The Lugou Bridge Incident: There have been many discussions about the Lugou Bridge Incident, but who was the direct commander of the Chinese army to fight the Japanese army at that time? There are many statements in the academic world, including the 29th Army Commander Song Zheyuan , and some deputy commanders. There is also a lot of disagreement about the Lin Lin Pavilion , including Ji Xingwen , the leader of the 219th regiment, and Jin Zhenzhong, the leader of the battalion. In order to really understand this problem, the author of this article, through the search and identification of the materials, believes that Feng Zhi'an , then the 37th division commander of the 29th Army, played a huge role in the Lugou Bridge Incident. This view was less talked about in the past, and its reasons are summarized as follows for readers.
Many discussions on the Lugou Bridge Incident have mentioned that during the Lugou Bridge Incident, it was the 29th Army officers and soldiers who stood by the Lugou Bridge, but it was not clear which part of the 29th Army was. The actual situation is that before the Lugouqiao Incident, the 29th Army had 4 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry division, and 1 guard brigade, with about 100,000 people. In order to strengthen the defense against the Japanese army, a strict deployment was made: the 38th Division (the division chief Zhang Zizhong , also serving as the mayor of Tianjin) deployed in the line from Tianjin Langfang to Tanggu, and the 37th Division (the division chief Feng Zhi'an, concurrently acting as the Hebei Provincial Chairman and Peiping Security Commander), from Beiping Nanyuan to Baoding, one or two divisions (teacher Zhao Dengyu ) deployed from Hejian to Daming, and one or four divisions (teacher Liu Ruming , also serving as chairman of Chahar Province) deployed throughout the province. What needs to be explained here is that, at the time, Lin Lin Pavilion, the deputy commander of the 29th Army, was mainly responsible for the Nanyuan Military Training Regiment. It can be seen that Jicha two provinces and Pingjin two cities belong to the scope of the 29th Army, while Feng Zhian's 37th Division is based in the Beiping area, and the ancient capital is safe.
Therefore, when it was said that the Lugou Bridge Incident, it was the officers and men of the Twenty-nine Army who stood by the Lugou Bridge. It was not wrong in general, but it was not accurate enough.
From the deployment of the Chinese army, Feng Zhian's 37th Division was stationed in Peiping. The real garrison at Lugou Bridge is the 219th Regiment of the 37th Division, the 111th Brigade (Brigade Commander He Jizhen) (garrisoned at Changxindian, and the third battalion of the 219th Regiment, commander Jin Zhenzhong). At that time, the Japanese army often went to the east and north of Lugou Bridge to conduct provocations under the name of drills. On the day before the Lugou Bridge Incident, Feng Zhi'an also visited the Lugou Bridge under his jurisdiction. After listening to the report of the head of the Ji Xingwen Group on the frequent activities of the Japanese army, Instructions: "Report to me in a timely manner". On July 7, Feng Zhi'an convened He Jizhen and Ji Xingwen to arrange contingency measures in Peiping. He pointed out: "I still do not offend me, I do not offend the principle, and do not fire rashly, but if the enemy provokes, he will resolutely fight back."
In the afternoon, the Japanese army drove to the Dragon King Temple northwest of Lugou Bridge, grabbed the fortifications, and moved eastward in the evening. Later, the Japanese army said that they had lost a soldier and asked to enter Wanping City to find it. The officers and men of the city guard saw that they were looking for an excuse and refused flatly. . Feng Zhi'an heard the news and ordered the consequences: "Must stick to it, do not allow Japanese soldiers to enter by one soldier, do not give up an inch and an inch of land, and if you fire, you will be attacked." During this period, the Deputy Commander of the 29th Army Qin Dechun also protested to the Japanese army, and Wang Lengzhai, the inspector and chief of Wanping County, came forward to refute the Japanese army's provocative behavior.
In the early morning of the 8th, the long-planned Japanese army couldn't wait to bombard Wanping City, and at the same time began to attack the Pinghan Railway Bridge on the north side of Lugou Bridge, and the battle officially started. Qin Dechun, Feng Zhian, and Zhang Zizhong jointly reported to Nanjing and expressed their determination to resist. At the same time, Feng Zhi'an directly issued a death order to his subordinates: "Should coexist with the bridge and die, not retreat. Keeping the soil is the duty of the soldiers. Do not let go of the soil , and you are not afraid of sacrifice. Lugou Bridge is the grave of Seoul!"
The Japanese army first attacked the platoon leader Shen Zhongming, who killed and defended the railway bridge, by using the fortified repairs. This aroused the indignation of the officers and soldiers who defended the bridge. Regardless of the disparity of power, they rushed into the enemy line to fight the enemy and hacked the enemy. For more than a hundred, all the officers and men of the two rows of the bridge guards died violently, and the railway bridge fell. On the night of the 8th, under the cover of the night, Jin Zhenzhong commander led more than a hundred daring players to reach the railway bridge from Wanping Gaocheng, kill the enemy with a sword, and regain the railway bridge. Jin Zhenzhong was injured. During the hospitalization treatment in Baoding, he received warm sympathy from the Communist Party of China and the Communist Party of China and the people of the country. There is no doubt that Jin Zhenzhong was a commander and a hero in the local battle for the railway bridge.
People can't help asking where was Song Zheyuan, the head of the Twenty-nine Army at that time? Here is a brief explanation: Before the Lugouqiao Incident, Japan conspired to create "North China independence", making North China the "Manchuria". The plan was to establish a political “organization” of the “Jicha Administration Committee”, with Song Zheyuan as the chairman and the Japanese as the highest adviser. This is actually a temporary local institution, but it has jurisdiction over the military, political, and financial powers of Ping, Jin, Ji, and Cha. Because the Chiang Kai-shek 's Nanjing government was unwilling to have a direct conflict with the Japanese army, it was forced to swallow the bitter fruit. of.
Song Zheyuan was also forced to accept this post. Subjectively speaking, he was still willing to resist Japan, so when he accepted the leadership of the central government and accepted the "advisor" of Japan, he felt very uncomfortable. Therefore, in this short period of time, he used his strong financial resources to expand his strength, to expand the 29th Army to 100,000 people, and his equipment was constantly updated, waiting for the timing and making plans. At that time, Japan stepped up its economic aggression against China, putting a lot of pressure on Song Zheyuan. On May 11, Song Zheyuan left Beiping and returned to his hometown in Leling, Shandong on the pretext of "returning to his hometown to repair the ancestral tomb". Before leaving, he handed over the military to Feng Zhi'an and diplomacy to Qin Dechun.
Song Zheyuan, commander of the Twenty-nine Army, has absolute authority. It can be said that he is at the mercy of the army. When he left Peiping, he handed over military power to Feng Zhi'an, indicating that he trusted and reassured Feng. He arranged the thirty-seventh division of Feng Zhi'an to be stationed in Peiping to play the role of "Royal Army", which was by no means arbitrary. Even when he had any major decision-making in general, because Liu Ruming and Zhao Dengyu led soldiers outside, Zhang Zizhong also had his own side in Tianjin. He mostly sought the opinions of Qin Dechun and Feng Zhi'an.
About Song Zheyuan's full appreciation of Feng Zhi'an, the text about the Lugou Bridge Anti-Japanese War and the Twenty-nine Army can be confirmed in Liu Ruming's Memoirs after Liu Ruming went to Taiwan. The article wrote: "The Twenty-nine Army Although the deputy commander of the army changed Shao Jiesan (Linge) since he became mayor of Peiping, the commander's affairs are mostly watched by Yang Zhi (Feng Zhi'an), so Yang is equivalent to acting Captain. "
Takeshi Imai is the most important senior consultant at the headquarters of the Japanese Army. He participated in planning a series of major invasion plots such as the Lugou Bridge Incident. He also called Feng Zhi'an in the Memoirs of Takeshi Imai published after the war. Twenty-nine Army's number one real power. " He said: "At that time, the chairman of the Jicha government, Song Zheyuan, surrendered his position as the chairman of Hebei Province to Feng Zhi'an. Feng led the 37th Division, known as the 29th Army's elite unit, and conspired in Baoding, a weak Japanese force. Planning, a series of bunkers facing the north was set up, watching the political and economic trends in Riman and North China. Therefore, some people thought that the anti-Japanese planning center was not so much in Beiping or Tianjin as in Baoding. "Finally, he In conclusion: Feng Zhi'an is "always regarded as the most terrible person in Japan."
In addition, the Japanese spy agencies in China have sorted and lined up the leaders of the 29th Army and the Jicha regime. There are three types: "Pro-Japanese", "Know-Japanese" and "Anti-Japanese". Feng Zhi'an was not only classified as an "anti-Japanese faction," he also wore a "stubborn anti-Japanese faction" hat. Song Zheyuan's temporary departure gave Feng Zhian absolute command over the 37th Division. He was wearing the hat of the "stubborn anti-Japanese" and commanded Lugouqiao to fight against Japan. Therefore, it was an indisputable fact that in the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in Yan'an, the enthusiastic connection of electricity, which was personally drafted by Mao Zedong, "highly praised and supported the heroic war of resistance by the Ministry of Public Security."
On July 8, 1937, the day after the Lugouqiao Incident broke out, the CPC Central Committee energized the Japanese army to attack the Lugouqiao. The telegram said: "At ten o'clock on the night of the seventh day, the Japanese army attacked the Chinese garrison Feng Zhi'an at Lugouqiao and asked Feng to retreat to Changxindian. Because Feng refused to allow a conflict, the two sides are still fighting." . The call also said: "We should commend the heroic resistance to the support of the Ministry of Public Security!"
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