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Is the truth about the battle of the giant deer covered by Sima Qian? Xiang Yu did not defeat Zhang Han?
Fun history2016-10-25 17:27:55 Sima Qian Liu Che

The battle of the giant deer made Xiang Yu fame, he killed Qin Su Jiao, captured the general Wang Li, and committed suicide without interfering, forcing Zhang Han to defeat and surrender, completely reversing the disadvantaged situation facing the vassal army. The story of Xiang Yu breaking the boat in the war is even more exciting, but these are just lies of Sima Qianzai?

First of all, Sima Qian's artistic exaggeration is to break the boat. Although it sounds morale-inspiring, it doesn't work at all. According to the description in the historical records , readers are prone to this illusion: Xiang Yu broke the boat and launched an offensive, then defeated Wang Li and lifted the deer siege. But the fact is that Xiang Yu crossed the river in November 207 BC, and Wang Li surrendered in January 206 BC two months later. Xiang Yu ’s offensive with only three days of dry food was not directly related to Wang Li ’s surrender. Cause and effect, even the morale of the army can not fight hungry for two months.

Secondly, the battle of the giant deer is not the work of Xiang Yu alone. Xiang Yu just defeated Zhang Han who was guarding the grain road, and then fled back to the south bank of Zhangshui, leading Zhang Han away.

Moreover, Xiang Yu did not defeat Zhang Han. According to the "Historical Records of the Chronicles of Qin Chu Period", in the third year of Qin II (207 BC), in December, Xiang Yu broke the Qin Army under Zhuolu, the first month, the king of the prisoner left, and February, breaking the chapter. In April, Zhang Han broke again, but it was not until July that Zhang Han thought he was suspicious of the imperial court and asked for an alliance with Xiang Yu. Xiang Yu accepted Paralyzed Zhang Han on the surface, and then launched a sudden attack, which failed to destroy Zhang Han. . It can be seen that even after repeated defeats, Zhang Hanjun's strength still cannot be underestimated. At the last meeting, Zhang Han, who killed Xiang Yu ’s uncle Xiang Liang , became King Yong, and sat with Xiang Yu ’s boss, Chu Huai Wang . Qin Jun retained the original system without disarming, and was still led by General Qin.

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Lie one, Xiang Yu went forward

It is not difficult to find out if Xiang Yu has broken the boat, just look at the position of Xiang Yu before and after the Battle of the Giant Deer, and everything will be clear. Please refer to the picture below, Xiang Yujun's offensive route and garrison map.

Lie two, Xiang Yu surrounded and defeated and captured Wang Li

The comparison of time, place and strength negates Xiang Yu's siege and captures Wang Li.

Let's talk about time first. According to Sima Qian's description, readers are likely to have the illusion of time: Xiang Yu broke the boat to launch an attack, and then defeated Wang Li. Wang Li surrendered and the siege of Julu was lifted. However, "The Chronicle of the Chronicle of Qin Chu" records clearly: Xiang Yu crossed the river in November in three years, and Wang Li surrendered three years later in two months (Qin Empire began in October). Xiang Yu's offensive with only three days of dry food and Wang Li's surrender had no direct cause and effect.

If Xiang Yu wanted to surround Wang Li, he first had to cross Zhangshui north, and then cross the 200,000 army defense zone in Zhanghan. The 200,000-strong army's defense ground may be tens of kilometers wide from north to south, and it can't be whizzed past with a rush.

Even if he successfully broke through Zhang Han's army, it would be impossible to surround Wang Li. Because Zhang Han's thorn spine is only a few kilometers away from the giant deer, Zhang Han and Wang Li are almost stuck together. Even if Xiang Yujun stole, or stormed through Zhang Han's defense, he would be caught in the middle by Wang Li and Zhang Han immediately. If it is stupid enough to spread the forces to surround Wang Li, it will inevitably be divided and destroyed by Zhang Han and Wang Li. Therefore, if Xiang Yu wanted to surround Wang Li, he must first eliminate Zhang Han.

Least must also defeat Zhang Han completely, forcing him to leave Jiyuan and retreat westward. Only after Zhang Han had left Julu at least a few days away could he besiege Wang Li. Even if this is the case, Xiang Yu must make a quick decision to resolve Wang Li within the time required for Zhang Han to return to rescue. Otherwise, even if Wang Li is defeated, he can move closer to Zhang Han for security; Xiang Yu's attack may also be eliminated by Wang Li and Zhang Han.

Look at the location again. Qin Jiangwang surrounded the giant deer. To the south was Qin Jiangzhang ’s 200,000 army. To the south was Zhangshui, and to the south was Xiangyu. Please refer to the figure below, the battle line of the parties in the Battle of the Giant Deer and Xiang Yu's offensive roadmap.

But the actual battle was: Zhang Han's army has never been defeated, and Zhang Han has never left Jiyuan City. Zhang Han and Xiang Yu are always in the same position. Zhang Han is close to Julu in the north and Xiang Yu is away from Julu in the south. How could Xiang Yu besiege and capture Wang Li? Look at the comparison of military strength. " Sun Tzu's Art of War " states that "ten encircles", which gives the basic rules of the cold weapon war, which can be surrounded by the enemy ten times. The comparison of the strength of the Battle of the Giant Deer is the opposite. Wang Li surrounded Zhao Wangxie with tens of thousands of people in the Giant Deer City, indicating that it has at least several times the enemy's military strength. Let's suppose that Sima Qian is in favor: Zhao Wangxie 20,000, Wang Li five times the enemy 100,000. Xiang Yu surrounded the king five times from the enemy would be 500,000. However, the actual battle was that until the 200,000 army of Zhang Han was compiled and Qi, Yan, Zhao and other rebels were assembled, Xiang Yu's total strength was only 400,000. With tens of thousands of people on the south bank of Zhangshui River, how can Xiang Yu surround Wang Li for two months and destroy it? Not to mention that there are 200,000 troops in Zhang Han a few kilometers south of Wang Li.

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Records in other chapters of Historical Records also prove that Xiang Yu did not fight directly with Wang Li. "Historical Records of Zhang'er Chen Yu Biography" records: "Xiang Yu only attacked Zhang Han's grain road several times, making Wang Li's food and grass ineffective. Then, the vassal army who stood on the wall attacked the captive Wang Li, and Qin would commit suicide idle.

"Historical Records of Bibu Biography" also does not have Xiang Yu's words to siege the captive Wang Li from the deer, but only says "Xiang Yu sent Pibu to Zhangshui to attack the Qin army, and after repeated wins, Xiang Yu led the entire army to cross the river and fight with Fubu. Defeating the Qin army forced Zhang Han to surrender. The reason why the Chu army repeatedly won and the vassal forces of various vassals gradually returned to the Chu country was because Qianbu was able to command the army to win more with less, and convinced people. "Therefore, the correct conclusion is: Xiang Yu did not surround Wang Li nor defeated Wang Li. Wang Li surrendered in another secret.

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