, surround but not fight", North China Yang Dezhi soldiers surrounded the new security; three columns of the Northeast Field Army surrounded Beiping, and two columns separated the Pingjin ties. Subsequently, Tianjin was surrounded by 7 columns, which cut off the connection between Tianjin and Tang. Beginning on December 21, the battle of Pingjin entered various stages of annihilating the enemy. In order to command the two field forces in Northeast and North China in a unified manner, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China decided on January 10, 1949, to form the General Front Committee with Lin Biao, Luo Rongzhen, and Nie Rongzhen.
On December 22, under the command of Yang Dezhi, the 2nd Corps of North China captured the new security forces and completely destroyed the 35th Army. Captain Guo Jingyun killed himself. The collapse of the 35th Army made Zhangjiakou's defenders frightened. From 23 to 24, Yang Chengwu's Regiment and Dongye's 4th column conquered Zhangjiakou and wiped out more than 54,000 people in one fell swoop. In early January 1949, Dongye concentrated on 5 columns and special forces, with a total of 340,000 people. Under the command of Liu Yalou, it was ready to conquer Tianjin.
The Tianjin Shouban is the city's police commander Chen Changjie's two divisions with 10 divisions totaling more than 130,000. After being fully prepared, the siege forces proceeded from east to west, cut off their waists, divided south and north first, and divided the siege and siege. The main attack direction was selected on the east and west sides of central Tianjin. In order to confuse the enemy, Liu Yalou and Chen Changjie fought wisely. When he received the negotiating delegation sent by Chen Changjie, he intentionally chose the negotiating place in Beicang, northwest of the city, and set up a command post in the north of the city. At night, a heavy artillery test fire was organized in the northern suburbs for power reconnaissance. Troops were also deployed to build fortifications where negotiators passed. These measures created an illusion for Chen Changjie, convinced him that the main direction of the PLA's offensive was north of the city, and put the main defense force in the northern part of Tianjin. The enemy's misjudgment created the conditions for a siege breakthrough.
On January 13, Chen Changjie refused to resolve the Tianjin issue peacefully. The siege forces conquered Tianjin in one fell swoop, annihilating the defenders and catching Chen Changjie alive. On the 17th, Tanggu was liberated.
After the liberation of Tianjin, a million troops of the People's Liberation Army will gather in Peiping, putting Beiping Fu Zuoyi Group into a desperate situation. This means that a powerful military strike against Tianjin has created a favorable situation for the peaceful settlement of Peking. At this time, Fu Zuoyi repeatedly sent representatives to represent the front line headquarters of the Hepingjin Line to negotiate.
After three negotiations, the two sides drafted and signed the "Agreement on Peaceful Settlement of Peking" on January 21. The agreement stipulates that, from January 22, the two sides will cease their truce, and 250,000 troops stationed in the city of Peiping will be stationed outside the city. As of January 31, the Fu Department was all out of the city, and the Pingjin Campaign ended successfully.
The battle of Pingjin was the last of the three major battles in the strategic decisive battle of the liberation war. This battle wiped out and adapted 521,000 Kuomintang troops and injured more than 39,000 people in the People's Liberation Army. This great victory was the result of a combination of military strikes and political struggles. The ancient cultural capital Beiping and the industrial and commercial city Tianjin were returned to the people. North China was basically liberated, and the two liberated areas of North China and Northeast China were completely integrated. Our army has greatly reduced the strength of the Kuomintang army at the expense of a small price, and at the same time it has hit the morale of the Kuomintang.
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