Chinese name: Balluch de Spinoza
Foreign name: Baruch de Spinoza
Place of birth: Amsterdam, Netherlands
Date of Birth: November 24, 1632
Died: February 21, 1677
Main achievement: Proposed "optimism of democratic government"
Representative works: "Theology and Politics", "Ethics", "Theory of Intellectual Improvement"
Baruch de Spinoza (November 24, 1632-February 21, 1677), a Jew, one of the three major rationalists recognized in modern Western philosophy, and Descartes and Rai Bunitz is on par.
Spinoza was born in Amsterdam to a Jewish family who fled from Spain to the Netherlands. When he was young, he entered a religious school that cultivated rabbi. Under difficult living conditions, he still insisted on philosophical and scientific research. His thoughts were spread throughout Europe through communication and won people's respect. In 1677 he died at the age of 45. His main works include "The Principles of Descartes Philosophy", "Theology and Politics", "Ethics", "Theory of Intellectual Improvement" and so on.
Spinoza (Baruch de Spinoza (November 24, 1632-February 21, 1677)), a well-known Dutch philosopher who received Latin training, and it was by virtue of Latin that Spinoza Access to works by Descartes et al. Originally Jewish, the Jewish Church was deported at the age of 24 for betraying its teachings, and later lived in The Hague and lived a hard life. He finally moved out of the Jewish quarters to make a living by grinding his lenses while thinking about philosophy. Spinoza has lived a secluded life ever since. It does not recognize God as the creator of nature, and believes that nature itself is the divine incarnation. Its doctrine is known as the "God of Spinoza", and it has considerable influence on French materialists and German Enlightenment in the 18th century The influence also promoted the transition from idealism to materialism and religion to science. In 1673, the electorate of Brandenburg invited him to be a professor of philosophy at the University of Heidelberg on the condition that religion should not be mentioned, but Spinoza declined, and he died at the age of 45 due to heart failure.
Spinoza's ancestors were Jews who lived in the town of Espinoza, in the province of Slon, Spain. In 1492, due to religious and racial persecution of Jews by the Spanish government and the Catholic Church, his family fled to Portugal. He fled to the Netherlands in 1592. Grandfather Abraham de Spinoza was a well-respected Jewish businessman who had held important positions in the Jewish Guild of Amsterdam; his father, Michael de Spinoza, inherited his father's business and operated import and export trade in Amsterdam. He also serves as president of the Jewish Sanhedrin and principal of the synagogue school.
Spinoza was born in the Netherlands. His parents lived in import-export trades and lived a wealthy life. Spinoza was able to enter the local Jewish theological school to learn Hebrew, Jewish code, and medieval Jewish philosophy. The job of grinding his lens hurt his health. He inhaled a large amount of selenium dust while working, which was directly related to the cause of his death.
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