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Demystified: Is the Songhu Anti-Japanese War and Songhu Battle the same war?
Fun history2015-09-12 06:51:26

Introduction: In 1932, the Shanghai-Shanghai Anti-Japanese War broke out. General Cai Tingjun , then the deputy commander of the 19th Army, spoke this roar from the souls of Chinese children.

Right now, at the time of commemorating the Battle of Songhu in Shanghai , some readers may wonder what is the difference between the Battle of Songhu and the Battle of Songhu? What are the similarities?

Songhu Anti-Japanese War, also known as the "January 28th" Incident (January 28th to March 3rd, 1932), the Chinese army resisted the invasion of Shanghai by Japanese troops invading China. To commemorate this war, Shanghai also had one or two Eight Memorial Road. Songhu Battle (August 13, 1937-November 12, 1937), also known as the August 13 Songhu Battle, was also a battle by the Chinese army against the Japanese invaders and invaders in Shanghai. It was the Sino-Japanese war against Japan. The first large-scale battle in China was also the largest and most violent battle in the Sino-Japanese War. So, let's talk about these two operations.

January 28 Songhu Anti-Japanese War

The Songhu Anti-Japanese War took place in 1932, shortly after the September 18th Incident. In order to shift international attention and oppress the Nanjing National Government to yield, the Japanese government continued to provoke trouble in Shanghai. On the evening of January 28, the Japanese Marine Corps suddenly launched an attack on the 19th Army of the Kuomintang in Zhabei under the pretext of the so-called "Japanese monk being beaten", and then attacked Jiangwan and Wusong. The 19th Army, led by Captain Cai Tingzhang and Chief Commander Jiang Guangzhang , stood up.

At the same time, the National Government sent Zhang Zhizhong, who was actively invited to serve as the commander of the 5th Army, to lead the Ministry to reinforce the frontline of the Songhu Anti-Japanese War. The 19th Army and the 5th Army coordinated and fought side by side, giving the Japanese army a heavy blow.

After the Songhu Anti-Japanese War broke out, the CCP ’s Shanghai underground organization actively mobilized the public to organize rescue teams, stretchers, communications teams and transportation teams to support the Songhu Anti-Japanese War and provide protection.

However, as the National Government implemented the so-called "resistance while negotiating" policy, China and Japan signed the "Shanghai Armistice Agreement" on May 5th, and stipulated that the Japanese army could stay in Shanghai and launch a full-scale invasion of China in the future. The war provided the conditions.

Signing of the Shanghai Armistice Agreement

During the Songhu Anti-Japanese War, the Chinese army fought bloody battles against the Japanese aggression, forcing the Japanese commander to change hands, causing heavy casualties. The Chinese army had a shame before it, and gave the Japanese army the heaviest blow since the September 18th Incident. At the same time, it also paid a heavy price of about 14,000 casualties.

It is even more tragic that after the January 28 Incident, Wang Jingwei , President of the National Government Administration, Jiang Jieshi , Chairman of the Military Commission, and others used the pretext of "the Red Army launched the Battle of Ganzhou during the Incident" as an excuse, and formally established that Within "policy.

August 13th Shanghai Battle

After the July 7th Incident , the Japanese Navy sought challenges in the Shanghai area. On August 9, 1937, Japanese Navy Lieutenant Oyama Yufu and two others drove into Shanghai Hongqiao Airport to provoke and were shot dead by the garrison security team. Based on this incident, the Japanese sent warships to cruise the Huangpu River and the Yangtze River estuary as an offensive threat.

In order to seize the initiative of the war, Zhang Zhizhong, commander-in-chief of the Ninth Army, was ordered to advance the 87th and 88th divisions to Shanghai, and was ordered to launch a siege to the Japanese Marine Corps Hongkou Base in Shanghai on August 13 in an attempt to drive the enemy into the sea . The August 13th Songhu Anti-Japanese War began.

The Japanese base camp immediately set up a Shanghai dispatched army, with Matsui Ishine as the commander, and led two divisions to Shanghai for reinforcements. In September and October, they increased their troops by 300,000. The Chinese side has also continued to send more troops to the Songhu Battlefield, and has dispatched more than 70 divisions to participate in the battle in Shanghai.

The Chinese army bravely resisted Japan and did not fear sacrifice. The war was unprecedentedly fierce. Among them, the four rows of warehouses defended the battle and became famous at home and abroad. Later, because the Japanese army landed from the battlefield of Hangzhou Bay Jinshanwei and other sides, forming a siege of the Shanghai battlefield, the garrison evacuated from November 8 to avoid greater sacrifices. On the 11th, Shanghai fell.

The Songhu Battle lasted three months. Both China and Japan invested heavily in the army. The number of casualties was huge. This was the first large-scale confrontation on the battlefield since the beginning of the Anti-Japanese War. Chinese officers and men resisted the fierce artillery fire of the Japanese army and gave their lives to defend the country. They persisted until the beginning of November and crushed the Japanese army's delusion of "destroying China in March."

This campaign changed the strategic situation of the Sino-Japanese war and successfully attracted the main forces of the Japanese invaders from the North China battlefield south to East China. We seized the strategic initiative and gained valuable time for China's industrial and mining relocation and preservation of national industrial strength.

Conclusion

The two anti-Japanese wars that also took place in Shanghai, whether it was the Songhu Anti-Japanese War or the Songhu Anti-Japanese War, were a microcosm of the recent weakness of China under the scourge of Japanese aggression. History is always surprisingly similar. In these two battles, in order to find an excuse for aggression against China, Japan staged two clumsy tricks: "Japanese monk was assaulted" and "Japanese lieutenant was killed." With Japanese ambitions. Equally similar are the weakness of the Kuomintang central government, the war-torn ordinary Chinese people, the frontline generals and the stubbornness of the soldiers.

Although these two battles ended in our defeat, millions of Chinese children did not succumb to the obscene power of Japanese fascists, and contributed their most precious efforts to the final victory of the war of aggression and national independence. Life has written a strong stroke in Chinese history.

Two wars, the same place, the same enemy, the same patriotism.

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