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1949: The well-known battle of Pingjin achieved a total victory
Fun history2014-08-11 17:30:56

Battle of Pingjin: At the beginning of November 1948, after the victory of the Liaoning-Shenzhen Campaign , the enemy North China "General Manager" Fu Zuoyi Group was facing the threat of joint strike by the Northeast and North China Army, and it has become a bird of surprise . Due to the contradiction between Dimei, Jiang, and Fu, whether the enemy forces in North China are withdrawing or defending, whether they are fleeing to the south or fleeing to the west, they are still uncertain. Fu Zuoyi erroneously estimated that it would take at least three months for my Northeast Field Army to enter the battle. Therefore, I did not make up my mind to flee immediately and adopted the policy of temporarily staying in Pingjin, maintaining Haikou, expanding our strength, and observing changes in the current situation. In accordance with this policy, Fu Zuoyi reduced the total number of troops in the 12 regiments of the two regiments of the Chiang and Fu divisions to about 550,000 by contracting in Peiping and Tianjin, starting from Tangshan in the east and reaching Zhangjiakou in the west. A 500-kilometer railway line is lined with a long snake array . Dispose of its units in the Beiping to Zhangjiakou section of Pingsui Road and Jiang's units in Beiping and the areas east of it. If necessary, the Jiang units can be left to flee west.

Judging from the national situation, the suppression of Fu Zuoyi Group in North China by our army and its annihilation on the spot are the most beneficial to the development of the war situation. Therefore, before the Central Military Commission decided to flee the enemy, the North China Field Army entered the customs in advance with the 2nd and 3rd Corps of the North China Military Region and a total of one million people in the local army. The enemy is a bird that frightens the bow. Whether the enemy can be seized or not flee south or west is the key to battle guidance. To this end, the Central Military Commission decided to retreat and return to Sui, slow down Taiyuan, and agreed to negotiate with Fu Zuoyi to paralyze the enemy. At the same time, the main forces of the North China Field Army secretly and quickly entered the customs in late November. With the cooperation of the North China Army, they first seized the enemy on the west line, stabilized the east line, and did not fight against the enemy on the west line. The enemy's policy of separating enemies from the west to the east completes the encirclement of the enemies.

In order to achieve the above purpose, the Central Military Commission instructed the Northeast Advance Corps, North China 2nd and 3rd Corps to operate uniformly in the Tingzhang section. First, they quickly encircled Zhangjiakou, attracted the east ’s enemies to reinforce westward, cut off the Tingzhang section, and then divided and encircled the Pingjinzhang area Enemy. Following the unified deployment of the Central Military Commission, the North China 3rd Corps began to surround enemies in the Zhangjiakou area on November 29. In order to keep away from the west, Fu Zuoyi urgently ordered the 35th Army to reinforce Zhangjiakou with three divisions, and to reinforce the Xuanhua with the 310th Division in Huailai, and the 269th Division in Changping to the west. In order to seize the enemies on the western front, the Central Military Commission ordered the North China 2nd Corps to rush down the garden on December 2 and advance the Northeast Advance Corps to the south exit and Huai to cut off Pingsui Road and surround enemies without a line. As the 11th Column of the Northeast Advance Corps, on December 5th, wiped out a division of Miyun defending the enemy, Fu Zuoyi thought that my Northeast Field Army had entered the customs, and mistakenly judged that our army would attack Beiping, so he hurriedly decided to adjust The 35th Army quickly returned to Peiping, and the 104th and 16th Army in Huailai and Nankou areas responded westward. At the same time, eighty-two divisions of the 62nd, 92nd, and 94th Army near Tianjin were deployed to Peiping; the 13th Army was replaced by Huairou and Shunyi retreated to Tongxian; the 101st Army retreated from Fengxian to Fengtai and Mentougou. This contraction by the enemy is very beneficial for our army to keep the enemy in place. On December 6, the enemy's 35th Army (two divisions) protruded eastward after highlighting our army's siege circle on Zhangjiakou. On the 8th, it was surrounded by our North China 2nd Corps in the new security area. On the 10th and 11th, with the cooperation of the 11th column, the 4th Northeast Field Army annihilated the main forces of the 16th Army and the 104th Army in Kangzhuang and Huailai areas. Surrounded by Zhangjiakou and Xinanbao, the enemy's flight to the west was cut off. At this point, the main force of the Northeast Field Army has crossed the Great Wall and entered Jidong, and has not yet surrounded the Pingjintang points, so "the only thing or the main thing is to be afraid of the enemy escaping from the sea." In order not to make the enemy run wild, complete the countermeasures as soon as possible. Surrounded by the points of the Pingjintang, Mao Zedong timely issued instructions on the combat policy of the Pingjintang campaign on December 11th, so that the Western Front Departments would "encircle but not fight" against Zhangjiakou and new security enemies within two weeks. The main force of the Northeast Field Army should not hesitate fatigue, fear of downsizing, or fear of freezing or starvation. At the same time, cut off the enemy's connection with Tianjin at the fastest speed, and form a "separate but not surround" strategic posture for the enemy. Rest and then attack calmly. At the same time, instructed our army on the front line of the Huaihai to Du Yuming Group: "Do not make final annihilation deployment within two weeks" to stabilize the enemy and make it difficult for them to escape from the sea; and make our Shandong army control the Yellow River north of Jinan. And make preparations on Jiaoji Road to prevent the enemy's economy from fleeing to Qingdao. Following the instructions of Chairman Mao Zedong, the Northeast Field Army surrounded the enemies in Tian and Tanggu with the 1st, 2nd, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 12th columns, and the 3rd, 5th, 6th, and 10th columns in the With the cooperation of the 11th Column and the 7th Column of the Jizhong Military Region, they surrounded Beiping's enemies. By December 21st, the main forces of the Northeast Field Army had completed the strategic encirclement of the enemy of Pingjintang ahead of time, and closed the way for the enemy of Pingjin to flee south by sea. At this point, the Fu Zuoyi Group was "all surrounded" by our army.

After our army completed the encirclement and encirclement of the enemy, it adopted the policy of hitting two heads first, then taking the middle, and hitting two new security guards and Tanggu first. Before hitting new security, the Central Military Commission estimated that after the 35th Army was annihilated, Zhangjiakou might be able to defend the enemy, and the 3rd Corps of the North China Military Region did not have the advantage. In order to increase the force surrounding Zhangjiakou, the Central Military Commission set the 4th column of the Northeast Field Army. The westward transfer of Zhangjiakou was under the command of the 3rd Corps. On December 20, the vertical arrived near Zhangjiakou. On the 22nd, the 2nd Corps of the North China Military Region captured the new security and wiped out the defending 35th Army (two divisions). On the 23rd, Zhangjiakou defended more than 50,000 people and fled. The 3rd Corps of the North China Military Region and the Northeast Field Army The 4th column was wiped out in the area north of Zhangjiakou on the 24th. In order to unify the leadership and command of the Pingjin Campaign, the Party Central Committee decided on January 10, 1949, that Lin Biao, Luo Ronghuan, and Nie Rongzhen would form the General Front Committee, with Lin Biao as the secretary. Due to the unfavorable terrain of the Tanggu area, it was inconvenient to annihilate the enemy. The Northeast Field Army suggested that, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, our army would instead capture Tianjin. On January 14th, the Northeast Field Army concentrated on the 22nd Division of the 1st, 2nd, 7th, 8th, and 9th columns. He launched an offensive against Tianjin's defending enemies. After 29 hours of fierce fighting, he liberated Tianjin on the 15th and wiped out 130,000 defenders. Captive Chen Changjie, deputy commander of the Jintang defense zone and commander of the Tianjin Police. On the 17th, the enemy of Tanggu fled from the sea. At this point, the enemy of Peiping was completely isolated and in despair. In addition to the Northeast Field Army's 1st and 2nd Corps (that is, the original dispatching corps), our army increased the North China's 2nd and 3rd Corps to the vicinity of Peiping at the end of December, forming a close siege to the enemy of Peiping. On January 14th, Chairman Mao Zedong issued the "Statement on Current Situation", which set out eight conditions for peaceful negotiations. On the 16th, the Pingjin Frontline Command issued an ultimatum to Fu Zuoyi, stating: one is to lay down weapons and the other is a peaceful adaptation; otherwise, "our army will attack the city with precise tactics. In this case, Fu Zuoyi accepted the peaceful adaptation. Beiping defended eight armies and twenty-five divisions, all of which were out of the city, waiting to be adapted.

On January 31, our army entered Beiping, and Beiping declared liberation. The peaceful liberation of Peking has profound historical significance. The Beiping garrison is the first example of implementing our party's eight peaceful conditions and ending the war peacefully, and is known as the "Peking Way." The battle of Pingjin lasted for 64 days. Except for the 58 thousand defending Tanggu who fled from the sea, a total of 50 divisions and 520 thousand enemies were wiped out, liberating much of North China.

The three major battles of Liaoshen, Huaihai and Pingjin were strategic decisive battles between our army and the enemy's main force during the strategic offensive phase. Under the correct command of the Central Military Commission and Mao Zedong, it took more than four months to annihilate 143 divisions of the enemy, together with the local army, 1.54 million people. At this point, the seven-month battle in the third year of the war wiped out 2.23 million enemies, causing the enemy's elite troops to be completely wiped out, which greatly accelerated the victory of the liberation war.

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