In 1944, the Burma battle broke out in the Imphal region of India and Burma. A Japanese military officer and celebrity came out of this battle. This battle has until now been designated by the Japan Broadcasting Association as the least responsible campaign. The book "Myanmar Operation" compiled by the Japanese Defense Agency's War History Research Office described it as "an unintentional battle conducted by the Japanese troops in Myanmar.
Now let ’s introduce the situation on the Indian-Myanmar border.
The face of the Indo-Myanmar border
Located on the Himalaya ridge, the Indian-Myanmar border is a world-renowned barren land . The mountain range here is hundreds of kilometers, with peaks rising, and some as high as 10,000 feet above sea level. And before crossing these high mountains , there are two major obstacles in Myanmar. One is the Pro-Dun River with a river width of 1,000 meters; the other is the Mingjing Mountains, which is 2,500 feet above sea level and 50 kilometers wide. There are only two to three marching roads. The shortest main marching road is the Mandalay-Ribo-Damu-Impar-Kohima-Dimapur road. This road is also mostly dangerous. The path of sheep intestines, starting from Mandalay, is more than 1,200 kilometers long. Moreover, this barren area is the region with the most rainfall in the world. The seasonal winds in June-September each year lead to continuous heavy rain. In this season, heaven and earth change, all rivers, valleys, floods, big trees float, roads collapse, and traffic is completely cut off.
Let me introduce the environment of Imphal. Imphal is a border city on the border between eastern India and Myanmar. It is located on the main road from Chittagong (now Bangladesh) to Assam in eastern India. The city is surrounded by the Manipur Mountains, and the suburbs are 40 miles long and 20 miles wide by the Imphal Plain. Since the British army defeated Myanmar and retreated, the British have built Imphal into a huge military and logistical supply base. Barracks, hospitals, arsenals, ammunition depots and quarters are scattered throughout the plains. Not to mention US aviation wing's future support for British and Indian coalition forces. Kathmandu is full of aid supplies prepared by the United States for the National Army. Therefore, in the logistics, the British-Indian coalition army has the right time and place. Then why is this Impal far from the Japanese army asking Japan to use his whole body to take him down. Let me analyze
-. The British fought against the Japanese several times before the Battle of Imphal. If you lose too much, morale will prevail. On the other hand, India is now almost defenseless. The Japanese army controlled the Andaman and Nicobar Islands with swift momentum, swarmed to the border of India and Myanmar, and even swept the Indian Ocean. Under the prestige of the Japanese army, Indian officials and people were very disturbed and were in chaos for a while. Hundreds of thousands of British, Indian, Chinese troops and refugees who retreated from Myanmar with bare hands flocked to India, adding to the chaos and anxiety.
Second; the situation in India has changed drastically due to the presence of Chandra Bose in Singapore to lead the independence movement. The struggle for independence has swept India. The Congress Party of India convened a conference in Mumbai on August 9th and 9th to pass a "resolution calling for Britain to withdraw from India" and launched a full disobedience campaign. One-sided give Japan a cardiotonic
three. MacArthur successively won many islands on the Pacific battlefield. The Japanese navy failed again in the Pacific. Desperate for an offensive preemptive strike
four. The Kuomintang's 50,000 new troops in India plus 13 divisions in Kunming. The sense of urgency makes Japan feel that the U.S., China, and the UK have opened the Myanmar battlefield in the near future
Five, the most important characters appeared. Mutaguchi. The initiator of the Battle of Lugou Bridge. It was a great friend. Now commander of the Japanese 15th Army. It has 3 divisions. He used to be the only division head of the chrysanthemum division (18 divisions) in Japan. It is said that these 18 divisions are likely to be the largest division in Japanese history. It was under his strong encouragement. The Japanese base camp only launched the Imphal battle plan, code-named "U".
Let ’s talk about this battle plan
In the serial number of the Japanese base camp, the battle of Imphal was named as "Uru". Lieutenant General Moudaguchi, who actively advocated launching this battle, is a well-known young general in the Japanese Army. In the early days of the invasion of Burma, this person served as the commander of the 18th Division of Japan. He later succeeded Lieutenant General Iida Shoji as a commander of the 15th Army because of his combat effectiveness. Since taking over, he has strongly advocated the attack on Imphal and occupied the Assam area of East India. He believes that with a troop strength of about 3 divisions and enough food for 3 weeks, he can capture Imphal in a short time. The Japanese General of the Southern Army, the commander-in-chief, Teruchi Shochi, and the commander of the Burmese army, Gen. Kawabe Masanori, considered the logistical issue and initially did not agree with this adventure plan. However, they could not stand the suffering of Nian Taguchi and his group of mighty generals Advise and promise that the Southern Army Command will actively report to Tokyo Base for approval. Commander Mutaguchi actively advocated his offensive operational thinking whenever he had the opportunity. His positive proposition attracted the attention of the Burmese Army Command and the Southern Army Command and attracted the attention of the base camp. Then a potential desire to attack East India was reawakened. At the end of 1943, the general in the temple sent his deputy chief of general staff, Lieutenant General Tobe, to Tokyo, and put forward the opinions of the Japanese army in Burma to implement the Imphal operation, and asked the base camp to make a decision. In view of the increasingly unfavorable situation of the entire Pacific Ocean against Japan, the base camp sought the following five questions concerning the Impal battle:
1. Care must be taken in preparing for the British and Indian forces in the Bay of Bengal and southern Myanmar
Landing operations along the coast of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In this case, can you take corresponding measures?
2. As a result of the capture of the Imphal Plain, will it need to increase its strength as a result?
Will it have adverse consequences for defending Myanmar?
3. The strength of our air force is extremely disadvantaged, and is there no way to complete ground operations?
4. Can supplies keep up?
5. Is the 15th Army's operational assumptions solid and reliable?
On January 17, 1944, the Lieutenant General arrived in Yangon with the approval document of the base camp, and conveyed to the senior generals of the Burmese Front. At this point, "from the summer of Showa 17 (1942), the Indian offensive operations that have been discussed many times, the base camp finally made a decision."
Why did Japan's offensive against India first choose Imphal? This is determined by Imphal's strategic position. Imphal is the main border city of East India and is located on the main road from Chittagong to Assam. The city is surrounded by the Manipur Mountains, and the suburbs are 40 miles long and 20 miles wide by the Imphal Plain. In the two years since the British army was expelled from Myanmar, a huge base has been built here. One day, the Allies will launch a counterattack from this base. On the plain, there are large-scale Basha barracks (camps made of bamboo and reeds), hospitals, ordnance depots, ammunition depots, workshops, and various large facilities required by military bases. Asphalt roads extending in all directions pass through the middle of the base . In addition, a wide automobile road has been built from the virgin jungle since 1942, connecting Imphal with Dimapur, an important railway terminal for transferring munitions. "In Imphal, everything is well-organized and well-organized, with all the conditions that a base for future counter-attack forces should have." After Mountbatten came to office in the Southeast Asian theater, he visited here and got such an impression. The question of destroying the enemy's counterattack base can complete the defensive task. As for the idea of the 15th Army's long-distance attack on Assam, it is out of the question, and it is not studied here. The conclusion of the discussion was that in order to complete the defense tasks in the central and northern parts of Myanmar, it was necessary to take advantage of the enemy ’s counterattack preparations before it was completed, and then attack and destroy its counteroffensive base, Imphal, and then advance the line of defense to the border between Imphal and West Myanmar. Steep mountains. There is a premise that the situation on the Nu River and Fu Kun needs to be maintained during this campaign. The idea of the 15th Army's attack on Assam was naturally put on hold, but this idea was still deeply lurking in the minds of the commanders of the 15th Army Command, and it also had a subtle reflection in its operational assumptions. As for how to solve the major problem of supply difficulties, it was left as a pending case. In order to complete this battle, it is estimated that 150 squadrons of squadrons, 60 squadrons of heavy horses, and powerful field road construction teams are required to apply to the front army accordingly. The Commander-in-Chief of the Southern Army sent the Deputy Chief of Staff of Inada to the base camp to state the necessity of the Impal campaign, and at the same time, applied to the base camp to strengthen the troops required for this battle, that is, the 15th, 54th Division, and the Independent 24th. The brigade and military units will allocate additional munitions (that is, the ammunition capacity of four divisions, 1,000 units of auto parts, and others). On January 17, 1944, the Lieutenant General arrived in Yangon with the approval document of the base camp, and conveyed to the senior generals of the Burmese Front. At this point, "from the summer of Showa 17 (1942), the Indian offensive operations that have been discussed many times, the base camp finally made a decision."
When Lt. Gen. Mutianguchi's vanguard crossed the Pro-Dunjiang River to Imphal on March 8, Mountbatten was still hospitalized. It turned out that when Mountbatten visited Stilwell 's frontline command a few days ago, he drove a jeep on a forest path by himself. Unfortunately, the front wheel of the car held a moso bamboo, and after it passed, the bamboo bounced back into his left eye. Mountbatten said afterwards: "I couldn't believe whether my eyeballs were still in my eyes. It took considerable courage to prove this. I found it was still there and was relieved, but then I I found that my left eye was completely blind. After I urgently bandaged, I continued to drive forward. "Later, Mountbatten was taken to Lido's Army Hospital. Fortunately, there was an American ophthalmologist Colonel Shay. He was diagnosed and said that Mountbatten had severe internal bleeding in his left eye, but as long as he was not overworked, he would soon be fine. Mountbatten had bandages in his eyes and rested for five days, but news from Imphal made him anxious . He disregarded the doctor's advice and left the hospital himself, arriving at Slim Command in Camilla. He knew that his left eye would be blinded by doing so, but he would go to the front to deploy warfare even if he would be blind.
Lieutenant General Slim saw Mr. Mountbatten's eyes wrapped in bandages and being dragged into his command headquarters. He was moved to hug him tightly, and then immediately reported to him the current fighting situation. Mountbatten could not read or write at this time, but his thoughts were still very clear and keen. After listening to Slim's report, he thought for a long time and made up his mind to: evacuate the troops defending along the border west of the Pro-Dunjiang River to the high ground near Imphal to organize the defense. Because he believes that this will keep the Japanese offensive forces away from their logistic bases. The enemy will not only be forced to fight against the wide pro-Dunjiang river, but also rely entirely on the very unsafe jungle transportation line. In addition, our own air superiority will not only ensure the supply of some troops that may be surrounded, but also prevent the Japanese from obtaining supplies. As the rainy season is about to turn some dry riverbeds into turbulent rapids, the Japanese must quickly reach a decisive victory before the rainy season arrives, otherwise they will have to face a disaster. According to war history experts from the Japanese Defense Agency after the war, "This decision is at the heart of the Japanese army, and Lieutenant General Mutiankou did not see it."
After Mountbatten made his decision, he left Camilla to return to Delhi to formulate and coordinate a plan to mobilize troops from Rakhine to reinforce Imphal.
The main mission of Imphal is the 33rd Division and 15th Division of the 15th Japanese Army. The division commanders are Lieutenant General Yanada and Lieutenant General Yamauchi.
After the 33rd Division crossed the Pro-Dunjiang River, the division was divided into two commando teams, the left and right. In order to annihilate the 17th British-Indian Division in the Tingding and Thongzan areas, the two commandos entered the east side of Thongzan and the Singh area between March 15 and 18, at this time, they had more than a thousand cars The 17th British-Indian Division, following the order of retreat, was marching between the sheep 's intestine trail on the cliffs north and south of Thong Zan and the deep mountain canyon of the Manipur River, and was pursued by the Japanese army. After receiving a report of this situation, Lieutenant General Mutiankou was ecstatic. However, he never expected that his subordinates made mistakes at this time: one of them was that when the right wing commando of the division was inserted into a vital spot in the heart of the British-Indian 17th Division, Totem (Northeast Thongzan) Later), an illusion occurred, thinking that the other party had fled to the north, so he gave up the vital point of Totem and gathered to the valley on the east side. As soon as a mistake was found, it was too late and the area was reoccupied by British and Indian forces. Another mistake was that the left-wing commando sent power to the division during a fierce battle with the opponent, saying: "The codebook was destroyed and the banner was dealt with. To fight with the determination of all sacrifices. "The head of the Yantian Division mistakenly thought that they would destroy the entire army , and ordered them to retreat temporarily to save their strength, which was equivalent to opening the escape route for the 17th British-Indian Division, bringing hundreds of doors. The cannon pulled by the car withdrew in the direction of Imphal. In particular, the head of the division Liutian considered the issue of supplies and did not immediately pursue the enemy in the direction of Imphal, and openly proposed to Mu Tiankou that the troops "should immediately stop the 'U' operation and switch to a defensive situation." Mou Tiankou was so angry that he soon withdrew his post and was replaced by the commander of the division, Major Tanaka, known for his bravery.
After being ordered, Nobuyuki Tanaka immediately launched an aggressive offensive operation in the area south of Imphal, and soon hit the Bisimpur area about 20 kilometers southwest of Imphal. Although many wing captains and large captains have died in battle and the division's combat effectiveness has been greatly reduced, the southern passage of Imphal has been blocked.
The Japanese 15th Division that attacked Imphal from the North Road was ordered by the commander of the Mutaguchi Army, and all the coalitions were all lightly dressed, "advancing through the mountains like a fire". They passed through the jungle at an astonishing speed, crossed the river, and after capturing Ukuru, northeast of Imphal, seized the secret statement between Imphal and Kosima on April 8 and blocked it. Imphal's northern channel.
Faced with the fact that the Japanese divisions had formed a north-south encirclement attack on Imphal, Lieutenant General Slim sent an urgent call to Mountbatten for reinforcements. In addition, after the two divisions of Lieutenant General Mu Tiankou formed a north-south attack on Imphal, in early May, Mu Tiankou decided to focus on one aspect of the 33rd Division. He transferred tanks and heavy artillery wing from Yamamoto detachment. He also sent two infantry brigade reinforcements from the newly incorporated 53rd Division, and visited the 33rd Division to direct the battle. The main opponents of the Japanese in this direction were the British and Indian 20th and 17th Divisions.
At the beginning of the offensive, the Japanese sent heavy troops to intersperse northward, occupying a prominent hill that was densely forested between the Iriel Gorge and the Imphal-Kosima Highway. The 5th British-Indian Division hastened to help. A fierce battle that lasted from mid-April to early May was carried out on this threatening and prominent position. In the end, the Japanese were repelled at the southern end of the protruding hill from which the entire Imphal plain could be monitored.
The rainy season is coming. The floating showers are getting stronger and more frequent, and the ground gradually becomes more slippery. Since the Japanese army had almost no airdrop power, they had to rely on the trails in the jungle to carry supplies by land. With the air force of the Allied Forces in control, the supplies that could be transported from the rear of Myanmar to the front line were minimal. Hunger, and in sparsely populated areas, you can only fill your belly with wild vegetables and caught beasts. Moreover, in order to avoid the bombardment of Allied planes, when the weather is fine, it is not only impossible to cook, or even to dry clothes. It appears that Mountbatten's view that the rainy season is beneficial to the Allies is confirmed. Mountbatten believes that unless the Japanese can win a full victory in the final round, the thunderous bursts of the rainy season will predict the opponent's defeat. In his view, the massive attrition war that thwarted the enemy's attempt was nearing completion. On every possible path, the Japanese army was blocked. His headquarters began to formulate his own offensive plan, not only intending to lift the imperial siege, but also preparing to wipe out the Japanese 15th Army of Lieutenant General Moguchi.
The British and Indian armies were still defensive in Imphal, but Mountbatten and Slim started to fight back. The first active offensive actually began on May 15. On that day, the 48th Brigade of the 17th British and Indian Division wedged into the back of the 33rd Division of the Japanese Corps, and a fortification was built at the No. 33 milestone on the Tieping-Impah Highway. The Japanese army thundered violently, throwing all available troops, including logistical forces, into a counterattack. Four days later, the 15th Division of Japan also came up to join a counterattack, but was still repelled. Subsequently, the 48th British and Indian Brigade advanced northward to Mo Iran. After fierce fighting, they set up another foothold there, threatening the rear path of the Japanese 33rd Division.
To the southeast of Imphal, Paler was the area where the main forces of Mutiankou assembled. In order to make another last effort, Mu Tiankou decided to change the main attack front, detour to the north of Imphal, and tried to penetrate Imphal from the north. The rainy season has really begun. The pouring rain washes the ground, the trail lanes become slippery mud belts, and the jungle is like a steamy green hell. The Japanese advanced through the messy, stinking jungle. On June 10, the Japanese army and the 20th British and Indian Division met head-to-head in the jungle, and then began a brutal tug-of-war. Due to the months of bitter fighting in the 33rd Regiment of Japan, all yaks and most of the yaks have died of illness or have been eaten as hunger. The ammunition carried by people's backs and shoulders has been almost exhausted. Supported by the spirit of Bushido, while fighting hunger and disease in the jungle, he was fighting decisively in the continuous rain. By the 22nd, they had miraculously broken through the blocking of the British and Indian troops, rushed out of the jungle and hit the edge of Imphal. The Japanese officers and soldiers "looked at the streets of Imphal and prayed for the success of the battle."
However, at this time, the Japanese 33rd Division and the 15th Division of the deployment were exhausted, and their actual combat effectiveness dropped to less than 30% compared to when they crossed the Pro-Dunjiang River and entered India. Offensive, let alone the counterattack power of the opponent. They are facing a crisis of collapse on the fringe of the Imphal Plain.
The outcome of a battle depends on logistics supplies. This statement makes sense. When British and Indian soldiers fought, they could get enough ammunition, food, sweet wine and even changed shirts, while Japanese soldiers ate wild vegetables and chewed rice; when a battalion of the British and Indian 17th Division recaptured Tatum to cover the division's main direction Imphal retreated, and when Totem was surrounded, the soldiers were scorched on the high ground, thirsty, and could not find the water source. Mountbatten immediately ordered the Air Force to drop water storage bags at all costs. The soldiers I felt that my superiors missed them, and insisted there stubbornly. The hungry Japanese junior officers and soldiers could not get the care of their superiors, and Mu Tiankou had no way to solve the army's provision of supply. The morale that can only be sustained by the implementation of discipline and spiritual strength can not be maintained for a long time. His 31st Division was on the Kohima frontline, and something went wrong.
The so-called Imphal battle, in addition to a series of battles around Imphal, also included fierce fighting between the British and Japanese sides in Kosima north of Imphal and Ukuru. The offensive and defensive battle there was an integral part of the entire Imphal campaign, and was ignited almost simultaneously with the fighting on the Imphal side
Battle of Imphal (Battle of Imphal, Japanese codename: Battle No. ，), one of the battles launched by Japanese troops from Burma against British India during World War II. The battle began in March 1944 and ended in July of the same year. The end, and finally ended with the defeat of the Japanese army.
From Myanmar to India, you must cross the heavy jungle zone, cross the turbulent Chindun River, and cross the 2,000-meter-high Arakan Mountains. Not only is it difficult to advance the offensive, but supply is also a major issue. Therefore, the Japanese base camp has always supported the battle Reserved attitude. The Allies in the Indian-Myanmar battlefield have since entered the strategic phase of the total offensive. .
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