Where did the battle of Guanghuamen take place? What were the casualties of the two armies in the battle of Guanghuamen? Today, the interesting history editor will give you a detailed explanation ~
On December 1, 1937, the Japanese side issued the "Order No. 8 of the Mainland." Japan began to attack Nanjing in a coordinated manner from the waterway side, and the Nanjing defense war started. The Japanese army came menacingly , and the soldiers attacked in multiple ways. First, the Ninth Division captured Chunhua Town and the surrounding area, and then launched an assault on Guanghua Gate and Zhongshan Gate in Nanjing. Let ’s take a look at this war together.
All the way to the 16th Division as the main force from the Jurong attack, immediately after occupying Jurong captured Tangshan, Zijinshan, Xishan, Taipingmen, Zhongshanmen; with the 13th Division's Yamada detachment as the main force, attacked near Zhenjiang, against the left bank of the Yangtze River Area advancement; the 114th Division attacked from Lishui and Fulingguan General Mountain; the 6th Division attacked Niushou Mountain and General Mountain, and the rest detoured to attack Banqiao Town behind Niushou Mountain.
On December 6, the fighting officially started. The Japanese army made rapid progress, and soon captured the front lines of Xishan, Zijinshan and Yuhuatai, and flew directly under the gate of Guanghua. In order to prevent the Japanese offensive and defend the Guanghua Gate, the 361st Brigade of the 87th Division of the 71st Army of the National Revolutionary Army was ordered to withdraw from the front lines of Bone Graves, Children, and Engineering Schools, and its defensive forces defended it.
Guanghua Gate, one of the thirteen inner gates of the inner city of the Nanjing Ming City Wall, was called the Zhengyang Gate during the Ming Dynasty and belongs to the main gate of the Nanjing city. Guanghua Gate is located at the southernmost end of Nanjing Yudao Street. In 1931, to commemorate the 1911 Revolution, the Jiangsu-Zhejiang Coalition Forces entered Nanjing through this gate and was renamed Guanghua Gate. The walls of Guanghua Gate are thick and thick, and the Japanese army will have to pay a significant price if they want to capture Guanghua Gate.
To win Nanjing, the Japanese must capture Guanghua Gate. The Guanghua Gate also became the gate that the Japanese army fought hardest and suffered the worst casualties. The 361 Brigade led by Brigadier Chen Yiding was frightened by the Japanese army and suffered heavy casualties. After the battle began, the 361st Brigade held on to the various positions of the city gate, used the high walls to block the Japanese army, and fought fiercely with the devils. The ordinary artillery of the Japanese army could not destroy the city walls, and the devils had to mobilize more large-caliber artillery to attack the city.
According to the "Basic Process of the 9th Division" of the Japanese battle report, "(Imperial Army) was assisted by 150mm howitzer, 105mm cannon, 150mm cannon, 240mm howitzer and other heavy artillery units and was able to explode on the solid wall. Three breakthroughs. "The Japanese bombarded the city wall of Nanjing, and heaved a heavy cannon at a point to chisel it, cutting the city wall two gaps like a chisel. After the gap was cut, the Japanese army swarmed into the city.
At about 5 pm on December 10th, the forward of the 36th Wing of the 9th Division and the 18th Brigade of the 9th Division of the Japanese Army was about 150. Led by the captain Ito Yoshimitsu Sakusho, the Chinese defenders retreated from the campus quickly. Following it, it broke into the Chengmen Cave of Guanghuamen Town and attempted to rush into the city. The situation was extremely urgent. Chen Yiding ordered the garrison to quickly launch a counterattack, desperately closed the gate, and set off a small group of devils in the gate of the gate with a machine gun set fire, cutting off the Japanese army's connection with the large army.
During the fierce battle in Shing Mun-dong, a group of several hundred people (500 in the battle report) of the Japanese 36th wing under the cover of the tank broke into the gaps in the walls of the Guanghua Gate that were collapsed by Japanese heavy guns and rushed into the city. Protrude into the depth of about 100 meters. The Japanese occupied the houses on both sides of the street as strongholds in an attempt to cover the Japanese troops from entering the city.
That night, Yi Anhua, the brigade commander of the 259th Brigade, led a reinforcement regiment, attacking the enemies who invaded Guanghua Gate from outside Tongjimen and heading northeast; Chen Yiding led two reinforcement camps, coordinated by Qingliang Lane and Tiantang Village. The brigade struck behind the enemy of Guanghuamen, and prevented the reinforcement of the enemy near Koishikawa. After more than 8 hours of bloody fighting, the Japanese troops that had penetrated into both sides of Guanghua Gate were finally annihilated, and the corpses on both sides of Guanghua Gate swept across the ground. This Japanese army who came to reinforcements was almost wiped out.
The Japanese army was annihilated, but the defenders also suffered great casualties. The brigade of Yi Anhua, two lieutenant colonels, two battalion commanders, more than 30 company platoon commanders, and hundreds of soldiers died violently. The battle was fierce. The sacrifice can be heavy. On the morning of the 11th, after the Japanese attack was repelled, the Chinese garrison immediately closed the gap in the two city walls with sacks and stones filled with soil.
The Japanese troops were annihilated, but the devils hiding in the gate of Guanghuamen City were still fighting. Later that night, Xie Chengrui, the head of the Second Regiment of the Teaching Corps, opened a large number of gasoline barrels from the arrow wall of the Guanghuamen City Tower, threw a large amount of wood, and then dropped a large number of grenades. A huge fire ignited immediately inside the city gate hole.
At dawn on the 11th, Chen Yiding ordered a rapid attack to wipe out this stubborn enemy in the city gate cave. The head of Xie Chengrui personally led a row of heroic soldiers, and suddenly opened the city gate. A dozen machine guns were fired at the Japanese army, and many devils were killed on the spot. At the same time, the reinforcements hanged from the wall with ropes and used machine guns and grenades to wipe out all the enemies occupying the sandbag hole. The captain of the Japanese army Ito Koichi was killed on the spot, and seized several spoils such as light and heavy machine guns, revolvers, swords, and helmets. The remaining 10 or so Japanese soldiers were wounded, tortured deep in the Shing Mun cave, and built a temporary defense with rubble, waiting for the reinforcements to linger.
The newspaper at the time published the fierce situation of the battle of Guanghuamen: "In the evening of the 10th, the city wall around Guanghuamen was destroyed by enemy siege artillery. Although an enemy army rushed into the city, it was immediately surrounded by me and destroyed. The enemy's remains More than 500 of them, only 10 survived. Our army has a tragic morale, everyone is dying, and the enemy's dream of Nanjing has been severely hit for the first time. "
On the evening of December 12, the general trend of Nanjing's defensive battles had gone, and it was about to fall. The 361st Brigade guarding Guanghua Gate was instructed to retreat, leaving the Guanghua Gate overnight to move downwards and close the area. At 5 am on the 13th, only one of the 9th Division of the Japanese Army occupied Guanghua Gate, and the other attacked from the gap blasted between Guanghua Gate and Zhongshan Gate and stormed into the city.
Although the Japanese army broke into Guanghua Gate, they experienced the most troublesome scene. When the Japanese army rushed into the Guanghua Gate, more than 10 surviving Japanese soldiers crawled out of the Shing Mun cave. When these half-dead, scarred Japanese soldiers supported their bodies to welcome the friendly forces into the city, the Japanese who had already been so nervous were mistakenly regarded them as Chinese soldiers. More than 10 Japanese soldiers rushed into the gate hole and raised bayonets. Defeating these remnants will kill them one by one. The Japanese army killed each other inside the Shing Mun cave, which was rare during the War of Resistance .
One of the Japanese soldiers killed at the time was the reporter from Japan's "Fukuoka Nippon Shimbun", Kokuo Kitayama. The Japanese army killed Kitayama before receiving press credentials from his pocket. The Japanese commander regarded this as a shame and ordered the news to be blocked, but in the end, the news leaked. Japanese public opinion was uproar, and the Japanese army suffered unprecedented stigma at Guanghuamen.
On December 20, after the Japanese occupation of Nanjing, the commander of the Japanese army, Shanghai General Lieutenant-General King Kaguhiko, came to Guanghua Gate to inspect the battlefield of Guanghua Gate. After listening to the battle reports of Daisuke Wakasaka Jiro, leader of the 36th Wing of the 9th Division of the Japanese Army, leader of the 4th Squadron, Ye Ye, and captain of the 1st Squadron, he was shocked by the heroism of the Chinese soldiers. Distressed by the disastrous defeat. So at the Guanghua Gate Shexiang incense bowed down to worship the dead soldiers of China and Japan, and shed tears for these heroic soldiers.
After returning to Japan in February 1938, Asakamiya Hatohiko returned to Japan and built a tea room named "Guanghua" in the courtyard of the official residence in Tokyo, Japan, and personally wrote the tea room name to entertain guests. In April of the same year, another Japanese royal prince Tokuhiko Hiroshi also went to the Guanghuamen hanging festival. It can be seen how much the psychological shadow this war has caused to the Japanese army and how deep it has affected the Japanese army.
After the fall of Nanjing, Chen Yiding, who commanded the battle of Guanghuamen, rushed out of the siege with two guards. They stepped onto a bamboo raft in Shimonoseki, crossing the Yangtze River at the risk of being swallowed by the torrential river. After life and death, they finally crossed the Yangtze River and left this purgatory city.
In the bloody battle of Guanghua Gate, Chen Yiding commanded the 361 brigade to fight the Japanese army for 6 days and nights, annihilating and burning more than 500 Japanese troops, giving the Japanese troops great damage. Before taking the initiative to evacuate the Guanghua Gate, the Japanese army could hardly move under the Guanghua Gate, and finally killed each other due to high nerve tension. The Japanese army suffered the biggest shame in the Nanjing defense battle.
The battle of Guanghuamen, although ended with abandonment, still reads exciting today.
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