Chinese name: Qian Zhuangfei
Place of birth: Huzhou, Zhejiang
Date of Birth: 1895
Occupation: Agent, former Deputy Secretary-General of the General Political Department of the Red Army
Graduated from: Beijing Medical College
The main achievements are: major contributions to the security of the CPC Central Committee
One of the "Three Longtan Heroes"
Chief of defense of the red army
One of the 100 heroes who made outstanding contributions to the founding of New China
Qian Zhuangfei (1895-1935), a native of Huzhou, Zhejiang, was one of the "Three Longtan Heroes" of the CCP's hidden front. He was admitted to Beijing Medical College in 1915 and worked in a hospital after graduation in 1919. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1926.
He arrived in Shanghai in early 1928 and joined the Shanghai Radio Management Office. At the end of 1929, he entered the Party Affairs Investigation Section of the Kuomintang Central Organization Department and served as Xu Enzeng's confidential secretary. On April 25, 1931, Qian Zhuangfei promptly informed Gu Shunzhang of the rebellion. The Central Committee has made a significant contribution to the security of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China; later entered the Central Soviet Area and successively served as the director of the Political and Security Bureau of the CCP Armed Forces; he participated in the Long March in October 1934 and was appointed deputy of the General Political Department of the Red Army after the Zunyi Conference. Secretary-General; sacrificed in April 1935 (one said missing).
On the evening of April 25, 1931, Qian Zhuangfei, who was on duty alone, received six express telegraphs from Wuhan to Xu Enzeng. He immediately deciphered the secret telegrams. It turned out that Gu Shunzhang, who had long been responsible for the security work of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, was arrested and rebellious It is necessary to give all the secrets of the CPC Central Committee in Shanghai; this situation shocked Qian Zhuangfei very much. He knew that Gu Shunzhang knew his own situation.
When the situation came close, he reported the situation to the Party Central Committee in a timely manner regardless of his personal safety, calmly notified the central authorities and relevant comrades to evacuate as soon as possible; on the morning of the 26th, Qian Zhuangfei, as usual, handed these secret messages to Xu Enzeng in person. Leave the enemy camp with ease.
After receiving information from Qian Zhuangfei, Zhou Enlai directed the various organs of the CPC Central Committee in Shanghai to take immediate action. All the organs of the CPC Central Committee, the CPC Jiangsu Provincial Party Committee, and the Communist International Far East Bureau were immediately transferred—Qian Zhuangfei defended the security of the CPC Central Committee Made a significant contribution.
Premier Zhou Enlai mentioned Qian Zhuangfei affectionately many times during the war and after liberation. He also said affectionately: Without Comrade Qian Zhuangfei, our comrades working in Shanghai would have been dead. Comrade Qian Zhuangfei's great achievements in the struggle against the enemy are worthy of the entire party to remember him forever!
Comrade Qian Zhuangfei was born in 1895 to a merchant family in Huzhou, Zhejiang. In 1915, he was admitted to the National Beijing Medical College (now the Peking University School of Medicine), and graduated in 1919. Later he stayed in Beijing to practice medicine, also taught fine arts and anatomy, acted in movies, and was good at calligraphy, painting and radio technology. In 1925, introduced by his younger brother, he and his wife Zhang Zhenhua joined the Chinese Communist Party in Beijing. After the failure of the Great Revolution in 1927, Qian Zhuangfei went to Feng Yuxiang 's Northwest Army as a medical doctor. He went to Shanghai due to serious debts and lack of family affairs, and temporarily lost his organizational relationship. The following year, he saw advertisements for radio training in the newspaper, and he was accepted with the first place in the exam.
Qian Zhuangfei accidentally entered this training course, which belongs to the Kuomintang's new spy organization. Qian Zhuangfei soon showed his talent after being admitted to the training class. He was also a fellow with the special agent Xu En, and Xu said he would transfer him to be a secretary. He felt the relationship was important, and immediately found Li Kenong through various channels and asked the Party Central Committee for instructions. After Zhou Enlai learned of this, he thought that the opportunity was rare, and proposed to take the KMT's spy organization to serve us, and decided to let Li Kenong, Hu Di and Qian Zhuangfei form a special party group. Directly under the single-line leadership of the Central Special Branch, and subsequently introduced by Qian Zhuangfei, Li Kenong and Hu Di also entered the Kuomintang's special agency and received the attention of Xu En. Become an important person in charge of Shanghai and Tianjin, thus entering an "iron triangle" in the Kuomintang intelligence system.
Intelligence reconnaissance work has been a hidden struggle full of mystery since ancient times. Qian Zhuangfei, with his legendary experience, is even more a model of intelligence investigation in China's modern revolutionary struggle. The Kuomintang's secret agency has compiled textbooks that believe that the Communist Party's intelligence investigators "have a full understanding of politics" and "are full of a positive, agile, exciting, and creative spirit." In addition to his personal qualities and dedication, Qian Zhuangfei's achievements are mainly attributed to the party's political influence and the correct policy of the hidden front leaders led by Zhou Enlai.
The Communist Party of China's sentencing work was first established by the Guangdong and Guangxi District Committees led by Zhou Enlai and Chen Yannian after Liao Zhongkai was assassinated in 1925. For more than 20 years since then, from the Special Branch and the Second Military Commission to the Central Social Ministry, comrades on this special front have always followed the principle established by Zhou Enlai early, that is, to build a concealed capable team with a firm revolutionary will, and must not be like reactionary Classes rely on money and beauty like that (some films and films describing underground work in China in the past few years are misunderstood because they don't understand them).
It is through the spirit of struggle guided by political convictions that the Communist Party can repeatedly penetrate the key departments of the Chinese Kuomintang with weak power. In 1933, the Kuomintang's secret service took advantage of the special situation of the Communist Party introduced by Gu Shunzhang, and compiled a textbook entitled "Theories and Practices of Special Work." The book also has to admit: "CP (note: the abbreviation of the" Chinese Communist Party "in English) secret agents have a full understanding of politics, a full understanding of the party and doctrine. The components of their work are full of positive, agile, Exciting, creative spirit. "
Qian Zhuangfei joined the Kuomintang Central Organization Department's Investigation Division in 1929 and won his superiors with his shrewd ability and rare integrity. However, although spy chief Xu En had appreciated Qian Zhuangfei's talents, he still had precautions. He only let Qian Zhuangfei handle the sending and receiving of documents and telegrams, but kept the codebook with him. The confidential telegram has also been translated by himself. Qian Zhuangfei and Li Kenong set a plan after discussion.
Once with Xu En once to Shanghai, when taking this scum to the song and dance hall to change clothes, Qian Zhuangfei took out the code book, and the comrades who were outside quickly took pictures and then returned to Xu Enzeng's pocket. Since then, after receiving the telegram from the reporter, Qian Zhuangfei has opened the first translation of the estimated valuables, and then sent them back to the original. At the same time, the code was also sent to the Central Military Commission and the Red Army. The Kuomintang's several "encirclement and suppression" plans have just been drawn up, and no combat troops have been dispatched. All its contents have been deciphered and sent to the head of the Military Commission Zhou Enlai and Mao Zedong and Zhu De in the Soviet Area.
On April 24, 1931, Gu Shunzhang, who had long been responsible for the defense of the CPC's central authorities, rebelled in Wuhan. After his arrest, he demanded that he be sent to Nanjing. He promised that the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China would be exhausted in three days. He also ordered not to let Xu Enzeng know. The local secret service sent five telegrams to Nanjing. At this time on Saturday evening, Xu En had gone to Shanghai Huahua World. Qian Zhuangfei translated it all with a codebook and issued an alert to the Party Central Committee in advance. Receiving information from Qian Zhuangfei, Zhou Enlai directed the various organs of the CPC Central Committee in Shanghai to take immediate action, and all the organs of the CPC Central Committee, Jiangsu Provincial Party Committee, and the Communist International Far East Bureau were immediately transferred. Qian Zhuangfei has made a significant contribution to the security of the CPC Central Committee.
Considering his inconvenience to leave immediately, Qian Zhuangfei asked his son-in-law to rush to Shanghai to report to the police by night train. On Sunday morning, after receiving the news, Li Kenong immediately found Zhou Enlai through Chen Kun. For the next two days and two nights, dozens of secret agencies and hundreds of staff members of the central government moved urgently ... After working on Monday morning, Qian Zhuangfei calmly handed over six sealed telegrams to Xu Enzeng. Leaving Nanjing for Shanghai. After Qian Zhuangfei left, Xu En was afraid of being held accountable. After clearing his boss Chen Lifu and related colleagues, he concealed his secretary to Jiang Jieshi because the Communist Party and the password had been leaked. In this way, the KMT authorities have not changed the password for a long time. Until the Red Army's Long March , reconnaissance of the enemy relied mainly on radio interception. The Red Army's long march did not miss an ambush once, and always could choose the weak part of the enemy's encirclement to jump out. The role of a small codebook in Chinese history cannot be underestimated.
When Qian Zhuangfei left Nanjing, considering the inconvenience of taking his daughter and young son, he had to bear with them. Out of love for his son, he left a letter to Xu En at his desk stating that the two had different political views, but not to care about the children, otherwise they would have to embezzle Xu En ’s money, conspiracy with colleagues and life. Privacy comes out. Afterwards, Qian Zhuangfei's daughter, son-in-law and infants were arrested. However, Xu En was worried that his shortcomings would be revealed and he was released after being held for a while. Qian Zhuangfei never saw his children again.
Qian Zhuangfei's identities were exposed, and he was ordered to enter the Central Soviet Area after transferring to Shanghai. He served as the head of the Red Army's defense and the deputy director of the Second Bureau of the General Staff of the Central Revolutionary Military Commission. He was still responsible for the intelligence investigation; he participated in the Long March in October 1934. , Was appointed Deputy Secretary-General of the General Political Department of the Red Army after the Zunyi Conference in 1935.
At the end of March 1935, Qian Zhuangfei followed the Long March to the seventh district of Qianxi County, Guizhou Province (now Jinsha County), and entered the jungle near the ladder rock of Changba Township, Shatu District, Qianxi County to investigate the Nandu Wujiang route. He disappeared and was convicted of sacrifice; after the founding of the People's Republic of China, he was regarded as a revolutionary martyr by the Ministry of Civil Affairs.
The tomb of Comrade Qian Zhuangfei is located in Zhangjiabangkou, Houshan Township, Jinsha County, Bijie Prefecture, Guizhou Province. It was named as the National Security Education Base and the Guizhou Province Patriotism Education Base by the Ministry of National Security and the Guizhou Provincial Party Committee and Government. He was named one of the 100 heroes who have made outstanding contributions to the founding of New China.
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