An Analysis of the War Process of the Battle of the Official Battles of the Three Kingdoms
Interesting history2016-10-18 14:40:44

In early 199 AD (four years of Jian'an), Yuan Shao selected 100,000 soldiers and 10,000 horses to try to attack Xudu south. The prelude to the battle of Guandu was opened. The news of Cao Jun ’s strategic deployment in the battle of Guandu spread to the capital of Xudu. Cao Cao ’s ministry believed that Yuan Jun was powerful and invincible. However, based on his understanding of Yuan Shao, Cao Cao believed that Yuan Shaozhi was a talented man with a lack of courage, a sense of indifference, a stubborn self-use, a large number of soldiers and an unknown command. He decided to fight against Yuan Shao's attack with tens of thousands of troops he could concentrate. . In order to gain strategic initiative, he made the following deployments: sending Zang Ba to lead troops from Langya (now Shandong Linyi North) into Qingzhou, occupying Qi (now Shandong Linzi), Beihai (now Shandong Changle), Dongan (now Shandong Yi) Shui County) and other places, restrained Yuan Shao, consolidated the right wing, and prevented Yuan Jun from attacking Xudu from the east; Cao Cao led troops to enter Jizhou Liyang (now east of Jun County, Henan Province, and the north bank of the Yellow River), and ordered a 2,000-foot ride on the south bank of the Yellow River. Important ferry crossing Yanjin (now Yanjin North, Henan), assisting the East County Taishou Liu Yan who is holding Baima (now Henan Huaxian County, south of the Yellow River), obstructing Yuan Jundu and the long drive south, while using the main force in Guandu (now Henan Zhongmu Northeast) ) To build a stronghold around the area to prevent Yuan Shao from attacking from the front; to send people to Fuzhong to draw Liangzhou to stabilize the wing. From the above deployment point of view, Cao Cao's strategic approach is not to divide the troops to guard the southern bank of the Yellow River, but to concentrate the forces, guard the important points, focus on fortifications, and let the work be done before the attack. From the situation at the time, this deployment was appropriate.


First of all, Yuan Shao has more soldiers and Cao Cao has fewer soldiers. The Yellow River can be crossed in thousands of miles. For example, if the division of the army prevents the rule from being defended, it will not only be difficult to stop Yuan Jun from going south, but also make his already disadvantaged forces more dispersed. Secondly, Guandu is located in the upper reaches of the gulf, and is close to the water. The Gully Canal is connected to Hulao, Gong, Luoyao in the west, and Huaisi in the east. It is a barrier to the north and east of Xudu, and it is the place where Yuan Shao won the Xudu. In addition, Guandu is close to Xudu, and logistics supply is also more convenient than Yuan Jun.

In December of 199 AD (four years of Jian'an), when Cao Cao was deploying to fight against Yuan Shao, Liu Bei set off against Cao and occupied Xiayu, according to Pei County (now Jiangsu Pei County). Liu Beijun increased to tens of thousands and contacted Yuan Shao, intending to join forces to attack Cao. Cao Cao, in order to maintain Xu Chang's ties with the two states of Qing and Lu, avoided two-sided fighting. In February of the following year, he personally led an elite soldier to strike Liu Bei, quickly occupied Peixian, turned to attack the Xia, and forced Guan Yu . Liu Bei's army defeated and fled to Hebei to run to Yuan Shao. When Cao and Liu were fighting, Tian Shaoyuan advised Yuan Shao to “follow the army”, but Yuan Shao refused to accept it because his child was sick, which caused Cao Cao to calmly defeat Liu Bei and return to the army.

In the first month of 200 AD (five years of Jian'an), Yuan Shao sent Chen Lin to write and publish the obituary, and in the obituary scolded Cao Cao unbearably. Marched into Liyang in February in an attempt to cross the river in search of a major battle with Cao Jun. He first sent Yan Liang to attack the white horse's east ward, Liu Yan, in an attempt to capture the main points of the southern bank of the Yellow River in order to protect the main force. In April, Cao Cao led his troops north to rescue the White Horse Siege in order to win the initiative and win the first battle. At this time, the strategist Jiu You believed that Yuan Shao had more troops, and suggested that he attack the west and disperse his forces. He led troops to Yanjin, pretended to cross the river and attacked Yuan Shao. Then Yuan Shao was sent to the west. Yan Liang. Cao Cao adopted this suggestion, and Yuan Shao really split his army into Yanjin. Cao Cao took the chance to ride lightly and sent Zhang Liao and Guan Yu as forwards, rushing to the white horse. Guan Yu quickly approached Yan Liangjun, rushed into the army to kill Yan Liang and beheaded, and Yuan Jun defeated. After Cao Cao solved the siege of Baima, the people who migrated to Baima retreated westward along the Yellow River. Yuan Shao led his army to cross the river and pursued the army to Yanjinnan. Generals Wen Chou and Liu Bei continued to lead Cao Jun. Cao Cao had only six hundred cavalry soldiers and was stationed under Nanhan (in the south of Baima). Yuan Jun reached five or six thousand horsemen and there were infantry. Follow up later. Cao Cao ordered the soldier to release his saddle and put his horse on the road. At first sight, Yuan Jun made a tactic and scrambled for property. Cao Cao suddenly launched an attack, finally defeating Yuan Jun, killing Wen Chou (Wen Chou was killed by the chaotic army, not Guan Yu's beheading), and returned to Guandu smoothly. Yan Liang and Wen Chou were all famous Hebei players , but they were cut off by World War I, and Yuan Shao's army was bruised.


Stalemate Yuan Jun was defeated in the early battle, but his strength still prevailed. In July, he entered Yangwu (now Zhongmubei, Henan) and prepared to attack Xuchang south. In August, Yuan Jun's main force approached Guandu and set up a camp on the sand. The east-west width was about dozens of miles, and Cao Cao also set up a confrontation with Yuan Jun. In September, Cao Jun attacked once, and it was unfavorable to fight with Yuan Jun. Yuan Shao constructed the building 橹, piled the earth like a mountain, and shot Cao Ying with an arrow. Cao Jun made a thunderbolt with a stone throwing device, which destroyed the building slab built by Yuan Jun. Yuan Jun also dug into the tunnel to attack, Cao Jun also dug in the camp to fight against the leader, and shattered Yuan Jun's strategy. The two sides held each other for three months. Cao Cao was in a difficult situation outside the country. The soldiers in front were short of food, the soldiers were tired, and the rear was not stable. Five days for Ruo Shao, no more labor! "

In the battle of Guandu, Cao Cao wrote to Xun , discussing to retreat to Xudu, and Xing wrote back: "Yuan Shao gathered the main forces in Guandu and wanted to win with the referendum. The public is the weakest and the strongest. If he cannot control, he must do it. Multiplication, this is the key to determining the general trend of the world. At that time, Chu and Han were between Liyang and Chengyi. No one of Liu Bang and Xiang Yu was willing to step back, thinking that they would retreat first. Now they will be ten and tense . It's been half a year. The situation is clear, there is no room for manoeuvre, and a major change will take place soon. This is an amazing time to win. Do n’t miss it. ”So Cao Cao was determined to continue to stand by, while strengthening defense and life Ren Jun, responsible for logistical supplies, took the ten-way column as a unit to shorten the front-to-back distance of the transport team, and used a double array (two arrays) to strengthen the defense to prevent Yuan Jun from attacking. On the other hand, he actively sought and captured fighters and defeated Yuan Jun. Soon Cao Ren and Shi Yan were sent to intercept and burn thousands of Yuan Jun's food trucks, increasing Yuan Jun's supply difficulties. During the period, Liu Jin of the Yellow Turban Army in Runan County rebelled. Yuan Shao sent Liu Bei to help each other, and he sent Han Qian to break Cao Jun's west, all of which were broken by Cao Ren. Jiang Dongsun Ce intended to sneak in Xudu, but was assassinated.


In October of the same year, Yuan Shao dispatched a car to transport food, and ordered Chun Yuqiong to escort the people, and settled in the old city (in Yanjin County, Henan) and Wuchao (now Henan Yanjin) about 20 kilometers north of Yuan Jun Camp southeast). Just then, Xu Shao, a Yuan Shao strategist, went to Cao Cao and suggested that Cao Cao lightly attack Wu Chao and burn its weight. Cao Cao immediately put it into practice, leaving Cao Hong and Yan You to guard the barricades, personally led a five-foot ride, pretending to be a Yuanjun banner, a horse tied to a mouth, each with a bunch of firewood, and using a dark path to sneak into Wuchao. Siege and set fire immediately upon arrival. After Yuan Shao learned that Cao Cao attacked Wu Chao, on the one hand he sent Qingqi to rescue, and on the other hand he ordered Zhang Ye and Gao Lan to attack Cao Jun camp heavily. But Cao Ying was strong and could not attack. When Cao Jun attacked Wuchaochun Yuqiong camp, Yuan Shao's reinforcements were approaching. Cao Cao's dead war, breaking Yuan Jun, killing Chun Yuqiong, etc., and burned all his forages. Zhang Ye and Gao Lan heard that the black nest was broken, so they surrendered Cao Cao, causing the army to shake, internal divisions, and the army to collapse. Yuan Shaochang brought 800 cavalry back to Hebei, and Cao Jun wiped out and killed more than 70,000 Yuan soldiers. Some also said that they were 80,000. The battle of Guandu strengthened Cao Cao's strength and laid a solid foundation for Cao Cao to defeat Yuan Shao and unify the North. Only Cao Cao and Yuan Shao had greater influence in the north. This battle defeated Yuan Shao, and no one in the north could compete with Cao Cao.

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