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80,000 Chinese German troops in Shanghai: the Japanese call it "hateful division"
Fun history2016-05-18 10:27:19

Seto Tomoharu is a senior Japanese scholar studying the Sino-Japanese War. In his book "The Prelude to the Comprehensive War between Japan and China: The Second Shanghai Incident", he mentioned such details: "During the Shanghai War, the Japanese military attache Falkenhausen transformed himself as a Chinese military adviser and went to the front line to command. Even if this behavior was reprimanded by the German authorities, he did not regret it. "According to records, on the eve of the War of Resistance , China invited more than 100 people. German active or retired soldiers serve as consultants, and they have made some contributions to the modernization of the Chinese army. The most successful of them is Alexander von Falkenhausen, the last head of the German military advisory regiment.

Participate in war preparations against Japan

As a professional soldier, Falkenhausen was a German military attache in Japan, and he has studied the Japanese army in detail. In July 1934, he was sent to China by the German government. He was initially the deputy of Seth, the head of the military advisory group to aid China. After Seek returned to China in 1935, Falkenhausen succeeded the head of the group until 1938 by Hitler. recall.

Unlike Seckett, who actively assisted Chiang Kai-shek in fighting the civil war, Falkenhausen focused on helping China prepare for war with Japan. On July 31, 1935, as the General Counsellor of the National Government, he "faced Chen Dalue" to Chiang Kai-shek, emphasizing "China does not defend itself, and no one can come out and help each other. China should do everything it can to protect the country's soil, and it must pour If we do our best to defend ourselves, we may encounter foreign aid. If we do not strive hard to survive, all of North China, including Shandong, will be separated from China. " These deafening speeches clearly told the compromisers within the National Government that the long-held "non-resistance" policy had no way out.

On August 20 of the same year, Falkenhausen formally submitted a proposal for "countermeasures to deal with the situation" to the National Government. He believed that once the full-scale war with Japan began, the strategic position of the Chinese army could not be confined to the Yangtze River. "Shou Huabei" must push its battlefield deep north to the front lines of Baoding and Cangxian, Hebei Province. At the same time, the Chinese army should take active actions in the Yangtze River Basin to prevent Japanese troops from tracing the river deep into Wuhan and dividing China's interior into two . Falkenhausen also planned details of the daily use of troops in another document. "Every (national government) unit used in combat should be concentrated in the Xuzhou-Zhengzhou-Wuhan-Nanchang-Nanjing area. There are two things in the east that are extremely important. : One is to block the Yangtze River and the other is to guard the capital (Nanjing). The two have a close relationship. The second is Nanchang and Wuchang, which can be used as support points. They should be fully adhered to maintain the connection to Guangzhou. Finally, Sichuan For the last defense. "

Observing the situation on the front battlefield of the Anti-Japanese War in 1937, we can clearly see that Falkenhausen's original strategic idea was basically realized. On the one hand, the Chinese army resisted in North China, and on the other hand, it set up another "second battlefield" in Shanghai. Disrupted the Japanese offensive axis from north to south.

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Tempering the Elite

In addition to assisting China in formulating a strategic plan, Falkenhausen's most important job is to speed up the progress of the Chinese army's retraining. For a long time, the army mastered by the Nanjing National Government and local power groups has been basically compiled in accordance with the old Beiyang system, and its combat effectiveness has fallen behind. The military academy instructed the Corps that it was they who defeated the Japanese in the Songhu Battlefield. The Japanese called these units "hateable divisions."

Falkenhausen also intends to use these troops as a sample to complete the reorganization of 60 Chinese divisions in batches. By the time of the outbreak of the comprehensive anti-Japanese war, approximately 35 divisions have roughly completed the reorganization. Although there is a gap from what was originally envisaged, the combat effectiveness and mental outlook of these units have been renewed . Seto Lichun quoted an invading Japanese military officer as saying, "The Chinese army trained by the German advisory team in the Shanghai campaign really surprised us."

The frequent activities of German military advisers in China made the Japanese government very disturbed, so they took advantage of Germany ’s desire to ally with it to deal with the Soviet Union ’s psychology and asked Germany to withdraw its military advisers. At first, Germany adopted a two-pronged approach, instead of forcibly withdrawing the advisory group. Instead, in November 1937, it ordered Falkenhausen to ask him to use his influence to persuade the National Government to fight for peace and make Japan a "consistent with Germany" Interest "compromise. According to historical records, Falkenhausen did cooperate with German Ambassador to China Taudemann in "mediation" and persuaded China to accept Japan's "peaceful conditions." But after dealing with the errand assigned by Berlin, Falkenhausen was still engaged in the war as usual.

The American writer Barbara Tuchman mentioned in the book " Stilwell and the American Experience in China" that after the Taierzhuang War in 1938, military attachés from various countries went to the battlefield to visit, and there was the American military attaché in China, Stillwell. Meet Falkenhausen. When it comes to the Sino-Japanese war, Falkenhausen seemed very excited because the Kuomintang army failed to chase and strike the Japanese as he suggested. "Falkenhausen strongly recommended that Chiang Kai-shek move forward, An attack was launched, but Jiang did not take any action. The Japanese army will soon transfer 8 to 10 divisions to the front line of Xuzhou, and it will be too late. "

In April 1938, Germany finally could not bear the pressure from Japan and decided to withdraw all its consultants. Falkenhausen submitted a report to the German government, noting that members of the advisory board were employed by the Chinese government in their personal names, and that the contract expired in 1939, at which time it was difficult to leave. However, the German government's determination to "abandon China on the basis of Japan" has been determined, and it is strictly required that Falkenhausen and others must return to China. In desperation, in June of the same year, Falkenhausen and others set off for home.

After returning to Germany, Falkenhausen participated in European warfare as an infantry admiral, and in 1940 was appointed German military governor in the Belgian occupation. Participating in a secret anti-Nazi organization, Falkenhausen was arrested by the Nazi authorities in 1944, and was not rescued by the US military until the German surrender in 1945. However, he faces a trial by a Belgian military court and was sentenced to 12 years in prison in 1951. In July 1966, Falkenhausen died of illness.

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