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The battle of the giant deer turned out to be a huge lie under Sima Qian!
Fun history2016-12-25 10:59:22

The Battle of the Giant Deer was part of the Great Qin Uprising in the late Qin Dynasty. Xiang Yu led tens of thousands of Chu army (the princes of various princes also participated in the battle in the later period), and the main force of the Qin Army was 400,000 with the famous Qin Zhangzhang and Wang Li . A major decisive battle.

Analysis of the Battle of the Giant Deer: The Battle of the Giant Deer is Xiang Yu's famous work, and the most famous chapter in Historical Records . In the battle of the giant deer, Xiang Yu was brave and fierce. Although the main force of the Chu army had just been destroyed by Zhang Han, Liu Bang split his troops and headed west. However, Xiang Yu only led the rest of the horses, relying only on breaking the cauldron to boost morale, and at least wiped out at least 100,000 regular troops of the Qin Empire led by Wang Li. At the same time, Zhang Han's 200,000 army was defeated. He killed Su Jiao, captured the king, and lowered Zhang Han, completely reversing the passive situation of the rebels. It was Xiang Yu who rescued the rebels from the brink of death and pushed the dead Qin war to victory.

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This is incredible. Does political and ideological work really have such a magical effect? Unfortunately, as long as we read the "Historical Records", we will find that although the description of the battle of Sima Qian's Giant Deer is wonderful, it is contradictory. Full of flaws. For example, Xiang Yu took only three days of dry food to fight, but Wang Li surrendered only two months later. Even if it can motivate itself, can it swell the stomach for two months without eating?

For example, Xiang Yu was able to defeat Zhang Han with a single shot while the princes were doing wall watching, and destroyed Wang Li under Zhang Han's eyelids. But why did he not succeed in destroying Zhang Han after 6 months of commanding the princes? What? Even after Zhang Han proposed an alliance, Xiang Yu apparently accepted the paralysis of Zhang Han, and then launched a sudden attack, but still failed to eliminate Zhang Han. How did Xiang Yu's combat effectiveness judge the two?

For another example, Sima Qian said that Xiang Yu defeated Zhang Han many times, but Zhang Han, who killed his uncle when he finally met, became the King of Yong, and sat on the same level as Xiang Yu's boss, Chu Huai Wang . Xiang Yu was sealed by only two kings while Zhang Han was sealed by three kings. A victor is afraid that his captives will not be so lenient, and even if he is nervous, his subordinates will not agree. There are various indications that if the "Historical Records" is used as a history, the battle of the giant deer is a huge lie under Sima Qian, and if it is a novel, it is a falsification against history. The purpose is to quietly raise Xiang Yu and degrade Liu Bang. It is painful to criticize Sima Qian, but in the choice of maintaining personal image or historical facts, I think most people will choose the latter.

Lie one, Xiang Yu went forward

It is not difficult to find out if Xiang Yu has broken the boat, just look at the position of Xiang Yu before and after the Battle of the Giant Deer, and everything will be clear. Please refer to the picture below, Xiang Yujun's offensive route and garrison map.

Lie two, Xiang Yu surrounded and defeated and captured Wang Li

The comparison of time, place and strength negates Xiang Yu's siege and captures Wang Li.

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Let's talk about time first. According to Sima Qian's description, readers are likely to have the illusion of time: Xiang Yu broke the boat to launch an attack, and then defeated Wang Li. Wang Li surrendered and the siege of Julu was lifted. However, "The Chronicle of the Chronicle of Qin Chu" records clearly: Xiang Yu crossed the river in November in three years, and Wang Li surrendered three years later in two months (Qin Empire began in October). Xiang Yu's offensive with only three days of dry food and Wang Li's surrender had no direct cause and effect.

If Xiang Yu wanted to surround Wang Li, he first had to cross Zhangshui north, and then cross the 200,000 army defense zone in Zhanghan. The 200,000-strong army's defense ground may be tens of kilometers wide from north to south, and it can't be whizzed past with a rush.

Even if he successfully broke through Zhang Han's army, it would be impossible to surround Wang Li. Because Zhang Han's thorn spine is only a few kilometers away from the giant deer, Zhang Han and Wang Li are almost stuck together. Even if Xiang Yujun stole, or stormed through Zhang Han's defense, he would be caught in the middle by Wang Li and Zhang Han immediately. If it is stupid enough to spread the forces to surround Wang Li, it will inevitably be divided and destroyed by Zhang Han and Wang Li. Therefore, if Xiang Yu wanted to surround Wang Li, he must first eliminate Zhang Han. Least must also defeat Zhang Han completely, forcing him to leave Jiyuan and retreat westward. Only after Zhang Han had left Julu at least a few days away could he besiege Wang Li. Even if this is the case, Xiang Yu must make a quick decision to resolve Wang Li within the time required for Zhang Han to return to rescue. Otherwise, even if Wang Li is defeated, he can move closer to Zhang Han for security; Xiang Yu's attack may also be eliminated by Wang Li and Zhang Han.

Look at the location again. Qin Jiangwang surrounded the giant deer. To the south was Qin Jiangzhang ’s 200,000 army. To the south was Zhangshui, and to the south was Xiangyu. Please refer to the figure below, the battle line of the parties in the Battle of the Giant Deer and Xiang Yu's offensive roadmap.

But the actual battle was: Zhang Han's army has never been defeated, and Zhang Han has never left Jiyuan City. Zhang Han and Xiang Yu are always in the same position. Zhang Han is close to Julu in the north and Xiang Yu is away from Julu in the south. How could Xiang Yu besiege and capture Wang Li? Look at the comparison of military strength. " Sun Tzu's Art of War " states that "ten encircles", which gives the basic rules of the cold weapon war, which can be surrounded by the enemy ten times. The comparison of the strength of the Battle of the Giant Deer is the opposite. Wang Li surrounded Zhao Wangxie with tens of thousands of people in the Giant Deer City, indicating that it has at least several times the enemy's military strength. Let's suppose that Sima Qian is in favor: Zhao Wangxie 20,000, Wang Li five times the enemy 100,000. Xiang Yu surrounded the king five times from the enemy would be 500,000. However, the actual battle was that until the 200,000 army of Zhang Han was compiled and Qi, Yan, Zhao and other rebels were assembled, Xiang Yu's total strength was only 400,000. With tens of thousands of people on the south bank of Zhangshui River, how can Xiang Yu surround Wang Li for two months and destroy it? Not to mention that there are 200,000 troops in Zhang Han a few kilometers south of Wang Li.

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Records in other chapters of Historical Records also prove that Xiang Yu did not fight directly with Wang Li. "Historical Records of Zhang'er Chen Yu Biography" records: "Xiang Yu only attacked Zhang Han's grain road several times, making Wang Li's food and grass ineffective. Then, the vassal army who stood on the wall attacked the captive Wang Li, and Qin would commit suicide idle."

"Historical Records of Bibu Biography" also does not have Xiang Yu's words to siege the captive Wang Li from the deer, but only says "Xiang Yu sent Pibu to Zhangshui to attack the Qin army, and after repeated wins, Xiang Yu led the entire army to cross the river and fight with Fubu. Defeating the Qin army forced Zhang Han to surrender. The reason why the Chu army repeatedly won and the vassal forces of various vassals gradually returned to the Chu country was because Qianbu was able to command the army to win more with less, and convinced people. "Therefore, the correct conclusion is: Xiang Yu did not surround Wang Li nor defeated Wang Li. Wang Li surrendered in another secret.

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