Japanese troop increase and defeat
After the Japanese armistice, they tried their best to increase troops. The Japanese Navy Ministry immediately ordered four Sasebo Twenty-sixth destroyers, led by the cruiser "Longtian", arrived in Shanghai on January 30 and landed at Huangpu Wharf, including Sasebo Third Special Marines soldiers. 474 people and large arms.
On the morning of January 31, the Japanese aircraft carriers "Kaga" (26,000 tons) and "Fengxiang" (7470 tons) arrived in Shanghai with about 30 aircraft of the First Aviation Fleet and were anchored on the Sea of Saddle Islands, about 130 kilometers east of Shanghai. At 4:00 pm, three cruisers "Naka" (5195 tons), "Yura" (5100 tons) and "Awuyi" (5100 tons) and 4 mines arrived in Shanghai and carried more than 2000 Marines. Log in in batches.
On February 1st, the Japanese cruise ship "Takuni Maru" brought Yokosuka First Special Marines (525) to land at Shanghai Huishan Pier.
On February 2nd, the Japanese Navy ’s Central Ministry took ships outside the Yangtze River ’s first outboard fleet to the flagship of the Izumo (Izumo arrived in Shanghai on February 6th) and was admired by Admiral Nomura As a commander, Yoshiburo formed the third fleet and unified command into combat.
After the Japanese troops increased, starting on February 3, they again attacked the Chinese garrison in Zhabei and Baziqiao, and were repelled by the Chinese garrison. On February 4, the Japanese army launched its first general offensive, and the fighting spread to Jiangwan and Wusong. During the fierce battle, although Wu Yan's open-air battery was destroyed by enemy bombardment, the Japanese army could not land under the resistance of the Chinese defenders. At that time, the 88th Division antiaircraft artillery company commanded by the 4th Regiment of the 156th Brigade of the 19th Army was shot down by a Japanese machine. After the attack was shattered, Shiozawa was reassigned and transferred to his home country.
Replaced by Shiozawa, Lieutenant General Nomura Yoshimura, commander of the newly formed Third Fleet. After Nomura arrived, the Japanese began to reinforce the Army. As early as when the situation in Shanghai was tense, Japan had intended to send an army, but was rejected by the Navy. But as the battle went unfavorable, the Navy had to ask the Army for help. On February 2, the Japanese cabinet decided to officially dispatch the army. Due to the urgent situation in Shanghai, it was decided to send Shanghai to send a mixed brigade and independent chariot (the commander of the brigade under the command of Major General Xiong Mi) and the ninth division (the leader of the division, Lieutenant General Ueda Kenji). Second Squadron and other units (hereinafter referred to as the 24th Brigade). At the same time, the Japanese Navy also sent Yokosuka 2nd Special Marines to Shanghai. The mixed 24th brigade landed in Wujing in the afternoon on the 7th. So far, the Japanese Air Force has increased to more than 10,000 people. At dawn on February 8th, the 24th Brigade of the Japanese Army attacked Zhang Huayu, Yunzaoyu, and Wujing Town in 3 ways, all of which were repelled by me.
On February 10, the 6th Regiment of the 122nd Brigade of the Chinese Guards marched from the Liu family to the Yang family, defending Hujiazhuang along the line from Yunzao's north shore to Wujing. Zhang Zhizhong , the 261st Brigade of the 87th Division of the 5th Army, went from Nanxiang to Jiading on the 12th, and sent a regiment to replace the 4th regiment of the 122nd Brigade of Luodian.
On February 11, Nomura told western reporters: "The day when the Japanese army crossed Yunzao was the end of the Japanese operation." He also said: "The day when Wu Yue set foot on the trenches of the Huajun was not far away. I hope that Jun Jun will look at the situation, and then the resistance in East China will end. "
On the afternoon of the 11th, the Japanese army attacked Yunzaoyu and Caojiaqiao on the front line while blasting in Zhabei, and continued to reinforce. The 19th Route Army fought fiercely, and the two sides fought hand-to-hand with extremely fierce fighting. At night, all the offending enemies were repelled. On the 13th, a Japanese army brigade once crossed the line of Yunzaoyu and Jijiaqiao, and was immediately attacked by the 61st Division's Zhang Yanlu. The Chinese army seized many firearms and eventually defeated the enemy. At this point, Nomura's attempt to subdue Wu Jun's Chinese army plan from several roads was eventually crushed.
Japanese army sends troops for the second time
On February 8th, after the news that the Japanese army suffered heavy damage from Wu Mi arrived in Tokyo, according to a decree approved by the Japanese Emperor, the Japanese Chief of Staff Zai In urgently ordered the Army's Ninth Division (Division Director Ueda Kenji) to quickly reinforce Shanghai. In the afternoon of February 13th, the main force of the Ninth Division arrived in Shanghai Port. On the 16th, all the officers and men of the division completed their landing at Wujing. As a result, Lieutenant General Ueda, head of the ninth division, took over the commander-in-chief of Nomura. At this time, the Japanese aggressor's sea, land, and air forces had more than 30,000 troops, sixty or seventy artillery guns, more than 60 aircraft, and dozens of ships concentrated at Wusongkou.
Ueda first issued a statement late at night on the 13th, declaring: "If you hinder the mission of the division, you will take decisive measures and never hesitate." On the 18th, Ueda proposed a ultimatum to Cai Tingyi, saying: "Expensive The army should immediately cease fighting; and should withdraw from the following areas before 5 noon on February 20: in the area of the west bank of the Huangpu River, retreat north of Caojiadu Town, Zhoujiaqiao Town, and Puji Town, which connects the western end of the concession; in Huangpu The Jiangdong area retreated from the north connecting the Lannidu and Zhangjialou town lines, and each retreated to an area 20 kilometers away from the border line of each concession (including the Lion Forest Fort). At the same time, other military facilities such as the battery in the above areas were removed, It must not be set up again .... If the above items are not implemented, the Japanese army will have to take free action against your army, and all consequences arising therefrom shall be borne by your army. "
After receiving the ultimatum from Ueda, Cai and Chiang ordered the frontline troops to fire violently at Japanese positions as an answer and warning to Uemuda's ultimatum.
On the morning of the 20th, Ueda ordered the Japanese army to attack the entire line, adopted a central breakthrough, and fought the two wings. With the 9th Division leader Tujiang Bay and the Temple Line junction, they attempted to siege Wusong to the north and the Kurume brigade, and to encircle the north with the Marines. . The Japanese first bombarded with artillery, followed by the infantry in coordination with the tank forces, and attacked the first line of Zhang Huayu and the first line of Yangshupu in two ways. Both were repelled by the Chinese garrison. There were more than 1,000 Japanese troops and more than ten tanks in Zhabei. Let it go. On the 21st, Ueda personally commanded thousands of infantrymen. With the cooperation of aircraft and artillery, they attacked the Chinese garrison positions. Both sides suffered heavy casualties. The fighting was delayed until dawn on the 23rd. The Japanese army tried to subdue Jiangwan Town from Jiangwan Station. The Chinese garrison The heroic counterattack, multiple charges, the Japanese army was free to rise, Shao Zuozuo, and hundreds of soldiers, the Japanese army did not fall apart (Japanese War of Invasion of China P181).
In terms of temple line, the former 19th Route Army defended the ground, and on the 16th it received the reinforcement of the Fifth Army. The fifth army commander Zhang Zhizhong, under the jurisdiction of the 87th Division, the 88th Division, and the Army Officer School taught the Corps, the entire army of about 20,000 people. The 87th Division (Zhang Zhizhong concurrently and deputy division commander Wang Jingjiu) under the jurisdiction of Sun Yuanliang 's 259 Brigade and Song Xizhen 's 261 Brigade served as the line along Hujiazhuang along Yunzaoyu's north bank via Caojiaqiao to the west of Wujing; 88th Division (Master Yu Jishi, Deputy Chief Li Yannian) It manages the 262th brigade of Qianlun body and the 264th brigade of Yang Bufei, serving as the line from the north end of Jiangwan through Miaoxing Town, Zhouxiang to the south bank of Yunzaoyu, and teaches one of the team (captain Tang Guangyu) to be the north and south gates of the Lion Forest, Chuanshakou, Liuhekou, Yanglinkou and Qiyakou are on the frontline along the river.
On the 22nd, the Ninth Division of the Japanese Army set out to attack the temple position of the 88th Division of the Fifth Army. The plane bombarded continuously and thousands of shells bombarded the Chinese garrison position. However, under Zhang Zhizhong's personal command, he was hit by three sides of the Sun Yuanliang Brigade, Song Xizhen Brigade, and the 61th Division of the 19th Route Army. The enemy was defeated, and the temple position finally turned to safety . The Japanese Ninth Division and Kurume were the elite of the mixed brigade, with heavy casualties. This is the "temple of the temple." In the following days, although the enemy forces continued to bombard and attack, they were repelled by the defending forces. The Japanese army suffered a heavy blow, changing from a full line of attack to a focused attack, and then forced to suspend the attack. To 25th, Ueda's total offensive plan was also declared bankrupt.
Japanese troop increase and Chinese retreat
At this time, the flagship of the Japanese Navy's Third Fleet, the Izumo, was injured by the diving of the Nineteenth Army's death squadron, and the country was shaken; and due to the labor division's mobilization , the battle was difficult to resolve quickly. To this end, on the 23rd, as decided by the Japanese Cabinet meeting, the army was dispatched to send reinforcements. Therefore, the staff headquarters decided to establish the Shanghai Dispatching Command, and Maeda Cabinet Chief Lu Xiang Shirakawa Yoshito succeeded Ueda, and sent the 11th Division (the commander of the commander, Admiral Hoto Tokuro), and the 14th Division (the division Lieutenant General Matsuki Naoto) and more than a hundred planes came to China to launch a larger-scale offensive in Shanghai.
After several troop increases, the Japanese army under the command of Shirakawa has reached more than 70,000 troops, 80 warships, and 300 aircraft, and its combat effectiveness has increased dramatically. At that time, the total strength of the Chinese garrison was less than 50,000, the equipment was poor, and after a hard battle in January, the casualties were more serious. The river defense in the Liuhe area of Taicang on the left was weak. Bai Chuan learned the lessons of the previous three commanders' failure in frontal attack and decided to land from Liuhe on the wing side and hit the Shanghai defenders on both sides. Directed the 9th Division and other units to attack Lu and Shanghai, and the 3rd Fleet escorted the 11th Division into the Yangtze River estuary. They suddenly landed from Liuhekou, Yanglinkou, Qiyakou, and quickly defended the rear. On March 1st, the Japanese launched an offensive in all aspects of the north, Jiangwan, and temple lines. They continuously bombed with heavy artillery, field cannons, steel cannons, and aircraft, while the infantry attacked, fighting with each other, and both suffered heavy casualties; and At the same time, the 11th Division of Shirakawa ordered the Liuhe River to make use of the weakness of China ’s weak military forces to forcibly land in Qiyakou, Yanglinkou, Liubinkou and other places to occupy Liuhe. The fall of Liuhe has seriously threatened the Chinese side and rear, so the army had to retreat to the second line of defense (the line of Jiading and Huangdu) on the evening of March 1. Japanese troops captured Shanghai on the 2nd. On March 3, after the Japanese occupation of Zhenru, Nanxiang declared a truce.
National Government's Negotiations with Japan and League of Nations Diplomacy
After the Shanghai Anti-Japanese War, the Nanjing government adopted the policy of "resisting one side and negotiating one side." Therefore, while resisting, the European and American countries and the League of Nations were called upon to ask for "fulfilling their treaty responsibilities." Because the Shanghai War directly threatened the interests of various imperialists, they were forced to adopt a more positive attitude than the 9/18 incident . Because of this, in the course of the Shanghai War, the "mediation" that Britain, the United States, and France rushed forward has been constant.
On the second day of the incident (29th), the British and American consulates in Shanghai intervened, and China and Japan described an oral agreement for a three-day truce; in fact, the Japanese army did not stop the attack. On February 2, Britain, the United States, France, Italy, and Germany each addressed China and Japan and "proposed a cessation of the conflict; (a) the two sides immediately cease all acts of violence under the following conditions; (b) between the two countries thereafter No more mobilization or preparation of hostilities; (3) Fighters in Shanghai, China and Japan, withdraw from each other's place of contact; (4) Set up a neutral zone to separate the two combatants to protect the public concession. Garrison, various methods. Drafted by the consulate; (5) Once the two countries have accepted the treaty, they will not make a request or reservation first. With the assistance of the participants or participants, they quickly negotiated to resolve all outstanding matters ... "The Nanjing government basically agreed to this proposal that undermines China's territorial sovereignty. Japan, however, has proposed plans to consolidate military zones around Shanghai, Hankou, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Qingdao and other large commercial ports, with a width of 15 to 20 miles, to counter the plans of the United Kingdom and the United States to jointly manage Shanghai.
On January 29, Yan Huiqing, China's General Representative to the League of Nations, spoke at the 6th meeting of the Council of the League of Nations, brought the attention of the League of Nations to Japan's attack on Shanghai, and contacted the Northeast Incident. Articles on territorial integrity and political independence of each country) and Article 15 (a clause on the review by the Council of the Union of disputes involving broken diplomatic relations) shall apply to Japan ’s aggression against China. The Council of the League of Nations ignores China's proposal despite Japan's opposition. The next day, the Secretary-General of the League of Nations proposed to organize the "National League Committee" to go to Shanghai to investigate the Sino-Japanese conflict, and then decided to establish the "Shanghai Investigation Committee". The Chinese representative immediately agreed. The Nanjing government has great hopes for the National League to interfere in the Shanghai war.
On February 4, Jiang Jieshi's diary said: "As long as we do not lose our country's rights, we will not lose ground, and the Japanese will not use the British and American interference to negotiate with them. It's tough, but it also has adverse effects. "
In order to end the Shanghai-Shanghai War as soon as possible, in addition to the mediation of European and American powers, it also opened up a channel for direct negotiations. With the consent of Chiang Kai-shek, He Yingqin sent Chen Yi, the undersecretary of the military and political department, and Wang Jun, the principal of the Army Infantry School, to make peace directly with the Japanese army. On the 10th, Wang Jun negotiated with Major General Tian Dai Wan Yi Lang, the chief of staff of the 9th Division of the Japanese Army (former Japanese military ambassador to Shanghai).
On February 12, the representative of China, in accordance with Article 15, paragraph 9, of the League of Nations, requested that a special conference of the League of Nations be convened to resolve Sino-Japanese disputes. In spite of the strong opposition of the representative of Japan, the Council of the League of Nations decided to transfer the Sino-Japanese conflict to the Assembly of the League of Nations on the 20th, and set March 3 (Geneva time) as the meeting date.
In late February, US Secretary of State Stingson also came forward to warn Japan again, reiterating that the "Nine Nations Convention" and other issues must be maintained. On February 23, U.S. Secretary of State Stingson, in a letter to the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee Chairman William E. Borah, reiterated the importance of maintaining China's open door policy and the nine-nation convention and the non-war convention, reiterating "no recognition Stance, said the US government "cannot recognize any situation that affects our government and people's rights in China, or any treaty or agreement entered into between the two countries that violates the provisions of these conventions." On the 24th, the US government forwarded the letter to the Secretary-General of the League of Nations, the governments of China and Japan, and Britain and France. At the same time, the U.S. government also decided to send representatives to attend the upcoming special conference of the National League that discusses China-Japan issues, hoping to facilitate the armistice negotiations between China and Japan and end the Shanghai war as soon as possible. But on the other hand, just as Japan was preparing to send troops to Shanghai, Stingson told the Japanese ambassador to the United States that the United States government did not encourage sanctions against Japan. (History of the Republic of China, Vol. 8, pp. 68-69)
On the evening of February 28, at the request of Gloria, the commander of the British Fleet in China, Chinese diplomatic representative Gu Weijun , Huang Qiang, Chief of Staff of the 19th Route Army, arrived at the British ship "Kent", and met with Nomura, the Japanese navy commander, and the Japanese personal representative, Yoko Matsuoka meeting. The three parties negotiated for three hours in the intermediary of Gloria, and reached five items of understanding: "(1) the two sides withdraw troops at the same time; (2) Japan does not propose the issue of permanent withdrawal from Wusong or Shizilin Battery; (3), China-Japan Cooperation The Organizing Committee invites inspectors from third countries to participate and monitor the withdrawal of troops from both sides; (4) the retreat area will continue to exercise police power in China; (5) the Chinese army will retreat to Zhenru, the Japanese army will retreat to the public concession and cross-border road construction sites. The Chinese army retreated to Nanxiang, and the Japanese army returned to the ship. "On the 29th, the Chinese government responded with consent to the five items, but the Japanese government did not respond.
However, the "Kent" talks are not meaningless. After learning about the details of the "Kent" talks, Peng Gu, the chairman of the League of Nations Council, convened the 14th meeting of the League of Nations Council on February 29. The four-point plan is to conclude a truce regional agreement quickly with the help of civil and military officials from various countries in Shanghai, and then a round-table meeting will be held by representatives of countries with special interests in Shanghai to guarantee the safety of public concessions, French concessions and residents. Measures and measures to solve other problems. Subsequently, the representatives of Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Spain and other countries unanimously agreed with the plan, and the representative of China Yan Huiqing and the representative of Japan Sato Takeshi also agreed in principle.
However, on March 2nd, because the Japanese forced the Chinese to retreat to the second line of defense, Japan's attitude was toughened again, and four harsh conditions were proposed. The Chinese army was again required to withdraw before stopping the attack. The Japanese withdrawal was only withdrawn to Shanghai and The Wusong region is unwilling to withdraw its troops under the supervision of a neutral country. The Chinese government has explicitly rejected this. On the 3rd, the Japanese launched another attack. On the same day, US Secretary of State Stingson summoned the Japanese ambassador to the United States and accused Japan of continuing to expand military operations while accepting the resolution of the League of Nations on February 29.
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