Guide : Wu Jiangping, a veteran of the 29th Army, remembers that at dawn on July 28, 30 Japanese planes circled over Nanyuan, with craters, soil pillars, and smoke. This was the total offensive launched by the Japanese army towards Peiping according to a plan. Speaking again of the Lugou Bridge and Nanyuan air strikes, Wu Jiangping opened his deep-set eyes and was emotional: "When they broke out, they were all dead and fell beside me."
On the afternoon of July 7, 1937, a mysterious gunshot by the Lugou Bridge on the Yongding River uncovered an aggressive ambition.
From this day on, a nation makes its last-minute choice: resistance, even sacrifice.
One inch of mountains and one inch of blood, stationed at the 29th Army in Peiping, wielded the sword to retake the railway bridge, and battled the enemy in the Lugou Bridge area, and made a determination to "use this bridge as a grave". At the same time, solidarity from all walks of life continued and various support was given to the front.
According to Rong Weimu, a researcher at the Institute of Modern History of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, although the 29th Army abandoned Lugou Bridge and evacuated Wanping City after the Lugou Bridge Incident , the gains and losses of this city and place are not a sign of measuring the success of the battle. The characteristics of the 8-year Anti-Japanese War are that the enemy is strong and we are weak.
The most valuable aspect of this war was that it really touched the Kuomintang's determination to resist Japan, the KMT and the Communist Party reached a consensus, and the national anti-Japanese upsurge formed, and the situation has never been the same. Since then, the Kuomintang-Communist cooperation, the division of war zones, and the reorganization of the Eighth Route Army have all come together in one go, and national cohesion has formed.
The Lugou Bridge Incident marked that China became the first battlefield in the East to stand up against the fascist aggression, preventing the Japanese army from marching northward and containing its southward march.
Until the outbreak of the Pacific War , China resisted the war alone for 4 years. It had made a certain contribution to the entire anti-fascist struggle and had been affirmed by its allies.
The world has never been so close to the abyss.
Seventy years ago, the nightmare woke up and victory came. History can finally be written calmly: World War II was a war of justice over evil.
The whole world is determined to sacrifice everything, but to maintain the simplest cornerstone of the human base.
If the human building is not tilted, people will be free from fear.
Touching the imprint on the skin of history, we look back on this anti-fascist victory after 78 years.
We revisited 27 battlefields at home and abroad to outline and restore those famous battles in the real space. We will also cross the distance of time and fuse history and reality. What you see will be reports with different perspectives.
We will look for descendants who will determine the generals of the major battles. On them, you will see how the bloodline is passed on. They carry the genes of their fathers and even grandfathers and live their own lives. Glory and dreams continue in a family.
We will look for some special characters. In the magnificent wars, they were just unknown heroes, but due to the special nature of their professions, they often became the turning point of the war under certain circumstances. We will record moments in the life of ordinary people.
The peace of justice and the glory of humanity will run through the entire topic. This is our interpretation of World War II.
It started to rain in early July. In Jin Zhenzhong's memory, this rain was uninterrupted.
At 14 pm on July 6, he put on his casual clothes alone, carried a big shovel, stepped across the muddy field, and reached Lugouqiao Station.
This is Peiping in 1937. The Japanese army frequently exercised near Lugou Bridge, and it constantly clashed with our 29th Army.
At that time there were 4 divisions in the 29th Army. Responsible for guarding the Lugou Bridge is the 3rd Battalion of the 219th Regiment, the battalion leader Jin Zhenzhong.
Jin Zhenzhong recalled the scene at that time: from a distance, seven or eight hundred meters ahead, the Japanese troops were disregarding rain and mud exercises, and the targets were Wanping City and Lugou Bridge.
The war broke out.
The next day, Peiping was unbearably hot, and the mercury column on the cold and summer watch rose straight from early morning.
In the memory of Takeshi Imai, the assistant army attachor to the Japanese ambassador to Beijing at the time, after the first unknown gun fired near Lugou Bridge on the evening of July 7th, at 4:23 on the 8th, the Japanese army was able to report to the 29th Army. Order to shoot.
The 8-year Anti-Japanese War started off from Lugou Bridge.
Like peeling an onion, Yuan Qichang repeatedly tore off a layer of old newspaper wrapped in layers, and the knife in his collection revealed his looks.
The knife handle is wrapped with strong cloth strips, and the knife body is rusty. What is striking is the two small rings in the middle, one of which has a gap between the knife body.
The 66-year-old Yuan Qichang stood up and danced with his sword. "This gap is where the long sword of the Japanese might just be caught in the fight," he said.
In the old photos, the ring under the knife's handle was tied with red silk.
Seventy-eight years ago, the 29th Army stationed at Lugou Bridge also used such a large knife to take responsibility for defending Lugou Bridge and Wanping City. Yuan Qichang's father, Yuan Feng, was a martial arts officer of the 29th Army Training Regiment, teaching soldiers Xingyiquan.
After the " September 18th Incident ", the Japanese army occupied the three eastern provinces and then stationed in Fengtai. At that time, Chiang Kai-shek renamed the Japanese army in his diary and became "pirate", and wrote two words in the first line every day-Xue Shao.
The arrogance of the Japanese army excited Chinese sentiment, especially the 29th Army. In the winter of 1936, in order to prepare for the backwater war , the 29th Army recruited young people from all over the country, and even overseas Chinese from Southeast Asia, to train together in Nanyuan, and the Military Training Corps was born.
The military training regiment was deployed in the Nanyuan barracks. The training is rigorous, and many soldiers remember it fresh. They all mentioned in their memoirs that the trainees will sing "Singing Songs" before meals. The lyrics are: These diets are for the people; The Japanese warlord, the enemy of the people;
Some researchers believe that the 29th Army at that time was assembled by Feng Yuxiang's Northwest Army. Although it had the anti-Japanese heart, it "grown in the gap" and was not weighted by Chiang Kai-shek's tools. Its equipment was not comparable to the Jiang's Central Army.
This was confirmed by Liu Su, former director of the Beijing Archives. In his description, most of the 29th Army's soldiers came from Shandong, Hebei, and Henan. They were tall, strong, and able to bear hardships.
Recruits and members of the military training regiment should practice bayonet and splitting knives as soon as they join the army to make up for the lack of good weapons.
Today, Yuan Qichang recalls the past in his hut near the Peony Garden, mentioning the 29th Army and his father, he always pays homage.
Vaguely remembered his father said that he had a troop-equipped bicycle and rode home from the army every day.
On July 7, the brutal war began, and the bicycle was parked in the doorway of the old house. Every time he hits that passage, Yuan Qichang feels that time is fixed on that day.
First shot on Lugou Bridge
On the evening of July 7, "there is absolutely no wind, the sky is clear and there is no moon. Below the starry sky, you can only see the looming Wanping city wall and the soldiers moving beside it ..."
Kiyomizu Kiyoshi had a clear record of this special night. He was the captain of the 8th Squadron of the 3rd Brigade of the First Wing of the Japanese Army in Fengtai at that time.
Pre-war silence lasted only a few hours. Jin Zhenzhong, the commander of the 3rd Battalion of the 219th Regiment of the 29th Army in Wanping City, recalled that at ten o'clock in the evening, a gunshot sounded from the Japanese training camp.
This is consistent with the description of Shimizu Jielang: "At about ten thirty in the evening ... Suddenly, several rifle bullets were fired from the rear. I intuitively knew that it was indeed a live ammo ... number."
This burst of gunshots on July 7 became the place where researchers from both sides have repeatedly argued since.
"In a sense, the issue of the first shot is not so important." Rong Weimu believes that the researcher of the Institute of Modern Studies of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences said, "You have to see who this territory is."
From Rong Weimu's point of view, this war is inevitable: "From the" Ugly Treaty "to the September 18th Incident and then to the July 7th Incident, Japan's expansion policy toward China has never changed. The war was doomed from the beginning. "
After this burst of gunfire, the Japanese marched under the gate of Wanping City and demanded to enter the city. The reason was to find a Japanese soldier who was missing when he was just named, but was rejected by the 29th Army.
The two sides stalemate until two or three o'clock in the morning on July 8. During this process, Qin Dechun, then deputy commander of the 29th Army and mayor of Peiping, continuously received calls from Ji Xingwen , head of the 219th regiment: "The Japanese army has become more rigid.
Qin Dechun's response was: "It is the duty of the soldiers to defend the land, and fight!"
At that time, the 29th army had a strong morale, and Ji Xingwen recalled that it was not a day for the soldiers to bear humiliation, and that the stagnation in the chest had no chance to vent. I heard that I wanted to fight Japan, and all jumped up.
Later, Chiang Kai-shek, who was far away in Lushan, wrote in his diary when he heard that the Japanese army and the 29th army were at war: "On July 7, the pirates provoked at Lugou Bridge ... it was time to fight."
Living with the bridge
"As soon as the gun rang that night, my father felt like something was going to happen." 78 years later, the son of He Jiyu, the 110th brigade brigade of the 29th Army, remembered his father's account.
The day he said was that at 4:30 a.m. on July 8, 1937, the Japanese army started shelling Wanping City, and the Lugou Railway Bridge fell.
At that time, He Jizhen and Xie Shiquan's troops were stationed in Xiyuan. On the morning of the 8th, He Jizhen came to Wanping City and shouted at the door: "Xie Biezi (Xie Shiquan), gather."
He Jichen asked Xie Shiquan to take his 220 regiment to Lugou Bridge to reinforce Ji Xingwen, and the two stayed at Lugou Bridge for 20 days.
It was also that night that He Jizhen chose 200 people from these two groups. He Xu recalled that his father gave Jin Zhenzhong a death order: "If you Jinzhenzhong did not take down the railway bridge today, raise your head to see me." The railway bridge was recaptured.
In Liu Su's view, almost everyone in this battle "destined for all sacrifices."
Walking between the shelves of the Beijing Archives, Liu Su picked up the "Beijing Archives Historical Materials" from the shelves. The book case trembled and almost fell off.
In order to study the historical facts of Lugou Bridge, this book has been viewed by people and has become the most broken one in the archives.
In the second series of historical materials in 2005, a Lugou bridge song was clearly recorded. The first sentence was: "Lugou Bridge! Lugou Bridge! The tomb of the boy is here!"
This coincided with the order of Feng Zhian , the 37th Division Chief of the Front Command at the time: "Don't be afraid of sacrifice, Lugou Bridge is the grave of Seoul, etc., coexist and die with the bridge, you must not retreat!"
Fighting sentiment quickly spread to all walks of life in Peiping. On July 8th, the Beiping City Student Salvation Federation sent 4 representatives to Lugouqiao to support the 29th Army. It was 6:40 in the morning, and the students remembered the sound of machine guns and cannons under Wanping City.
On the second day of the Lugouqiao Incident, the Chinese Red Army generals Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Peng Dehuai, He Long , Lin Biao, and Xu Xiangqian also called Jiang Jieshi jointly: "Sadness and indignation ... respectfully ordered the 29th Army to resist bravely. The purpose of the Third Plenary Session is to insult and resist the war. The general mobilization of the country, defending Pingjin, defending North China, recovering lost ground. Generals of the Red Army are willing to serve the country and deal with the enemy. "
The 29 soldiers defended their positions and were stationed in a company north of Lugou Bridge. Only 4 survived, and the rest were all killed.
Lugou Bridge really became a grave.
Many years later, the generals of the 29th Army were willing to live and die in the same place as the soldiers. He Jiyu, commander of the 110th brigade, and Jin Zhenzhong, commander of the 3rd battalion of the 219th regiment, scattered the ashes here.
He Yan remembered that the old man of his father He Jizhen came down to attend the memorial service. They recalled that they stood on the wall of Wanping at that time, so far away, they could hear the "click" sound from the slashing on the railway bridge.
Nanyuan Air Strike
That battle progressed between China and Japan's ups and downs, until the worst battle of the July 7th Incident: the Nanyuan air strike.
Wu Jiangping, a veteran of the 29th Army, remembers that at dawn on July 28, 30 Japanese planes circled over Nanyuan, with craters, soil pillars, and smoke. This was the total offensive launched by the Japanese army towards Peiping according to a plan.
Speaking again of the Lugou Bridge and Nanyuan air strikes, Wu Jiangping opened his deep-set eyes and was emotional: "When they broke out, they were all dead and fell beside me."
In Wu Jiangping's mouth, they were the 8,000 defenders of the Guide Garden, including 1,500 student soldiers.
The students and soldiers of the military training corps were not counted as participating in the battle. After the July 7th Incident, each team started firing. The knife sharpeners near Peiping City all sharpened the swords of the student soldiers. The entire barracks sharpened. .
The student of the 38th division of Nanyuan's teaching team, Fu Xiqing, remembered that the students stopped all courses, built fortresses, dug out shelters, traffic jams during the day, and slept with large guns and clothes at night.
The sword was unable to withstand bombs in the air. The Chinese army and student soldiers in Nanyuan became the targets of the attack. The number of casualties is unknown.
Older Nanyuan villagers told Liu Su the process of burying the Nanyuan student army in situ in 2005: hundreds of remains, not even a roster, swelled on the spot, the situation of the war was tense, there was no way to bury it In this way, he pushed into the ditch beside the road and covered it with a layer of loess, even if he rested.
One of the buried sites of the 29th Army soldiers was in the area of Shicun and Pomegranate Village.
In the spring of 2015, Shicun and Shiliuzhuang subway stations, like any urban-rural junction, are covered in dust and hawkers, surrounded by hawkers and pedestrians in a hurry.
In the voice of his driver yelling, Liu Su's voice was very low: "These people can't think of it, but history is so close to us."
Except for him, I am afraid no one knows that the narrow triangular land on the bottom of the foot is the sacrifice ground of the 29th Army's deputy commander, Lin Linge .
In 2005, Liu Su visited Shicun to look for the remains of the sacrifice of Xun Lin Pavilion.
Qiao Delin, a villager born in 1924, recalled that on July 28, 1937, the Japanese soldiers occupied Shicun and set fire points on the roofs of the villagers, firing at 29 troops in the blue silk tent on the south side.
On the roof of Qiao Delin's house, he drove two Japanese machine guns. The battle started, and the machine gun bullet shell "fall" into his yard, with the temperature and a hint of gunpowder, and fell into the hole where the villagers hid.
After the Japanese soldiers left, Qiao Delin went to check his crops and vegetable plots. The stick plots were all brushed down by machine guns. In a triangle planted with yam, a flesh-limbed body lay.
Later, the pocket watch was taken to the Qiang family, and as a relic of the Xuan Lin Pavilion, it was preserved by his son Xun Bing until the Cultural Revolution.
Zhang Shouling, the former education chief of the Military Training Corps, recalled that after receiving the retreat order, Xun and he immediately decided to order the three brigades to use the cover of the blue gauze tent to withdraw from Nanyuan, and were not allowed to take the road.
Upon arriving near Dahongmen, Xuanling Pavilion suddenly encountered a troop of Japanese troops and was killed unfortunately; the same was sacrificed to the 132nd Division Chief Zhao Dengyu .
Wu Jiangping became a survivor.
During the retreat, he found that a Japanese machine gunner used three machine guns on a mountain bag to control the three-direction scanning task. He quietly climbed up from the back with the sound of machine guns, and cut off the opponent's head with one stroke.
After 78 years, Wu Jiangping was taking a nap in the room on the second floor of a nursing home in Yanjiao.
He was 102 years old, his eye sockets were deep, his mouth was open, and the sound of air flowing in and out of his throat.
Suffering from severe Parkin's disease and atrophy of the whole body, Wu Jiangping's fingers curled into a deformed fist. This is almost the last veteran who can be visited after the Lugouqiao Incident.
When he saw someone coming, he would slowly raise his right hand to the level of his shoulders. When he could no longer move, he lowered his head and moved in the direction of his hand.
His nursing explained that Wu Jiangping had always used marching rituals with his out of control body.
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