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What is written in the Yellow Emperor's Canon? Who is the author of The Yellow Emperor's Canon?

The Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic is divided into two parts, Lingshu and Suwen. It is one of the earliest medical classics in China and one of the four classics of traditional medicine (the remaining three are Difficult Classics, Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, and Shennong's Materia Medica ").

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The Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine is a comprehensive medical book that establishes the "Yin-Yang Five Elements Doctrine", "pulse Doctrine Doctrine", "Tibetan Doctrine Doctrine", "Meridian Doctrine Doctrine", and "Causal Doctrine Doctrine" in traditional Chinese medicine based on Huang Lao Taoism. Doctrines such as "pathogenesis", "illness", "diagnosis", "discussion" and "health theory" and "luck theory" discuss medicine from a holistic perspective, presenting nature, biology, psychology, and society as a whole "Medical model" (according to modern scholars' research, it is believed that the traces of Huang Lao Taoism in today's books are the influx of Taoist Wang Bing in the Sui and Tang Dynasties). The basic material is derived from the ancient Chinese people's long-term observation of life phenomena, a large amount of clinical practice and simple anatomy knowledge.

The Yellow Emperor's Internal Classics laid the foundation for understanding the physiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of the human body. It is a medical book with great influence in China and is called the ancestor of medicine.

Origin of the name

"Hanshu · Yiwenzhi · Fangjilue" contains four classics of traditional Chinese medicine: "Medicine Classics", "Jingfang", "Shenxian" and "Fangzhong", and "Huangdi Neijing" is included in "Medicine Classics".

The so-called "medical classics" is a book explaining medical theories of human physiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. It is called "jing" because of its importance. The ancients called important books that have certain rules and generally must be studied, such as the Confucian Six Classics, Lao Tzu 's Moral Classics , and the plain three-character classics . The reason why it is called the "Inner Classics" is not like the "Five Inner Yin and Yang" in Wu Kun's "Su Wenzhu" and Wang Jiuda's "Inner Classics", nor in Zhang Jiebin's "Classical Classics", "The Inner, the Way of Life" ", And just the opposite of" outside. " This is the "Biography of Han poetry", "Biography of Han poetry", "Biography of Spring and Autumn", "Biography of Spring and Autumn", " Zhuangzi " "Inner Chapter", "Outer Chapter", " Han Feizi " "Inner Storage", " The meaning of "Foreign Reserve" is the same, except that "The Yellow Emperor's Foreign Scriptures" and the Bian 鹊 and Bai Scriptures have all been scattered.

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Book age

The Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic, also known as the Internal Classic, is one of the earliest classics in China and the first of the four classics of traditional Chinese medicine. Legend has it that it was written by Emperor Huang because of his name. But later generations generally acknowledged that this book was finally formed in the Western Han Dynasty, and the author was not alone, but was created by the inheritance, addition and development of the old Chinese doctors of Huang Dynasty. As pointed out in the " Huainanzi Xiu Xun", the title of "Huang Di" is intended to trace the origin of Chongben, thereby explaining the early development of Chinese medical culture. This is not a temporary statement, nor is it a single person's hand.

In the time when the Book of the Yellow Emperor was written, the ancients had three main views:

Pre-Qin period

Those who held this view included Huang Fuyu in the Jin Dynasty , Lin Yi and Gao Baoheng in the Song Dynasty . They think that a scientific masterpiece like the Yellow Emperor's Internal Scripture cannot be done by a sage with great wisdom and wisdom, so it must be made by Huangdi.

Warring States Period

Those who held this view included Shao Yong, Cheng Hao, Sima Guang, and Zhu Xi in the Song Dynasty , Sang Yue, Fang Yizhi, Fang Xiaoru, and Wei Litong in the Qing Dynasty . The main reasons are as follows: first, comparing the Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic · Suwen with Zhouli in the Warring States period, there are many similarities, which is sufficient to fully prove that the two books are works of the same era and the same ideological system; secondly , The content of medical theories in " Historical Records of Bian Yan" is similar to the content of "Huang Di Nei Jing Su Su", but it is much more simple and primitive, while the content of medical theories in "Historical Records of Cang Gong Biography" is more than The Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic · Suwen has made some progress, and it is inferred that the Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic should be the work after the Biandai period and before the Cangong period, that is, the works of the Warring States Period. Finally, taking the style of Huangdi Neijing as an example, this can also be explained: the pre-Qin essays are often used as rhymes, and the verses in "Su Wen" are particularly numerous.

The "Siku Quanshu Concise Catalogue" of the Qing Dynasty further affirmed this claim, because the "Siku Quanshu" had a high status in ancient Chinese academic circles, and this kind of saying was also accepted by many people.

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Western Han Dynasty

Lang Ying of the Ming Dynasty inferred from the legend of Xia Yu Shiyi making wine and the appearance of "Luo" in the Han Dynasty that "Su Wen" originated in the Western Han Dynasty.

Modern Chinese medicine experts Liu Changlin [23] and Wu Wending [24] and others also hold such opinions. The main reasons are as follows: First, the entire book of the Yellow Emperor's Canon is about 200,000 words, which can be said to be a huge book more than 2000 years ago. Compiling such medical records requires a stable social environment, which requires huge manpower and material resources. This was impossible in the warring years and the period of the Warring States Period when the Seven Heroes separated. Only in the Western Han Dynasty, with political stability and economic development, did medical doctors provide realistic conditions for compiling medical books. Second, the Huainanzi Xiu Wu Xun of the Huainan King Liu An at the beginning of the Western Han Dynasty said: It is ancient and low today, so Shennong and Huangdi, who must remember the Taoism, can enter later. "The Yellow Emperor's Nei Jing is closely related to the" Huang Lao School "in the title and ideological content. The “schools” provided evidence in the heyday. Third, in the "Historical Records of Cang Gong Biography", Sima Qian of the Western Han Dynasty wrote that in the early years of the Western Han Dynasty, the famous doctor Chun Yuyi accepted ten medical books imparted to him by his teacher Yang Qing. Without the Yellow Emperor's Canon, this is enough to show that the Yellow Emperor's Canon cannot be written before the Western Han Dynasty.

It can be seen from the above viewpoints that the ancients believed that the writing of the Yellow Emperor's Canon was more credible during the Warring States Period. But we can't think that all chapters of "Su Wen" and "Lingshu" are out of the Warring States Period. Lu Fu, a medical scientist in the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties, expressed his pertinent opinions on this, saying that the Nei Jing was not a temporary statement, nor was it a single person's hand. Yao Jiheng's "Ancient and Modern False Books Examination", Zhou Mu's "Preliminary Questions and Correcting Preface", Cheng Minzheng's "Xin'an Documents Collection and Luck Theory", Huang Zeng's "Wuyueshan People Collection, Neijing Annotation and Order" and others also agreed with Lu Fu.

A more scientific point of view is that the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine was not completed by a single author in a short period of time, but was composed of multiple authors spanning a long period of time:

1. There are many rhymes in the style of the pre-Qin dynasty, and there are also many verses in some chapters in the Yellow Emperor's Canon. These chapters may be works in the pre-Qin period.

Second, with the 1973 "Wuhan Eleven-pulse Moxibustion Sutra" of Mawangdui in Changsha, the succinct medicated medicine unearthed from the Wuwei Han Tomb in Gansu, 1972, and the "Six Comparing "Wang Binpan" and "Taiyi Jiugong Chapan", it can be seen that some chapters in "Ling Ling" were written in the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States Period , and some were written earlier in the Western Han Dynasty.

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3. Some of the documents cited in "The Yellow Emperor's Canon", such as "Upper and Lower Sutras" and "Dongdu", are even earlier works of the Warring States Period.

4. The term "Qiangshou" used in "Su Wen · Baoming Holistic Theory" is the name of the people in the Warring States Period and the Qin Dynasty, and "the official of Xiangfu" in "Su Wen · Linglan Secret Theory" And "Official Capital" is the official name that appeared in the Cao Wei period.

V. Some chapters in "Lingshu" appear late. For example, the "Yin and Yang Sun and Moon Chapters" has the sentence "Yin, the first month is born of the Yang", so it can be concluded that the Taichu calendar was promulgated in the first year of the Emperor Hanwu (100) after that.

6. Some chapters in "Su Wen" use the year of the stem branch, and the use of the stem branch is a matter of Eastern Han Dynasty . The seventh volume of "Suwen" has been dead for a long time, and Tang Wangbing added "The Great Era of the Yuan Dynasty", "The Great Era of the Five Movements", "The Great Essay on the Six Micro-Assessments" and "The Great Essay on the Change of Qi" according to his predecessor Zhang Gong. "," Five Changzheng Dalun "," Six Yuan Zhengji Dalun ", and" True Reality Dalun "are actually another medical book" Yin and Yang Dalun ". With its Jiazi period, it can be concluded that the quarter calendar was promulgated after the Emperor Yuan of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the second year (085); it was cited by Zhang Zhongjing when he wrote The Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, so it must be before Zhang Zhongjing.

7. The 72nd "Acupuncture Theory" and the 73rd "Theory of Diseases" in "Su Wen" had no meaning at the time of Wang Bingji's note on "Su Wen". Song Liu Wenshu wrote " However, the "Two Questions on Sudden Luck" are displayed later as "Su Wen Sui Pian". It can be considered that these two articles are fakes between Tang and Song dynasties.

To sum up, the book of the Yellow Emperor's Nei Jing is neither a temporary book nor an author. The writing of the book should be in the Warring States Period, and its individual chapters were completed in the Han Dynasty. As for Wang Bingzhi's supplement and Liu Wenshu's attachment, it should not be regarded as the "Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor", but it is not necessary to consider it to belong to the Internal Canon by convention.

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