Guide: The Battle of Pingjin is the last of the three major battles of strategic decisive battle during the liberation war. It was a strategic decisive battle between the Northeast Field Army, the Second and Third Corps of the North China Military Region, and the local armed forces in the areas of Peiping (now Beijing), Tianjin, and Zhangjiakou.
The Liaoning-Shenzhen Campaign ended on November 2, 1948, and the Huaihai Campaign began on November 6. The enemy Fu Zuoyi Group in North China was facing the threat of a joint attack by the Northeast Field Army and the North China Field Army. Because Chiang Kai-shek and Fu Zuoyi each have their own plans, whether the enemy forces in North China will withdraw or defend, whether they are fleeing south or fleeing west are still uncertain. Fu Zuoyi incorrectly estimated that after the end of the Liaoning-Shenzhen Campaign, the Fourth Northeast Field Army of China would need at least 3 months of rest and preparation to enter the battle. Therefore, instead of deciding to withdraw immediately to the south, it adopted the deployment of "adhering to Pingjin, maintaining Haikou, actively expanding its strength, and observing changes in the current situation." Chiang Kai-shek granted full authority to the commander-in-chief of North China, Fu Zuoyi, allowing Fu Zuoyi to directly accept US aid and expand the army, demanding that his main force be concentrated in the Peking, Tianjin and Tangshan triangle, control Haikou, and wait for the opportunity to withdraw south. The Fu Zuoyi Group is composed of two units, one is Fu's unit, and the other is Chiang Kai-shek's unit. Fu Zuoyi did not fully follow Jiang Jieshi's requirements. He deployed his troops on the Pingsui line west of Peiping to ensure the passage of Xisan. Jiang Jieshi's puppet troops were deployed along the Pingtang line east of Peiping to ensure A passage southward from the sea and resistance to our offensive in the northeast. In this way, Fu Zuoyi deployed about 600,000 troops of 44 divisions of 12 corps under the jurisdiction of 4 corps, and deployed it on the east-west front line of more than 1,000 miles from Beishan as the center, from Tangshan in the east to Zhangjiakou in the west, Zhangjiakou and Tanggu are divided into three defense zones.
The specific deployment of the Fu Zuoyi Group is: Beiping defense area is jointly defended by the forces of approximately 20 divisions of the enemy Li Wen Fourth Corps and the Ninth Corps of the Shi Party; Zhangjiakou defense area is defended by the strength of 7 divisions of the 11th Corps of Sun Lanfeng, Tianjin In the Tanggu defense zone, the 17th Corps of Chen Changjie guards Tanggu, and the Tianjin enemy police forces specialize in guarding a total of about 17 divisions in Tianjin. At this time, the United States wants to keep this anti-Communist site in North China and support Fu Zuoyi to stick to the Pingjin area. In order to get more US aid, Fu Zuoyi put on a posture of leaning against the Bohai Sea and sticking to Peiping, Tianjin and Tanggu. In addition, Fu Zuoyi secretly sent someone to contact our party to test our party's attitude towards him. Judging from the situation at the time, Chiang Kai-shek's troops in North China were an important force to increase the Yangtze River defense line. If this army flees south by land, it will need to go south along the Jinpu Line and Heping Han Line via North China. However, the Jinpu Line has my East China Field Army, and the Pinghan Line has my North China Field Army and Central Plains Field Army. It is difficult to pass. It is not easy if you need a large number of ships to travel by sea. The Central Military Commission and Comrade Mao Zedong decided to launch the Pingjin Campaign while the Huaihai Campaign was still in progress based on the development of the national battle situation and the Fu Zuoyi Group. The Northeast Field Army, the North China Field Army, and local forces would concentrate about one million troops and divide and surround Pingjin. Its enemies are destroyed in situ. In order to further stabilize the Fu Zuoyi Group, our party has taken many measures. On October 31, the Central Military Commission called Lin Biao, Luo Ronghuan, Liu Yalou, etc., asking that "the main force in the Northeast, except for the four vertical and eleven vertical departments, go south, and the rest after the battle of the Shenying Line ... began to dispatch ... to complete the Northeast and Unification of North China. " On November 16, the Central Military Commission and Comrade Mao Zedong signaled that Xu Qianqian and Zhou Shi had suspended their attack on Taiyuan. Since November 18, the Central Military Commission has repeatedly shown Lin Biao and others to urge our army in the Northeast to enter the customs early to fight for a short time to surround Tangshan, Tanggu, and Tianjin. On November 27, the Central Military Commission also ordered the North China Field Army's Second Corps and Third Corps to cut off the slashing line, surround Huai'an, Zhangjiakou, Xuanhua and other places, and seize the Fu Zuoyi group to cover the entry of our army in the Northeast. In order to seize the enemy, the Central Military Commission decided to withdraw from the siege and return to Suihu (now Hohhot) and slow down the attack on Taiyuan; be prepared to negotiate with the enemy; seize the western front and stabilize the eastern front; Lines are not enclosed. The Central Military Commission also determined the attack sequence of the Pingjin Campaign: the first Tanglu district, the second new security guard, the third Tangshan district, the fourth Tianjin and Zhangjiakou districts, and finally the Beiping district. And set up Lin Biao, Luo Ronghuan, Nie Rongzhen, "President and Commissioner" of the Pingjin Battle, Lin Biao served as secretary, and unified the command of all party and government work in the Pingjin area. The entire battle is divided into three phases:
The first stage divides and surrounds the enemy forces, and does not fight.
According to the instructions of the Central Military Commission, the "General Frontier Committee" of the Pingjin Campaign decided to surround Zhangjiakou first. This will not only attract Fu Zuoyi to send troops to reinforce them, but also prevent the enemy from being released from the sea for the next large-scale annihilation. On November 29, 1948, the Third Army Corps of the North China Field Army Yang Chengwu (column 1st, 2nd, and 6th) launched an attack on enemy forces outside Zhangjiakou. On the 30th, it defeated Wanquan, Chaigou Fort, Huai'an and other places. , And occupied Huangtuliang, Zhaojiayao, Nantianmen and other Zhangjiakou enemy bases, and quickly completed the siege of Zhangjiakou. Fu Zuoyi panicked and urgently adjusted two elite divisions of the 35th Army near Peiping and the 258th Division of the 104th Army in Huailai to reinforce Zhangjiakou, and ordered the 310th Division of the 105th Army in Huailai to reinforce Xuanhua and Changping. The 269th Division of the 104th Army was transferred to Huailai to strengthen the defense of the eastern section of the Pingsui line. On December 2, Fu Zuoyi visited Zhangjiakou and directed the forces of 4 divisions to pounce on our army's Shalingzi position. On the 4th, the Central Military Commission and Comrade Mao Zedong ordered the Third Corps of the North China Field Army to cut off the ties between Zhangjiakou, Xuanhua, and wipe out the enemy; the Second Corps of the North China Field Army (3rd, 4th, and 8th) captured The garden area also cuts off the connection between the enemy's 104th Army and Zhangjiakou and Xuanhua's enemies; our Northeast Field Army advance corps (4th column, 11th column, etc.) made rapid advances from Jixian to Huailai and the South Exit, in coordination with the North China Field Army Third Corps to cut off The connection between Zhangjiakou and Beiping on the Pingsui line was destroyed by planes.
The main forces of the Northeast Field Army began to enter the customs on November 22, including 12 columns and special columns of the Northeast Field Army, and a total of about 800,000 troops of the Railway Corps. The 5th, 6th, and some special forces of the Northeast Army entered the customs through Jingyi County and Xifengkou; the 3rd, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th columns started from Jinzhou and Yingkou areas, along the On the right side of Beining Road, they entered through the cold mouth; the first column, the second column, and the twelfth column followed up behind the two groups of troops. The fourth column and the eleventh column have advanced to Jixian and Yutian front lines. Lin Biao and Luo Rongrong led the Northeast Field Army Command on November 30 from Shenyang to advance to Ji County, Jidong. On December 2nd, the Second Corps of North China and the advance troops of Northeast China were ordered to cut off the Pingsui line and wipe out an enemy division in the movement, making Fu Zuoyi realize that my Fourth Northeast Field Army had entered the customs and wrongly judged that our army would seize Beiping, on December 5th, the 35th Army, which urgently ordered it to be reinforced in Zhangjiakou, quickly withdrew from the east to Peiping, and made the 104th and 16th Army in Huailai, Nankou and other places westward, Tianjin's 92nd Army and The 94th Army of Langfang was transferred back to Peiping to strengthen Peiping's defense forces. On December 6, during the transfer to Peiping, the 35th Army was surrounded by the Second Corps of North China in the new security area, but the enemy army took the lead to occupy the new security. Fu Zuoyi saw that his main army, the 35th Army, was surrounded by the new security guards, and then transferred the No. 104 Army and Changping's 16th Army to respond. In this way, the Second Corps of North China was attacked by the enemy on both sides. At this time, the fourth column and the eleventh column of the Northeast Advance Corps of China at the crossroads in Kangzhuang and Huailai areas wiped out the enemy ’s 16th Army headquarters, the 109th Division, and the 22nd Division. Kangzhuang and Qinglong Bridge between Huailai and the South Exit. The enemy's 104th Army turned around and returned to Peiping. The Northeast Fourth Column and the 11th Column annihilated it in the border towns and Aries near the south exit. At the same time, Zhang Bei and Xuanhua were also occupied by our army. By December 13, enemy forces in Zhangjiakou and Xinbaoan on the Pingsui line were surrounded by our army. Our army completed the first operation plan to seize Fu Zuoyi and hold Jiang Jieshi's troops. The second step plan is to seize enemy forces in Beijing, Tianjin and Tang areas.
Around December 10, the main force of our Northeast Field Army had entered the east-west area of Jixian County. On December 12, the 7th, 8th, 9th, 12th, and Artillery Columns of the Northeast Field Army as the East Army surrounded the enemy forces in Tianjin and Tanggu; the First Column, Sixth Column, The tenth column was inserted between Ping and Tianjin as a mid-road army, "separating and not encircling" the enemy of Pingjin; the third, fifth, and eleventh columns were the west army and surrounded Beiping. On the 13th, the columns of the East Road from Funing, Lulong, and Fengrun moved south along the sides of Beining Road; the 10th column of the Middle Road arrived in Langfang, Qingyundian and other places. The 6th column arrived in Ximatou, Xianghe on December 15 In towns and other places, the first column arrived in the low-lying area on the 22nd; the columns on the west road surrounded Beiping on the 14th. By the 17th, the third column occupied Tongxian, Nanyuan Airport, the fifth column and the tenth. A column occupied Xiangshan, Haidian, Shijingshan, Mentougou, Wanping, Fengtai, and Wanshoushan near Peiping, and the forwards reached Deshengmen; the seventh column of the North China Field Army arrived in Fengtai and Huangcun, thus completing the siege of Beiping enemy forces. On December 20th, the 9th column of the Northeast Field Army occupied Tangshan, Zhangguizhuang Airport, and Junliang City. The 7th column occupied the Xinhe area west of Tanggu, and the 8th column occupied Yangcun, a city between Beijing and Tianjin. In the suburbs of Yixingbu and Yangliuqing, the twelfth column was inserted between Pingjin and Tianjin, which cut off the ties between the enemy forces in Jintang. At this point, the enemy Fu Zuoyi group was divided and surrounded in Beiping, Tianjin, Tanggu, Xinbaoan and Zhangjiakou, and the enemy's southward retreat was cut off.
In the second stage, attack Beiping and hit two heads first.
After our army completed the strategic deployment of blocking enemy forces in the three regions of Ping, Jin, and Tang, it adopted the policy of "hitting two heads first and isolating the middle." Firstly, the new security and Zhangjiakou were seized by means of attack, and Fu Zuoyi's main line of troops was attacked. The operation of the Pingsui line attracted Fu Zuoyi's attention and created the conditions for the main force of the Northeast Field Army to enter and divide and surround Pingjin's enemy forces. On December 11, the Central Military Commission and Comrade Mao Zedong showed that the North China Field Army "surrounded and did not fight" against the enemy forces in Zhangjiakou and New Security; the Northeast Field Army only strategically encircled the enemy forces in Peiping, Tianjin, and Tanggu. According to the instructions of the Central Military Commission and Comrade Mao Zedong, in order to support the quick victory of Zhangjiakou and the new security enemy forces of the Second Corps of the North China Field Army, the fourth column of the Northeast Field Army drove from the south exit to Zhangjiakou. On December 22, the Second Corps of the North China Field Army first launched an attack on the 35th Army of the New Security Guard on the western front. This army was Fu Zuoyi's "trump card" army and had a strong combat effectiveness. In order to ensure the destruction of the enemy ’s 35th Army, before launching the offensive, the fourth column of the Second Corps of the North China Field Army was deployed in the direction of Zhangjiakou to strengthen its siege. . On the 22nd, after 11 hours of fierce fighting in the Second Corps of North China, they first overcame the new security and wiped out more than 19,000 people from the two divisions of the 35th Army. After the new security enemy was annihilated, the 1st Column, 2nd Column, 6th Column, 2nd Column, 6th Column, Beiyue Military Region, 4th Northeast Field Army, and 3rd Cavalry Division of the North China Field Army launched an attack on Zhangjiakou enemy forces. On the morning of December 23, an enemy defender attacked southwest. On the evening of the same day, two cavalry brigades of the 105th Army of the 11th Corps of the enemy's main force broke through in the northwest. The 3rd Corps of North China and the 4th Northeast Column quickly blocked the enemy forces in the Datiangou of Chaotianwa under the severe cold. On the 24th, the enemy forces slammed in the northwest direction, but were stubbornly blocked by our army. In the afternoon, about 54,000 people of the 105th Army of the 11th Corps were finally wiped out, and Zhangjiakou declared liberation.
After the new security forces and the Zhangjiakou enemy forces were annihilated, Fu Zuoyi ’s units were basically eliminated. In order to eliminate the Pingjin and Tianjin enemy forces, the second and third corps of the North China Field Army concentrated in the direction of Pingjin. On the one hand, they were deployed to prevent the Pingjin and Tianjin enemy forces. Breaking through, he stepped up his efforts to fight against Fu Zuoyi and prepared to attack Tanggu. According to the CMC's combat policy, our army should first wipe out enemy forces in the Tanggu area on the eastern front, and then wipe out enemy forces in Tianjin. However, because Tanggu is close to the Bohai Sea and there are many rivers around it, it is inconvenient for our army to intersperse and fight inward, and it is difficult to cut off the enemy's retreat at sea. The 17th Corps of the Enemy had already moved to the warship, and the 5 defending divisions were ready to escape at any time, so it was difficult to wipe out. Fu Zuoyi also tried to stick to Tianjin to gain time, so as to obtain more concessions from our party in the negotiations. According to this situation, the Central Military Commission and Comrade Mao Zedong decided to seize Tianjin by means of aggressive attacks, breaking Fu Zuoyi's illusion. In order to eliminate the enemy in Tianjin, our army adjusted its deployment around December 30: the Northeast Field Army's first column, second column, seventh column, eighth column, ninth column, twelfth column, and sixth column 17 A total of 25 divisions, as well as artillery and tank units, are responsible for annihilating the 17 enemy divisions in Tianjin. They are under the command of Liu Yalou, chief of staff of the Northeast Field Army. While our army was preparing to launch an attack on Tianjin, the commander of the siege of Tianjin ’s enemy army, Chen Changjie, sent two people to negotiate with our army on January 10 and 11, 1949, to spy on the main attack direction of our army in order to escape. Our army patiently persuaded the enemy to lay down their weapons and implement peaceful liberation. They could be lenient to high-ranking officers and have them surrender their weapons within 48 hours. But the enemy has no sincerity in peace talks, only to prepare for escape.
Tianjin's enemy defense was carefully planned. Due to the long and narrow urban area of Tianjin, the Haihe flows from the northwest to the southeast and divides the urban area into two parts, east and west, surrounded by a moat. Before the siege of Tianjin, the enemy was about to burn down houses and villages within five miles of the city, making it difficult for our army to hide from the city wall. The terrain in the suburbs is wide and flat, and the enemy has built many bunkers, trenches and barbed wire in the moat. Tianjin has become a sturdy fortified city, which is easy to defend and difficult to attack. The enemy's Tianjin Police Commander Chen Changjie put his 62nd, 86th, 94th Army and local teams in a total of about 130,000 people to form a ring-shaped defense around the northern part of the urban area, and carried out stubborn resistance. According to the enemy ’s deployment, our army decided to adopt a tactic of east-west pinch, first south, and north. The specific force deployment is: the first column of the Northeast Field Army and the second column attack from the west to the east; my seventh column and the eighth column from the city Attacked from east to west and met at the Tangtang Bridge near Tianjin North Station; the 152th Division and the Field Guard's immediate guard corps attacked in Yixingbu area. On January 12, 1949, the Central Military Commission and Comrade Mao Zedong telegraphed that Lin Biao and Nie Rongzhen "captured Tianjin in an appropriate time." According to instructions, our army issued an ultimatum for a peaceful settlement to the enemy. The 14th time limit has expired, and the enemy still refuses to take a stand, attempting to continue delaying time. At 10 am on the 14th, the columns of the Northeast Field Army launched an attack on the enemy forces in Tianjin. First, they carried out violent shelling on the enemy's defense positions outside the city, destroying most of the enemy's defense measures. When our army broke through the enemy's first line of defense and developed in depth, the enemy was desperately resisting. After 29 hours of fierce fighting, by the afternoon of January 15th, our Northeast Field Army had completely wiped out more than 130,000 people in 16 divisions of two armies of the Tianjin Guards Command, and captured the enemy Commander Chen Changjie and the enemy commander Liu Yunhan. Lin Weitao liberated Tianjin, an important industrial city in North China. More than 50,000 defenders in Tanggu fled south from the sea, and the twelfth column of the Northeast Field Army eliminated more than 3,000 enemy cover forces. Tanggu was liberated on January 17.
The third stage of heavy siege, peaceful liberation of Peking
The contact between our party and Fu Zuoyi began in late November 1948 and negotiations were officially held in late December. At this time, the Liaoning-Shenzhen Campaign had just ended, and the enemy forces in Zhangjiakou, Xinbao, and Tianjin and Tanggu were eliminated or surrounded by our forces. The army has fallen into isolation. When Fu Zuoyi was negotiating with me, he tried to preserve his army and had a glimmer of hope for the United States and Chiang Kai-shek, so the negotiations progressed slowly. Based on Fu Zuoyi's ambivalence and undecided attitude, our party adopted a two-pronged approach to military strikes and political struggles. On the one hand, he revealed to Fu Zuoyi Xiao his righteousness and Chen Ming's interests, and exposed his illusion of pedaling two boats, while using Peiping The underground party helped him relieve his ideological anxieties; on the one hand, he dispelled his illusions by annihilating the defending enemy in Tianjin. On January 14, 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong of the CPC Central Committee issued a "Statement on the Current Situation", which proposed eight conditions for peaceful negotiations with the Nanjing Kuomintang government. At this time, in accordance with the instructions of the Central Military Commission and Comrade Mao Zedong on "actively preparing to attack the city" and "conducting peaceful negotiations", with the cooperation of our underground party organization in Peiping, on the one hand, 900,000 troops approached the city wall of Peiping, and on the one hand stepped up Political offensive against Fu Zuoyi. On January 16, our army issued an ultimatum to Fu Zuoyi for the peaceful liberation of Peking, and proposed two options: one is to automatically lay down weapons and protect the integrity of industrial facilities, cultural monuments, weapons and ammunition, and official dossier and the lives of the people. For property security, our army guarantees the safety of the lives and property of its officers and soldiers. The second is to take the army out of Peiping and enter the designated location, and adapt it to the People's Liberation Army in accordance with our military system. If the enemy does not accept peaceful liberation, our army will liberate Peiping by force. The Central Military Commission requires the siege forces to make accurate siege plans, to protect cultural monuments and universities such as the Forbidden City , and to protect the safety of Beiping's industrial facilities and citizens' lives and property. On January 20, 1949, Fu Zuoyi expressed his willingness to accept the conditions proposed by our army and adapt it peacefully. On January 22, Fu Zuoyi ordered more than 200,000 people, including the 8 North Headquarters of the North China General Command, the 4th and 9th Corps, and 26 divisions, to drive to Sunhe Town and Pang, designated by our army. Various villages, Huangcun, Liangxiang and other places gathered to accept the adaptation of our army. On January 26, our army announced a reorganization order. On January 31, all Fu Zuoyi troops stationed in Peiping were peacefully adapted. Our army entered Peiping, and Peiping declared peaceful liberation. The battle of Pingjin ended here.
On February 3, our army held an entrance ceremony. In late February, Suoyuan ’s Fu Zuoyi's remaining ministry also accepted the conditions put forward by our party, and its military and government maintained the status quo for the time being. At an appropriate time in the future, they would accept adaptations according to the specific requirements of our army.
The battle of Pingjin was the last of the three major battles of the strategic decisive battle during the liberation war. This battle lasted 64 days. Our army annihilated and reorganized a KMT's North China General Command, a Tianjin Police Command, three Corps headquarters, 14 military headquarters, 50 divisions, and 2 cavalry brigades ( Including 3 military headquarters and 14 divisions rebuilt or newly built in the battle, a total of about 520,000 people, liberated important cities such as Peiping, Tianjin, Zhangjiakou, and created favorable conditions for our army to march across the country. The three ways to resolve the enemy in the Pingjin Campaign, namely the "Tianjin Way", the "Peking Way" and the subsequent "Suiyuan Way", were a great initiative, and our army's basic policy for resolving the remaining forces of the enemy in the south and northwest Has played a major role in accelerating the liberation of the country.
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