Chinese name: Pablo Neruda
Foreign name: Pablo Neruda
Place of birth: Paralar City
Date of Birth: July 12, 1904
Died: September 23, 1973
Occupation: poet, diplomat
Belief: Communist Party of Chile
Main achievement: Nobel Prize winner in literature in 1971
Representative works: "Twenty Love Poems and a Desperate Song" "Poetry Collection"
Pablo Neruda, a famous contemporary poet in Chile. He began to publish poems at the age of 13 and published his first collection of poems "Twilight" in 1923. He published his famous work "Twenty Love Poems and a Desperate Song" in 1924, and has since entered the Chilean poetry. His poetry not only inherits the tradition of Spanish national poetry, but also accepts the influence of French modernist poetry such as Baudelaire; it not only absorbs the characteristics of Chilean national poetry, but also finds his most enthralling from the creation of Walt Whitman . form. Neruda's life has two themes, one is politics and the other is love. His early collection of love poems, Twenty Love Poems and a Desperate Song, is considered one of his most famous works.
Neruda was interested in China and Chinese culture, and has been to China three times in his lifetime. When he went to Myanmar as a diplomat to take office in 1928, he set off for China and presented the Lenin International Peace Prize to Song Qingling . During this trip, he also met celebrities in the literary circles such as Mao Dun , Ding Ling, and Ai Qing , and had friendly exchanges. During his visit to China, he learned that the Chinese character "nie" in his Chinese translation was composed of three ears (traditional "Nie"), so he said, "I have three ears, and the third ear is dedicated to listening to the sea. sound."
Chilean poet. Formerly known as Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. Born in the city of Parar, in central Chile, he died on the island of Black (Santiago). He lost his mother in his early years and moved to Temuco town in southern Chile in 1906. My father is a paving driver. He started writing when he was in middle school in Temuco. In July 1917, an article entitled "Passion and Perseverance" was published in the morning newspaper of Temuco, signed by Neftali Reyes, the first poet
Published works. Since then, he has continued to use different pen names to publish assignments in student publications in the capital and hometown. Since 1920, Pablo Neruda's pen name has been officially used. In March 1921, he studied French at the San Diego Institute of Education. Soon, the poem "Song of the Festival" won first prize in a literary competition organized by the Chilean Student Union.
Since 1927, he has served in the diplomatic community and successively served as Chile in Colombo (1928), Jakarta (1930), Singapore (1931), Buenos Aires (1933), Barcelona (1934), Madrid (1935 ~ 1936) Consul or general consul. While in Madrid, he hosted the Green Horse Poetry. The main poem of this period is "The Residence on the Earth." The first volume, published in 1933, reflects "the loneliness of an alien who has been transplanted to violent and strange land." The second volume was published in 1935, and the colors are brighter than before. In June 1936, the Spanish Civil War broke out. He was firmly on the side of the Spanish people and participated in the fight to defend the Republic. Published the poem "Spain in the Heart" in 1937. Then he ran between Paris and Latin America, calling on all people to support the anti-fascist struggle of the Spanish people. In March 1939, he was appointed consul in Paris specializing in Spanish immigration affairs. He spared no effort to rescue Republic fighters in concentration camps and brought thousands of Spanish to Latin America. The baptism of the anti-fascist war changed Neruda's poetic style. He came to Mexico City in August 1940 as Consul General, and visited the United States, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia, Peru and other countries, and wrote many famous poems. During this period, World War II battles were raging, and the Soviet people were fighting blood with Hitler Fascist. Neruda reached a speech calling on people to aid the Soviet people in the Patriotic War. "Love Songs for Stalingrad" and "New Love Songs for Stalingrad" are works of this period. In November 1943, Neruda returned to Santiago. Soon, he bought a villa on Heidao and set out to write his most important poem, Mange.
1945 was an unforgettable year in Neruda's life: he was elected to Parliament. The Communist Party of Chile was declared an illegal organization in 1946, and a large number of Communists were put in prison. Neruda had to suspend the creation of Mange. His home was set on fire; he himself was wanted by the reactionary government and was forced to go underground, tossing among the people, and continuing to work. During this period, he completed the creation of two ministerial poems, Chronicle of 1948 and Mange.
In February 1949 he left Chile, passed Argentina to the Soviet Union, and went to Paris to participate in the World Peace Conference. Since then he has traveled to many countries in Europe, Asia, and the United States, actively participated in the movement to defend peace, and continued to work in poetry. He lived in Italy temporarily from 1951 to 1952, during which he visited China. In August 1952, the Chilean government revoked his wanted order, and the people welcomed him back with a grand rally and procession. After returning to China, I lived a more stable life for several years, completing "Ode to the Elements" (1954), "New Ode to the Elements" (1956) and "The Third Collection of Odes" (1957). Elected President of the Chilean Writers Association in 1957.
Neruda returned to Chile after a long absence when the battle against Weydra's forces won in Chile and the order for the arrest of leftists was revoked. In 1953, Neruda was awarded the Stalin International Peace Prize. In 1957, he was arrested during his visit to Buenos Aires. Neruda reflected on his Marxist ideals in his 1958 anthology, Estravagario. Since then, Neruda began to travel, he went to Cuba and the United States. After the victory of the Cuban Revolution in 1959, Neruda wrote a collection of poems, "An Anthem to the Heroic Cause," enthusiastically praising the revolution and social change led by Fidel Castro. In 1969, the Chilean Communist Party nominated him as the Chilean presidential candidate, then withdrew from the election for the unity of the Chilean left, and supported the Chilean Socialist Party presidential candidate El Salvador Allende. After Allende was elected president in 1970, Neruda was appointed Chile's ambassador to France. On September 23, 1973, due to leukemia, Neruda died. On September 11, shortly before his death, Chile suffered a Pinochet military coup supported by the Nixon government in the United States. Allende died in the coup and Neruda's two residences in Chile were looted.
Neruda planned to flee after the coup and publicly opposed the Pinochet regime after exile, but he was sent to a clinic in Santiago the day before his intention to flee, where he died at the age of 69. Officially announced that his cause of death was prostate cancer, but in the era of Pinochet's dictatorship there have been popular questions about the official version of the claims.
In 1990, Pinochet's dictatorship came to an end, and the poet's remains were moved to Black Island and reburied. Questions about the cause of Neruda's death also began to surface. The poet's death is too strange, and the medical records in the hours after admission were strangely missing. People have been talking about whether the military government was involved.
Officials launched an investigation into the cause of Neruda's death in 2011 after several witnesses, including Neruda's longtime driver, challenged Neruda's claims of natural death.
In 2011, Neruda's former driver Manuel Araya revealed in an interview with a Mexican magazine that Neruda did not die naturally. Some people were led by the authorities to inject a fatal injection into Neruda's stomach. Poison, the poet died of poison.
Proponents of Manuel Araya point out that on September 22, 1973, the day before Neruda's death, he actually had a way to escape safely from Chile to Mexico. Once Nerus has reached Mexico, it means that he will speak there in a way that is not conducive to Pinochet, putting the Pinochet government under serious political threat. However, the poet did not leave as scheduled, and was subsequently pulled to San Diego by an ambulance.
Skeptics also point out that in 1982, another political opponent of the military government, former President Eduardo Frei Montalva, died in the same hospital as Neruda after he declared his opposition to the military dictatorship. Septic shock. But in 2006, people re-examined his bones and found that he had been killed. The cause of death was poisoning with mustard gas and radon. Former Chilean President Eduardo Frei is believed to have been poisoned by six people in the same hospital, including several Pinochet agents who were involved in Frei's death on January 22, 1982, in December 2009 Arrested. In December 2010, the forensic doctor also unearthed the remains of the former Minister of the Interior, Jose Toa, to investigate the cause of death. The official conclusion nearly 40 years ago was that Toa claimed to be in the closet of a hospital ward in 1974, but in October 2012, the judge announced that he had been strangled.
In 2015, Spanish media reported that Neruda could have died from an injection of a drug. In June of that year, the Spanish forensic team stated that in a new round of identification, a strange bacteria was found in the poet's remains. Since then, the Chilean government has published a Ministry of Interior document on Neruda: "The poet was injected with a painkiller that stopped his heartbeat, which could lead to his death." The document also states that the drug was injected by the abdomen Instead of the usual IV. Both the drug composition and the injection doctor are "unknown". What is even more suspect is that Neruda's medical records at St. Mary's Hospital completely disappeared, and even his medical records when he served as French ambassador a few years ago were not found. "We face a mystery," said Dr. Luna of the Spanish forensic team.
In 2017, the Chilean government stated that suspicions of unnatural death were "highly likely" to be correct. On October 20, a team of 16 international scientists finally concluded that they unanimously denied that Neruda had died of "prostate cancer": "100% definitely not."
At the time, after learning of Neruda's death, Marquez wrote: "When he left, he must have contained deep disappointment. Chile's socialist road is his ideal of life." There is a saying in Chile, Nie Ruda died of neither cancer nor conspiracy. He "died of sorrow."
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