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Excuses for Foreign Powers to Launch Second Opium War
Interesting history2016-10-25 16:03:29

The excuses of the British and French coalition forces for launching the Second Opium War were the "Yarro Incident" and the "Priest Horse Incident". Of course, the reason for launching the war was that their demand for a contract with the Manchu government was severely rejected. The interests can only start a war of aggression.

Yarrow event picture


Regarding the "Yaro incident", it occurred on October 8, 1856, when the Guangzhou Marine Division led the army to arrest Chinese pirates and suspected sailors on the smuggled ship "Yaro" at Huangpu Port. The captain of the ship at that time was an Englishman and was recorded by the Hong Kong authorities. Because the visa expired at the time of the arrest, the British expiration date was not suspended on the ship. At that time, the marine engineer handled the case in accordance with China's internal affairs and did not consider the British opinion.

In order to use this incident as an excuse for the Second Opium War, the British side made a strong argument , saying that the "Yarrow" was a British ship, and the sailor entered the ship without any permission to damage the decent British consulate, and even the rumor was Guangzhou The sailor tore off the British flag on the ship. This was an insult to the United Kingdom and asked the Chinese side to apologize. Of course, they had the right not to accept the apology. Finally, on October 23, the British Navy thought it was an excuse to invade Guangzhou, China, and the Second Opium War broke out.

The excuse of Britain's war was the "Yaro incident", and the excuse of France was "priest horse time", and before the British provoked war. At that time, French Catholics illegally sneaked into mainland China for missions. Ignoring the laws of the Qing dynasty, he acted arrogantly, and was ordered to be executed by a Guangxi local official in the Qing Dynasty . In order to allow the missionaries to obtain the right to free mission in China, France attempted to wage a war of aggression against China and contacted Britain before the battle. In the end, the two countries joined hands to launch aggression against China.

Introduction to the Second Opium War Course

According to the order in which the British and French coalition forces waged war on China, the route of the Second Opium War was first Guangzhou, then Tianjin, and finally the capital Beijing.

Roadmap to the Second Opium War


In the first phase of the Second Opium War, the British and French forces launched an armed attack on Guangzhou, China, by creating the "Yaro" incident in China. Subsequently, the Qing Army underwent a strong resistance under Ye Mingchen 's leadership, but because the weapons and equipment were too far apart, Guangzhou fell and the two sides signed the " Tianjin Treaty ."

In the second stage, the British and French forces first launched a war in Dagukou, Tianjin. After that, the war spread to Tianjin. After the fall of Tianjin, they continued their invasion north, successfully occupied Beijing, burned the Yuanmingyuan , and Emperor Xianfeng fled. Forced to sign the " Beijing Treaty ", the second opium really ended.

In addition, in the Second Opium War, China was forced to sign a series of bereavement and humiliation treaties. In these treaties, Huaxia was forced to open a series of ports in coastal areas, mainly Qiongzhou, Guangzhou, Taiwan, Shantou, Nanjing, Zhenjiang, etc. The opening of these commercial ports has enabled the British and French allies to gain a larger market in China, as well as the origin of raw materials and cheap labor. At the same time, the compulsory opening of commercial ports has an obvious feature, that is, it has a wide range of radiation and spreads inland. Of course, in addition to opening the port on the head, China also ceded Chinese territory to the invaders, mainly to the east of the Ussuri River and other places.

To sum up, the routes of the Second Opium War were Guangzhou, Tianjin, and Beijing; the routes to open the usual ports were south to north and Qiongzhou first, followed by Shantou, Taiwan, Jiujiang, Nanjing, Zhenjiang, etc., and finally Yantai and Yingkou areas. The divided land line starts from the north of Heilongjiang to the west of the last Horgos River.

Evaluation of the Second Opium War

The evaluation of the Second Opium War can be carried out from two perspectives, namely, the defeated China and the British-French coalition forces that have won the war. However, no matter how you evaluate, you cannot deny that this is an aggressive war. In the end Put China on a semi-colonial road.

The Old Summer Palace destroyed by the Second Opium War


From the Chinese perspective, the evaluation of the Second Opium War: As the aggressed party resisted the war, China's behavior in the Second Opium War was just. The Second Opium War was undoubtedly a disaster for China. In this war, China was forced to sign a series of unequal treaties with the invaders. At the same time, after the Western powers invaded Beijing, they directly burned the Royal Garden Yuanmingyuan, thereby It has caused great losses to China's traditional culture and traditional crafts.

After the victory of the British and French coalition forces, the Qing government was forced to allow it to build a mansion in China and send an ambassador to China. This was an aggression against China's sovereignty. In summary, the Second Opium War was a just war of anti-aggression and anti-colonial nature for China.

From the perspective of the British and French coalition forces, the evaluation of the Second Opium War: As the initiators of the war, their aggression against China was to gain greater benefits, further expand the market, conduct commodity dumping, and seize the origin of raw materials and cheap labor. Therefore, the second The Opium War was a colonial war of an aggressive nature.

After the British and French allies invaded China and occupied Beijing, the rulers of the Qing government were forced to flee. The British and French allies looted Yuanmingyuan and eventually burned them directly, causing great losses to Chinese culture, and being burned alive. Craftsmen, palace men, concubines, etc. can be said to have committed heinous crimes in China.

Location of the Second Opium War Battlefield

During the Second Opium War, China occupied Guangzhou, Dagukou, Tianjin, and Beijing, which meant that the location of the Second Opium War was in Guangzhou, and then spread to Tianjin, Beijing, and the Yangtze River.

Pictures of the second opium war


In this war, the British and French coalition forces first attacked Guangzhou, China. After the battle began, although the Qing government army stubbornly resisted, the fire eventually burned to Tianjin Dagukou and other places. After two battles in Dagukou, The Qing government requested peace talks and ended the battle with the signing of the "Tianjin Treaty."

After that, the British and French forces, as well as the United States and Russia, were not satisfied with the vested interests stipulated in the treaty at that time, so they led the army directly into Beijing. The Qing rulers of the Qing government with more than one or two points of weapons and equipment could only abscond, thereby declaring the fall of Beijing. In other words, the location of the Second Opium War has been transferred from Guangzhou to Tianjin via Tianjin.

With the continuous extension of the war, some people with lofty ideals within the Qing government took the lead in recognizing their own shortcomings, and began to try to learn from Western powers to get rid of China from being invaded. Eventually, the Westernization Movement appeared on Huaxia's land, to a certain extent. Developed capitalism. Of course, before this, what is needed is the withdrawal of British and French troops from Beijing. To this end, the peace delegation headed by Prince Gong started negotiations with the British and French delegations and finally signed the "Beijing Treaty". The British and French forces promised to withdraw troops from Beijing, but the opium was legal. Beijing Foreign mansions have been established, and more business ports have been opened. In addition to the occupied Beijing, other places in the Second Opium War, such as Guangzhou, ruled almost exclusively by Western powers.

In summary, in addition to the land ceded in the unequal treaties, the locations of the Second Opium War include Beijing, Tianjin, Guangzhou, the Yangtze River, and the Pearl River Delta.

Background to the Second Opium War

The Second Opium War brought huge losses to the Qing government at the time. What was the background of the Second Opium War?

Pictures of the second opium war


Regarding the background of the Second Opium War, what I have to say is the First Opium War . After the failure of the First Opium War, Western capitalism began to launch many Chinese aggressions. They saw China as the defeated party in the first Opium War, and paid land to the United Kingdom, which enabled the United Kingdom to gain more benefits. These interests also made them fascinated, so they all wanted to step in China, so they began to divide up China.

Unsatisfied with the privileges and benefits gained from the war, they set their sights on Chinese territory and began large-scale market plunder and economic invasion, accompanied by the engulfment of Chinese land.

In 1854, twenty years after the signing of the " Nanjing Treaty ", the United Kingdom began to propose to China because of its misinterpretation of the " Wang Man Treaty " signed by China with the United States and wanting to gain more benefits in China. The requirements for amending the "Nanjing Treaty" are as follows: First, the entire territory of China must be open to trade with the United Kingdom. At the same time, the opium trade is required to be legal in China. They do not need to pay taxes on imported goods in China. Foreign ministers can be stationed in Beijing. Wait. At the same time, the United States and France are required to amend the treaty. Of course, such a treaty that humiliates and humiliates the country will not agree even if the Qing government faints.

This is also the background of the Second Opium War. Since the peace talks cannot enable them to obtain the benefits they want, they can only rob them. Therefore, the western powers that reached consensus on their interests began to stand on the united front and attacked China in unison, which was the background of the Second Opium War.

The dangers of the Second Opium War

The Second Opium War was an aggressive war, which brought great harm to China. So what are the dangers of the Second Opium War?

The Second Opium War oil painting


The danger of the Second Opium War was very great. First, before the Western powers invaded China, China was a feudal country with complete sovereignty. Although the economy and other aspects lag behind the Western countries, the people's lives were very comfortable. With the outbreak of the Opium War, capitalist countries continued to invade China. As a result, China did not have independent sovereignty and began to gradually become a colony of Western countries. The domestic economy and politics have been hit unprecedentedly.

The harm of the Second Opium War is also reflected in the large number of port areas forced to become commercial ports after the defeat of the Second Opium War. The establishment of tariffs requires the consent of the powers. This is a danger to the independence of China's tariffs. A large amount of land was ceded to the invaders. This is the second hazard brought by the Second Opium War, that is, territorial integrity; and compensation is given to the Western invaders, which is a danger to China ’s economic development; missions are allowed Etc is a cultural aggression, and its final result is that traditional culture has been severely hit.

In the Second Opium War, the Qing government hesitated to ask the aggressors for help in resolving the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement, which to a certain extent discouraged the enthusiasm of the peasants for production, deepened the internal contradictions of the country, and also showed from the side that the Qing government had been completely destroyed A tool for Western powers to rule China. After the fall of Beijing, the invaders turned the Yuanmingyuan into ashes, which caused great harm to Huaxia's history, culture and traditional crafts. Many artisans were killed alive, which led to the loss of traditional crafts.


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